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Results 351 - 400 of 1262
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Heitz S - - 2008
The pro-apoptotic factor BAX has recently been shown to contribute to Purkinje cell (PC) apoptosis induced by the neurotoxic prion-like protein Doppel (Dpl) in the prion-protein-deficient Ngsk Prnp(0/0) (NP(0/0)) mouse. In view of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) ability to counteract Dpl neurotoxicity and favor neuronal survival like BCL-2, we investigated ...
McKenzie Mark D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells is critical in both diabetes development and failure of islet transplantation. The role in these processes of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, which regulate apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial integrity, remains poorly understood. We investigated the role of the BH3-only protein Bid and the multi-BH ...
Srimatkandada Pavani - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms B-cells into immortalized lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) by triggering signaling pathways that lead to activation of multiple transcription factors and anti-apoptotic proteins, including NF-kappaB and Bcl-2, respectively. Since proteasome inhibition suppresses NF-kappaB activity, we sought to determine whether the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination ...
Xu S Z - - 2008
BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been widely used in clinical practise and their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular risk has been well described. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of low doses of fluvastatin (nanomolar) on H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage and the underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary cultures of ...
Hanson C Jane - - 2008
Bcl-2 is an oncoprotein that is widely known to promote cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. We explored the consequences of different expression paradigms on the cellular action of Bcl-2. Using either transient or stable transfection combined with doxycycline-inducible expression, we titrated the cellular concentration of Bcl-2. With each expression paradigm ...
Taler Michal - - 2008
Antidepressants have been found to possess antiproliferative effect. In the immune system depression may activate pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory activity of antidepressants in naïve rat. Rat splenocytes were activated with con A and treated with paroxetine, sertraline or clomipramine ex vivo. ...
Gowda Aruna - - 2008
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a recently identified gamma-chain receptor cytokine family member that promotes B-cell apoptosis as well as activation of innate immune system. Based on this, we hypothesized that IL-21 might enhance the apoptosis induced by fludarabine and rituximab and also play a role in augmenting immune-mediated clearance of the ...
Rochette Patrick J - - 2008
Senescent cells are known to be resistant to apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress. Here we examine apoptosis in human diploid fibroblasts that are old but not yet senescent. We found that as cells aged, they became progressively more resistant to UV-induced apoptosis with an eventual apoptosis reduction of 10-20-fold. This ...
Lin Pei-Wen - - 2008
The grouper iridovirus (GIV) belongs to the family Iridoviridae, whose genome contains an antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like gene. This study was carried-out to understand whether GIV blocks apoptosis in its host. UV-irradiated grouper kidney (GK) cells underwent apoptosis. However, a DNA fragmentation assay of UV-exposed GK cells after GIV infection ...
Youle Richard J - - 2008
BCL-2 family proteins, which have either pro- or anti-apoptotic activities, have been studied intensively for the past decade owing to their importance in the regulation of apoptosis, tumorigenesis and cellular responses to anti-cancer therapy. They control the point of no return for clonogenic cell survival and thereby affect tumorigenesis and ...
Hostmann Arwed - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The innate immune response to trauma hemorrhage involves inflammatory mediators, thus promoting cellular dysfunction as well as cell death in diverse tissues. These effects ultimately bear the risk of post-traumatic complications such as organ dysfunction, multiple organ failure, or adult respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, a murine model ...
Sinha-Datta Uma - - 2008
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease of very poor clinical prognosis associated with infection by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Treatment of patients with ATLL using conventional chemotherapy has limited benefit because HTLV-I cells are refractory to most apoptosis-inducing agents. In this study, we ...
Kono Koji - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: It has been shown that T-cell dysfunction, including apoptosis of peripheral blood T cells, commonly occurs in patients receiving chemotherapy. In order to evaluate whether concomitant administration of the oral biological response modifier protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) could induce anti-apoptotic effects in patients treated with the anti-cancer ...
Sun Wei - - 2008
The present study was conducted to examine the role of hecogenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), which is a triterpene saponin of Tribulus terrestris in cardiocytes during chemical hypoxia-ischaemia in vitro. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion and treated with NaCN for 12 h. Cell apoptosis was defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl ...
Rajalingam Krishnaraj - - 2008
Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause variety of human diseases. Host cells infected with Chlamydia are protected against many different apoptotic stimuli. The induction of apoptosis resistance is thought to be an important immune escape mechanism allowing Chlamydia to replicate inside the host cell. Infection with C. trachomatis activates ...
Scheel-Toellner Dagmar D MRC Centre of Immune Regulation, Division of Immunity and Infection, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. - - 2008
Activated T cells require anti-apoptotic cytokines for their survival. The anti-apoptotic effects of these factors are mediated by their influence on the balance of expression and localisation of pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Among the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, the expression level of Bcl-2 itself and its ...
Fung Christopher - - 2008
Autophagy has been proposed to promote cell death during lumen formation in three-dimensional mammary epithelial acini because numerous autophagic vacuoles are observed in the dying central cells during morphogenesis. Because these central cells die due to extracellular matrix (ECM) deprivation (anoikis), we have directly interrogated how matrix detachment regulates autophagy. ...
Danial Nika N - - 2007
Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of programmed cell death essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis. Aberrant regulation of this pathway is linked to multiple human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes. The BCL-2 family of proteins constitutes a critical control point in apoptosis residing immediately upstream ...
Del Gaizo Moore Victoria - - 2008
Cancer cells acquire disruptions in normal signal transduction pathways and homeostatic mechanisms that would trigger apoptosis in normal cells. These abnormalities include genomic instability, oncogene activation, and growth factor independent proliferation. Therefore, cancer cells likely require a block in apoptosis in order to survive. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-2 ...
Chattopadhyay Gouri - - 2007
IgG antipolysaccharide (PS) and antiprotein responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pn) are both CD4(+) T cell dependent. However, the primary IgG anti-PS response terminates more quickly, uses a shorter period of T cell help, fails to generate memory, and is more dependent on membrane Ig (mIg) signaling. We thus determined whether ...
Gjertsen Bjørn Tore - - 2007
Regulation of cell death (apoptosis) is frequently affected in the development of malignant diseases, and all molecular steps from extracellular signalling receptors through intracellular pathways, cell death rheostats and cell death executioners may be involved. Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic member of a family of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins that is ...
Kumar S - - 2008
Ischaemic pre-conditioning has a powerful protective potential against ischaemia-induced cell death, and acidosis is an important feature of ischaemia and can lead to apoptosis. Here we tested whether pre-conditioning with acidosis, that is, acidic pre-conditioning (APC), may protect coronary endothelial cells (EC) against apoptosis induced by simulated ischaemia. For pre-conditioning, ...
Erdmann Frank - - 2007
The FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) is a pro-apoptotic regulator of Bcl-2 in neuroblastoma cells. Hsp90 inhibits the pro-apoptotic FKBP38/CaM/Ca(2+) complex and thus prevents interactions between FKBP38 and Bcl-2. Here we show that Hsp90 increases cell survival rates of neuroblastoma cells after apoptosis induction. Depletion of FKBP38 by short interference RNA ...
Zheng Biao - - 2007
B cells play a pathogenic or regulatory role in many autoimmune diseases through production of autoantibodies, cytokine production, and Ag presentation. However, the mechanisms that regulate these B cell functions under different autoimmune settings remain unclear. In the current study, we found that when B cells overexpress an antiapoptotic gene, ...
Xue Liang-yan - - 2008
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces apoptosis in many cell types. Recent reports identified autophagy as an alternative cell-death process following PDT. Here we investigated the occurrence of autophagy after PDT with the photosensitizer Pc 4 in human cancer cells that are deficient in the pro-apoptotic factor Bax (human prostate cancer DU145) ...
Lee Jin-Ha - - 2008
Sodium fluoride (NaF) has been shown to be cytotoxic and produces inflammatory responses in humans. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the NaF-induced cytotoxicity in periodontal tissues are unclear. This study examined whether or not NaF induces apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), and its underlying mechanisms by monitoring various apoptosis-associated ...
Laane Edward - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mechanism of glucocorticoid -induced apoptosis is not fully understood and early predictive assays based on apoptotic markers for clinical outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the involvement of Bcl-2 family members and caspase activation in dexamethasone(Dex)-induced ...
Heidari Nastaran - - 2007
It has been shown that noscapine, an opium-derived phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid that is currently being used as an oral antitussive drug, induces apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. The molecular mechanism responsible for the anticancer effects of noscapine is poorly understood. In the current study, the apoptotic effects of noscapine on two ...
Almeida Henrique - - 2007
Adrenocortical cell death by apoptosis is a common finding when adrenocorticotropic hormone is suppressed. Despite the well-known final structural features exhibited by those cells, data on the mechanisms preceding these final events are lacking. In this study, after 3 days of dexamethasone administration to rats of different ages, rat adrenals ...
Kim So Young - - 2007
Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals into intracellular signals by activating effector molecules including adenylate cyclases that catalyze cAMP formation, and thus regulate various cellular responses such as metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis. cAMP signaling pathways have been reported to protect cells from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, but however, the ...
Yeung Yin-Shan - - 2008
We have previously demonstrated that over-expression of spike protein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or its C-terminal subunit (S2) is sufficient to induce apoptosis in vitro. To further investigate the possible roles of S2 in SARS-CoV-induced apoptosis and pathogenesis of SARS, we characterized the host expression profiles ...
Ying Songmin - - 2008
Infection with Chlamydia protects mammalian host cells against apoptosis. Hypotheses have been proposed to explain this molecularly, including the up-regulation of host anti-apoptotic proteins such as cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) 2 and the Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1. To test for the importance of these proteins, we used mouse embryonic ...
Ren Yuan Y Molecular Oncology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Department of Interdisciplinary Oncology, University of South Florida, Tampa 33612, - - 2007
Shp2 has been known to mediate growth factor-stimulated cell proliferation, but its role in cell survival is less clear. Gain-of-function Shp2 mutants such as Shp2E76K are associated with myeloid leukemias. We found that Shp2E76K could transform cytokine-dependent human TF-1 myeloid cells into cytokine independence and further characterized the Shp2E76K-induced cell ...
Longo Pablo G - - 2008
Sustained engagement of the B-cell receptor (BCR) increases apoptosis resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells, whereas transient stimulation usually has an opposite effect. The antiapoptotic BCR signal has been associated with prolonged activation of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways, which are key regulators of survival and proliferation in ...
Li Zhi-Ming - - 2008
Anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are overexpressed in 80% of non Hodgkin's lymphoma cells and are thought to play an important role in the resistance of lymphoma cells to current chemotherapeutic agents. Gossypol, an orally-active polyphenolic aldehyde derived from the cotton plant, has been known to have potential anti-neoplastic activity. ...
Doonan Francesca - - 2007
Programmed cell death (PCD) during development of the mouse retina involves activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Previous work has shown that the multidomain Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak are fundamentally involved in this process. To induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, Bax and Bak require that prosurvival members of the family ...
Myc Andrzej - - 2007
Our previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5-PAMAM) as a platform for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics. However, anticancer therapy can be subverted by anti-apoptotic changes in cancer cells. Bcl-2 and several of its peptides are commonly overexpressed in a number of cancers. A means ...
Shroff Emelyn H - - 2007
The mechanisms underlying anoxia (0-0.5% oxygen)-induced cell death are not fully understood. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which cells undergo apoptosis in the absence of oxygen. Cell death during anoxia occurs via the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Key regulators of apoptosis during anoxia are the Bcl-2 family of proteins. ...
Willimott Shaun - - 2007
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells survive and proliferate in patients but rapidly die in culture. The microenvironment that sustains leukaemic cells in vivo contains both stromal cell elements and T cells. We defined changes in Bcl-2 family protein expression on culture with CD40 ligand (CD154) expressed on mouse fibroblast L cells, ...
Brown James E P - - 2007
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The adipocyte derived peptide hormone leptin is known to regulate apoptosis and cell viability in several cells and tissues, as well as having several pancreatic islet beta-cell specific effects such as inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This study investigated the effects of leptin upon apoptosis induced by serum depletion ...
Fischer Silke F - - 2007
T cell-dependent B-cell immune responses induce germinal centers that are sites for expansion, diversification, and selection of antigen-specific B cells. During the immune response, antigen-specific B cells are removed in a process that favors the retention of cells with improved affinity for antigen, a cell death process inhibited by excess ...
Hallaert D Y H - - 2007
Seliciclib (R-roscovitine) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in clinical development. It triggers apoptosis by inhibiting de novo transcription of the short-lived Mcl-1 protein, but it is unknown how this leads to Bax/Bak activation that is required for most forms of cell death. Here, we studied the effects of seliciclib in ...
Subramanian Manikandan - - 2007
Estrogen is a known immunomodulator with pleiotropic effects on macrophage function that partly accounts for the gender bias observed in numerous autoimmune, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disorders. The effect of estrogen on the survival of human macrophages is largely unknown, and in this study we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) provokes a ...
Baruque G A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Deregulated apoptosis might be involved in some of the features of Fanconi anaemia (FA). The possibility that the pro-apoptotic Bax protein could be involved in an increased susceptibility to apoptosis in FA patients was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intracellular Bax expression, Bcl-2 expression (an anti-apoptotic protein) and cell death ...
Jo Eun-Hye - - 2007
Oligonol is a novel catechin-rich biotechnology product. The role of oligonol in modulating intracellular signaling mechanisms was investigated with the view of demonstrating its potential chemopreventive effect and the ability to inhibit cell proliferation using the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 and the estrogen-unresponsive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Cell survival assay ...
Opferman Joseph T - - 2007
During hematopoiesis, members of the Bcl-2 family are essential regulators of homeostasis determining the survival and differentiation of progenitors. Aberrations in their expression promote pathological conditions including immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and cancer. Over the past two years, several new roles for Bcl-2 family members have been identified during hematopoietic differentiation. ...
Subramanian T - - 2007
Mammalian cells infected with human adenoviruses (Ads) undergo an apoptotic response as a result of expression of the viral E1A proteins, and this process is suppressed by the viral E1B-19K protein. The intermediary steps in the Ad-induced apoptosis pathway are not fully resolved. The apical step in the canonical mammalian ...
Adams Jerry M - - 2007
Apoptosis is essential for tissue homeostasis, particularly in the hematopoietic compartment, where its impairment can elicit neoplastic or autoimmune diseases. Whether stressed cells live or die is largely determined by interplay between opposing members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Bcl-2 and its closest homologs promote cell survival, but two other ...
Ubol Sukathida - - 2007
BACKGROUND: VR3848 is a novel cycloheptapeptide, isolated from a Euphorbiaceae plant, which can suppress proliferation of various tumor cells at nanomolar concentration. Due to its novelty and potency, the molecular process of tumor cell growth inhibition was investigated intensively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCF-7 cells, a caspase-3 deficient cancer cell line, ...
Huang An-Cheng - - 2007
Human cervical cancer is potentially lethal, and therefore the development of effective and tolerable therapeutic options is vital. In the present study, the in vitro effect of the synthetized compound JOT01006 (C21H20C1NO4) on human cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line (HeLa) was examined. The results demonstrated that JOT01006 induced morphological changes ...
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