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Results 351 - 400 of 1292
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Suzuki Maiko - - 2009
During tumorigenesis, tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes are commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in their promoter regions, which is one of the important determinants of susceptibility to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Here, we examine the chemotherapeutic efficacy of epigenetic agents on 5-FU cytotoxicity. We ...
Rieber Manuel - - 2008
Since it is important to lower the death threshold in tumor cells and to enhance response to genotoxic damage, the mechanisms of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-mediated radiosensitization were now examined in human C8161 melanoma. This revealed that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and cell cycle controlling hyperphosphorylated Rb and cyclin A were downregulated by BrdU, ...
Callus Bernard A - - 2008
Puma (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) belongs to the BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only protein family of apoptotic regulators. Its expression is induced by various apoptotic stimuli, including irradiation and cytokine withdrawal. Using an inducible system to express Puma, we investigated the nature of Puma-induced apoptosis. In BaF(3) cells, expression of ...
Meyerkord C L - - 2008
The Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) cell cycle checkpoint complex plays a key role in the DNA damage response. Cells with a defective 9-1-1 complex have been shown to be sensitive to apoptosis induced by certain types of genotoxic stress. However, the mechanism linking the loss of a functional 9-1-1 complex to the ...
Morales P - - 2008
Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development, including hippocampus. We investigated hippocampal plasticity after perinatal asphyxia, measuring postnatal apoptosis and neurogenesis. Asphyxia was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 20 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. ...
Ghoneum Mamdooh - - 2008
We have recently demonstrated that non-metastatic human breast cancer cell lines undergo apoptosis following phagocytosis of S. cerevisiae. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of heat-killed yeast against human metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cells, MDA-MB-231 in vitro, and the underlying mechanistic bases of this effect. Results show that ...
Sun Lin - - 2008
The role of tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy is relatively unknown, despite that apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells is commonly observed in human renal biopsies. The GTPase Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1b) is upregulated in the hyperglycemic state and is known to increase B-Raf, an antiapoptotic effector protein. In this study, the effects ...
Thomson Susan J - - 2008
Bcl-2 is reported to augment the antioxidant capacity of cells and this is hypothesized to contribute to the anti-apoptotic activity of this oncoprotein. We generated a number of stable Jurkat cell lines expressing varying levels of Bcl-2, and showed a strong correlation between Bcl-2 levels and resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. ...
Brito Paula M - - 2008
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytochemical believed to be partly responsible for the cardioprotective effects of red wine due to its numerous biological activities. Here, we studied biochemical pathways underlying peroxynitrite-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells and potential mechanisms responsible for resveratrol cytoprotective action. Peroxynitrite triggered endothelial cell apoptosis through caspases-8, -9 ...
Mott Justin L - - 2008
Human cholangiocarcinomas evade apoptosis by overexpression of Mcl-1. The drug obatoclax (GX15-070) inhibits antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family including Mcl-1. The purpose of this study is to determine if obatoclax sensitizes human cholangiocarcinoma cells to apoptosis. The human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, KMCH, KMBC, and TFK, were employed for these ...
Kyrönlahti Antti - - 2008
Excessive cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs). We hypothesized that transcription factor GATA-4 controls expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 and the cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in normal and neoplastic granulosa cells. To test this hypothesis, a tissue ...
Alzate Juan Fernando - - 2008
The alkyl-lysophospholipids edelfosine and miltefosine induce apoptosis in Leishmania infantum promastigotes. The finding that edelfosine-induced cell death can be regulated by the ectopic expression of the antiapoptotic and proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins Bcl-X(L) and Hrk suggests that this process is similar to apoptosis in eukaryotic cells.
Cuddihy Sarah L - - 2008
Isothiocyanates are a class of phytochemicals able to induce apoptosis in numerous cells including Jurkat T-lymphoma cells overexpressing the oncoprotein Bcl-2. To test if isothiocyanates are also effective against other anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family we generated Jurkat cells stably overexpressing Bcl-X(L). Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) was cytotoxic to these ...
Akhtar Rizwan S - - 2008
Members of the Bcl-2 family include pro- and antiapoptotic proteins that regulate programmed cell death of developing tissues and death in response to cellular damage. In developing mice, the antiapoptotic Bcl-x(L) is necessary for survival of neural and hematopoietic cells, and consequently, bcl-x-deficient mice die around Day 13.5 of embryogenesis. ...
Park Cheol - - 2008
Streptochlorin is a small molecule that produced by marine Streptomyces sp. that is known to have anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanism by which streptochlorin functions is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of streptochlorin in human leukemic U937 cells. Streptochlorin treatment resulted in ...
Marzo Isabel - - 2008
Escape from apoptosis is often a hallmark of cancer cells, and is associated to chemotherapy resistance or tumor relapse. Proteins from the Bcl-2 family are the key regulators of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, controlling the point-of no-return and setting the threshold to engage the death machinery in response to ...
Zhang Jun - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy of topotecan, a topoisomerase I specific inhibitor in S-phase, the reagent-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity as well as related proteins expression, had been preliminarily investigated in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. METHODS: Microculture tetrazolium assay (MTT), HE staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry (FCM), quantitative immunocytochemistry ...
Wong W Wei-Lynn - - 2008
Bcl-2 family members are the arbiters of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is conserved through evolution. The stoichiometry of pro- versus antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members in the cell determines whether the cell lives or dies. This fine balance is regulated at the transcriptional or posttranslational level in response to various cellular ...
Lee Shin-Hee - - 2009
The cell proliferation of p53-deficient Jurkat T cells is controlled after prolonged exposure to human lactoferrin (Lf). However, the molecular mechanism by which Lf influences these cellular responses remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Lf-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells occurs in a dose- and time-dependent manner via ...
Droga-Mazovec Gabriela - - 2008
As a model for defining the role of lysosomal cathepsins in apoptosis, we characterized the action of the lysosomotropic agent LeuLeuOMe using distinct cellular models. LeuLeuOMe induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization, resulting in release of lysosomal cathepsins that cleave the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid and degrade the antiapoptotic member Bcl-2, ...
Pan Rui - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that many neurons may die through apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in this process of neuronal cell death. One promising approach for preventing AD is based upon anti-apoptosis to decrease death of nerve cells. In this study, we observed the memory ...
Wang Kai-Rong - - 2008
Leu5AMD ([D-Val2, L-MeLeu5]2 AMD) is a novel actinomycin D (AMD) analog, in which both N-methylvalines were replaced by N-methylleucines. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of Leu5AMD on the proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901. The results showed that Leu5AMD inhibited ...
Golbano Jesús M - - 2008
We investigated the effects of finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, on cell death machinery through the induction of apoptosis in an in vitro model for prostate cancer. Finasteride treatment of the LNCaP hormone-dependent human prostate cancer cell line caused the loss of cell viability and accelerated apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. ...
Radogna Flavia - - 2008
We have recently shown that melatonin antagonizes damage-induced apoptosis by interaction with the MT-1/MT-2 plasma membrane receptors. Here, we show that melatonin interferes with the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis at the mitochondrial level. In response to an apoptogenic stimulus, melatonin allows mitochondrial translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, but it ...
George Joseph - - 2009
The anti-neoplastic drug taxol binds to beta-tubulin to prevent tumor cell division, promoting cell death. However, high dose taxol treatment may induce cell death in normal cells too. The anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 is upregulated in many cancer cells to protect them from apoptosis. In the current study, we knocked down ...
Swerdlow Sarah - - 2008
Glucocorticosteroid hormones, including prednisone and dexamethasone (Dex), have been used to treat lymphoid malignancies for many years because they readily induce apoptosis in immature lymphocytes lacking Bcl-2. However, elevated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis and contributes to glucocorticoid resistance. Using the Bcl-2-negative WEHI7.2 lymphoma line as an ...
Barron Luke - - 2008
Multiple pathways can induce and maintain peripheral T cell tolerance. The goal of this study was to define the contributions of apoptosis and anergy to the maintenance of self-tolerance to a systemic Ag. Upon transfer into mice expressing OVA systemically, OVA-specific DO11 CD4+ T cells are activated transiently, cease responding, ...
Cottet Sandra - - 2008
Mutations in RPE65 protein is characterized by the loss of photoreceptors, although the molecular pathways triggering retinal cell death remain largely unresolved. The role of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in retinal degeneration is still controversial. However, alteration in Bcl-2-related proteins has been observed in several models of retinal injury. ...
Dong Guie - - 2008
Inhibitors of histone deacetylases, including suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and Trichostatin A, are a new class of anticancer agents. With potent chemotherapy effects in cancers, these agents are not obviously toxic in normal nonmalignant cells or tissues. However, their toxicity in kidney cells has not been carefully evaluated. Here, we ...
Labi Verena - - 2008
Members of the Bcl-2 protein family play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by regulating apoptosis in response to developmental cues or exogenous stress. Proapoptotic BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family are essential for initiation of cell death, and they function by activating the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members ...
Heitz S - - 2008
The pro-apoptotic factor BAX has recently been shown to contribute to Purkinje cell (PC) apoptosis induced by the neurotoxic prion-like protein Doppel (Dpl) in the prion-protein-deficient Ngsk Prnp(0/0) (NP(0/0)) mouse. In view of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) ability to counteract Dpl neurotoxicity and favor neuronal survival like BCL-2, we investigated ...
McKenzie Mark D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells is critical in both diabetes development and failure of islet transplantation. The role in these processes of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, which regulate apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial integrity, remains poorly understood. We investigated the role of the BH3-only protein Bid and the multi-BH ...
Srimatkandada Pavani - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms B-cells into immortalized lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) by triggering signaling pathways that lead to activation of multiple transcription factors and anti-apoptotic proteins, including NF-kappaB and Bcl-2, respectively. Since proteasome inhibition suppresses NF-kappaB activity, we sought to determine whether the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination ...
Xu S Z - - 2008
BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been widely used in clinical practise and their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular risk has been well described. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of low doses of fluvastatin (nanomolar) on H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage and the underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary cultures of ...
Hanson C Jane - - 2008
Bcl-2 is an oncoprotein that is widely known to promote cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. We explored the consequences of different expression paradigms on the cellular action of Bcl-2. Using either transient or stable transfection combined with doxycycline-inducible expression, we titrated the cellular concentration of Bcl-2. With each expression paradigm ...
Taler Michal - - 2008
Antidepressants have been found to possess antiproliferative effect. In the immune system depression may activate pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory activity of antidepressants in naïve rat. Rat splenocytes were activated with con A and treated with paroxetine, sertraline or clomipramine ex vivo. ...
Gowda Aruna - - 2008
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a recently identified gamma-chain receptor cytokine family member that promotes B-cell apoptosis as well as activation of innate immune system. Based on this, we hypothesized that IL-21 might enhance the apoptosis induced by fludarabine and rituximab and also play a role in augmenting immune-mediated clearance of the ...
Rochette Patrick J - - 2008
Senescent cells are known to be resistant to apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress. Here we examine apoptosis in human diploid fibroblasts that are old but not yet senescent. We found that as cells aged, they became progressively more resistant to UV-induced apoptosis with an eventual apoptosis reduction of 10-20-fold. This ...
Lin Pei-Wen - - 2008
The grouper iridovirus (GIV) belongs to the family Iridoviridae, whose genome contains an antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like gene. This study was carried-out to understand whether GIV blocks apoptosis in its host. UV-irradiated grouper kidney (GK) cells underwent apoptosis. However, a DNA fragmentation assay of UV-exposed GK cells after GIV infection ...
Youle Richard J - - 2008
BCL-2 family proteins, which have either pro- or anti-apoptotic activities, have been studied intensively for the past decade owing to their importance in the regulation of apoptosis, tumorigenesis and cellular responses to anti-cancer therapy. They control the point of no return for clonogenic cell survival and thereby affect tumorigenesis and ...
Hostmann Arwed - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The innate immune response to trauma hemorrhage involves inflammatory mediators, thus promoting cellular dysfunction as well as cell death in diverse tissues. These effects ultimately bear the risk of post-traumatic complications such as organ dysfunction, multiple organ failure, or adult respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, a murine model ...
Sinha-Datta Uma - - 2008
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease of very poor clinical prognosis associated with infection by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Treatment of patients with ATLL using conventional chemotherapy has limited benefit because HTLV-I cells are refractory to most apoptosis-inducing agents. In this study, we ...
Kono Koji - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: It has been shown that T-cell dysfunction, including apoptosis of peripheral blood T cells, commonly occurs in patients receiving chemotherapy. In order to evaluate whether concomitant administration of the oral biological response modifier protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) could induce anti-apoptotic effects in patients treated with the anti-cancer ...
Sun Wei - - 2008
The present study was conducted to examine the role of hecogenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), which is a triterpene saponin of Tribulus terrestris in cardiocytes during chemical hypoxia-ischaemia in vitro. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion and treated with NaCN for 12 h. Cell apoptosis was defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl ...
Rajalingam Krishnaraj - - 2008
Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause variety of human diseases. Host cells infected with Chlamydia are protected against many different apoptotic stimuli. The induction of apoptosis resistance is thought to be an important immune escape mechanism allowing Chlamydia to replicate inside the host cell. Infection with C. trachomatis activates ...
Scheel-Toellner Dagmar D MRC Centre of Immune Regulation, Division of Immunity and Infection, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. - - 2008
Activated T cells require anti-apoptotic cytokines for their survival. The anti-apoptotic effects of these factors are mediated by their influence on the balance of expression and localisation of pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Among the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, the expression level of Bcl-2 itself and its ...
Fung Christopher - - 2008
Autophagy has been proposed to promote cell death during lumen formation in three-dimensional mammary epithelial acini because numerous autophagic vacuoles are observed in the dying central cells during morphogenesis. Because these central cells die due to extracellular matrix (ECM) deprivation (anoikis), we have directly interrogated how matrix detachment regulates autophagy. ...
Danial Nika N - - 2007
Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of programmed cell death essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis. Aberrant regulation of this pathway is linked to multiple human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes. The BCL-2 family of proteins constitutes a critical control point in apoptosis residing immediately upstream ...
Del Gaizo Moore Victoria - - 2008
Cancer cells acquire disruptions in normal signal transduction pathways and homeostatic mechanisms that would trigger apoptosis in normal cells. These abnormalities include genomic instability, oncogene activation, and growth factor independent proliferation. Therefore, cancer cells likely require a block in apoptosis in order to survive. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-2 ...
Chattopadhyay Gouri - - 2007
IgG antipolysaccharide (PS) and antiprotein responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pn) are both CD4(+) T cell dependent. However, the primary IgG anti-PS response terminates more quickly, uses a shorter period of T cell help, fails to generate memory, and is more dependent on membrane Ig (mIg) signaling. We thus determined whether ...
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