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David Samuel - - 2012
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in immediate damage followed by a secondary phase of tissue damage that occurs over a period of several weeks. The mechanisms underlying this secondary damage are multiple and not fully understood. A number of studies suggest that the local inflammatory response in the spinal cord ...
David Samuel - - 2012
Injury to the spinal cord results in direct damage to axons, neuronal cell bodies, and glia that cause functional loss below the site of injury. In addition, the injury also triggers an inflammatory response that contributes to secondary tissue damage that leads to further functional loss. Reducing inflammation after spinal ...
Lozenski Karissa - - 2012
The disappointing clinical failures of five topical vaginal microbicides have provided new insights into factors that impact microbicide safety and efficacy. Specifically, the greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition associated with multiple uses of a nonoxynol-9 (N-9)-containing product has highlighted the importance of application frequency as ...
Golovatscka Viktoriya - - 2012
Spinal glia activation has been proposed as one mechanism underlying visceral hyperalgesia in a rodent model of chronic stress. In order to assess the possible role of changes in circulating cytokines and in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability in spinal glia activation, we studied the time course of peripheral and ...
Xu Deli - - 2011
Animal immunity is usually impaired in obesity. We know little about the effect of being overweight or obese on the immune function of wild rodents. The present study is aimed to test the hypothesis that immunity is suppressed in overweight Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In the study, 16 overweight (body ...
Haase-Kohn Cathleen - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the response to and the physiological consequences of copper-mediated cross-linking of S100A2 and S100A4, two members of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. As demonstrated by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques S100A2 and S100A4 show formation of cross-links due to copper-mediated ...
Rowley Andrew F - - 2011
Both eicosanoid generation and the complement system have long evolutionary histories predating the emergence of the vertebrates over 500myr ago. This study investigated the interplay between these two systems in an example of a bony fish, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Specifically, it examined whether purified complement fragments including C3a-1 ...
Wydooghe Eline - - 2011
Several approaches have been described for differential staining of blastocysts, but these methods are often time-consuming and unreliable. Here we describe a method for simultaneous differential staining and detection of apoptosis. The differential staining is based on the transcription factor CDX2 which is localized in the nucleus of trophectoderm (TE) ...
Li Guang-Yu - - 2011
It has been reported that microcystins (MCs) could accumulate in the gonads of mammals and MCs exposure exerts obvious toxic effects on male reproductive system of mammals. We have comfirmedthat MCs could accumulate and induce apoptosis in rat testis. The p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein play important roles in mitochondria-dependent ...
Choi Sunga - - 2011
The cancer chemoprevention effects of ginseng saponins have been demonstrated against a variety of experimental tumors; however, their molecular mechanisms in vitro and in in vivo models are not well studied. This study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2)-induced cell death in human ...
Guilherme L - - 2011
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes following an untreated throat infection in susceptible children. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD), the most serious complication, occurs in 30-45% of RF patients and leads to chronic valvular lesions. Here, we focus on the genes that confer ...
Xiao Feng-Lian FL College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, - - 2011
Artemisinin (ARTE), an antimalarial phytochemical component from the sweet wormwood plant, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by inducing cell apoptosis. The aim of this report is to explore the mechanism of ARTE-induced human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell apoptosis. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that ARTE induced cytotoxcity ...
Lieber Justus - - 2010
BACKGROUND: An increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins is regularly found in malignant cells, contributing to their clonal expansion by conferring an improved survival ability. In Hepatoblastoma (HB) apoptosis regulation contributes to resistance and therapy failure, therefore we modulated apoptosis sensitivity of HB cells for an improved cytotoxic activity of commonly ...
Zhao J - - 2011
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between thermochemotherapy-induced apoptosis and the expressions of the Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in maxillofacial squamous cell carcinomas. Fifteen patients with maxillofacial squamous cell carcinomas were treated with microwave hyperthermia (43°C for 40 min) following the intravenous injection of pingyangmycin (Bleomycin A5 ...
Peng Ying - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Oxidative stress is one of the earliest events in the neurological and pathological changes of AD. L-3-n-butyl-phthalide (L-NBP), an anti-cerebral ischemia agent, has been shown a potential in AD treatment. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of L-NBP ...
Mustata Gabriela - - 2010
PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only Bcl-2 family member and a key mediator of apoptosis induced by a wide variety of stimuli. PUMA is particularly important in initiating radiation-induced apoptosis and damage in the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems. Unlike most BH3-only proteins, PUMA neutralizes ...
Zhang Hao - - 2010
Deregulated microRNAs and their roles in tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. Here, we focused on the roles of miR-143 in osteosarcoma, as previous reports have suggested its importance in some other types of cancer. We found that miR-143 was down-regulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and primary tumor samples, and the ...
Lian Jiqin - - 2010
Bcl-2 is a key dual regulator of autophagy and apoptosis, but how the level of Bcl-2 influences the cellular decision between autophagy and apoptosis is unclear. The natural BH3-mimetic (-)-gossypol preferentially induces autophagy in androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer cells that have high levels of Bcl-2 and are resistant to apoptosis, ...
Olberding Kristen E KE Molecular Targets Group, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, - - 2010
Many types of cancer cells possess the ability to evade apoptosis, leading to their rapid and uncontrolled proliferation. As major regulators of apoptosis, Bcl-2 proteins serve as emerging targets for novel chemotherapeutic strategies. In this study, we examined the involvement of Bcl-2 proteins in apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent ...
Brito de Souza Vânia Nieto - - 2010
Apoptosis eliminates pathogen-infected cells. Its modulation can influence the course of infections, permitting the survival of intracellular pathogens. In leprosy, which presents several clinical manifestations related to bacillary burden and host immune status, the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of the bacillus are unknown. Few studies have focused on apoptosis ...
Sharma Chhavi - - 2011
The multistep process of carcinogenesis is characterized by progressive disorganization and occurrence of initiation, promotion, and progression events. Several new strategies such as chemoprevention are being developed for treatment and prevention at various stages of carcinogenesis. Sulforaphane, a potential chemopreventive agent, possesses anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities and has ...
Matsumoto Ayako - - 2011
Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, stimulates apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. VacA induces apoptosis via activation of the pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family proteins, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), while the implication of such pro-survival Bcl-2 family members as Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) in the VacA-induced apoptosis ...
Mehmeti Ilir - - 2011
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key mediators in the selective and progressive destruction of insulin-producing beta cells during type 1 diabetes development. However, the mechanisms of cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis are not fully understood. This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory cytokines strongly modified the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the pro-apoptotic ...
Jiang Bimei - - 2011
We have previously shown that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) markedly inhibits H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myogenic cells by reducing the release of Smac. However, the molecular mechanism by which HSP70 interferes with Smac release during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is not understood. In the current study, we showed that ...
Chen Dong - - 2010
Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the ubiquitination of protein substrates. The mutations in the parkin gene can lead to a loss of function of parkin and cause autosomal recessive juvenile onset parkinsonism. Recently, parkin was reported to be involved in the regulation of mitophagy. Here, we identify ...
Jamil Sarwat - - 2010
Growth factor withdrawal from hemopoietic cells results in activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Members of the Bcl-2 family regulate this pathway, with anti-apoptotic members counteracting the effects of pro-apoptotic members. We investigated the effect on Mcl-1 function of mutation at a conserved threonine 163 residue (T163) in its ...
Tian Yun - - 2011
Aspirin is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and it showed inhibited effects on interleukin 6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway which is thought to play an important role in intestinal inflammation and the tumorigenesis of CRC. Mouse model for inflammation-related CRC ...
Zhang Wenjian W Department of Diagnostic Sciences, University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. - - 2010
Apoptosis has been described extensively in tooth development, which is under tight control of multiple apoptosis regulators, including anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, it is totally unclear how Bcl-2 is related to odontogenesis, especially dentinogenesis. Using a transgenic mouse Col2.3Bcl-2 in which human Bcl-2 was overexpressed in odontoblasts, the effect of ...
Niture S K SK Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, - - 2011
Cytosolic inhibitor of Nrf2 (INrf2) is an adaptor protein that mediates ubiquitination/degradation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of cytoprotective gene expression. In this paper, we demonstrate that INrf2 degrades endogenous antiapoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and controls cellular apoptosis. The DGR domain of INrf2 interacts with ...
Liu Ying - - 2010
Prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) are dioxygenases that use oxygen as a co-substrate to hydroxylate proline residues. Three PHD isoforms (PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3) have been identified in mammalian cells. PHD3 expression is upregulated in some cardiac diseases such as cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and congestive heart failure, all of which are ...
Rudner Justine - - 2011
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Celecoxib is a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2. Apart from its inhibitor function, Celecoxib induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway which is controlled by the Bcl-2 family members. In Jurkat T lymphoma cells, treatment with Celecoxib results in a rapid decline of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-related protein Mcl-1. ...
Samuel Sara - - 2010
In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), overexpression of antiapoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family members contributes to leukemogenesis by interfering with apoptosis; BCL-2 expression also impairs vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-mediated oncolysis of primary CLL cells. In the effort to reverse resistance to VSV-mediated oncolysis, we combined VSV with obatoclax (GX15-070)-a small-molecule ...
Murugan R Senthil - - 2010
Antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects of black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) on HepG2 cells in vitro and in a rat hepatocarcinogenesis model in vivo were investigated. Viability of HepG2 cells was evaluated by the MTT assay, and apoptosis by AO-EB and DAPI staining, cell cycle analysis, and annexin V-PI assay. For ...
He Wei - - 2010
To explore the molecular mechanism by which cordycepin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells. Cell counting and MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfopheny)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) method were used to monitor the effects of cordycepin on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the effects of cordycepin on ...
Poggi Alessandro - - 2010
The present study showed that engagement of CD31 delivers a survival signal in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells. We describe two groups of CLL, showing different kinetics of apoptosis in vitro and distinct ratios between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins: CLL-I displayed low Bcl-x(L) /Bax and Bcl-2/Bax ratio and underwent rapid ...
Allagnat F - - 2011
Pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is a key feature of diabetes mellitus and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is a major mediator of β-cell death. We presently evaluated the role of the myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), an antiapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, in β-cells following exposure to well-defined β-cell ...
Balan Andreea G - - 2010
Alcohol abuse, known for promoting apoptosis in the liver and nervous system, is a major public health concern. Despite significant morbidity and mortality resulting from ethanol consumption, the precise cellular mechanism of its toxicity remains unknown. Previous work has shown that wild-type Bcl-2 is protective against ethanol. The present study ...
May Kerrie L - - 2010
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) was first isolated from a Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strain that was responsible for an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and is the prototype of a new family of AB(5) cytotoxins. SubAB is a subtilase-like serine protease, and upon uptake by host cells, it is trafficked to ...
Escandell J M - - 2010
Cucurbitacin R, a natural anti-inflammatory product, has been shown to exhibit activity against both adjuvant-induced arthritis and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions induced by various agents. Previous studies have demonstrated that the effects of cucurbitacin R stem from its inhibition of both cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. Effects of cucurbitacin R were ...
Tirapelli Luís Fernando - - 2010
The unfavorable prognosis of malignant gliomas can also be explained by the incomplete knowledge of their molecular pathways. Studies regarding the regulatory process of apoptosis in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common malignant glioma, are few, and better knowledge of the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins could collaborate with the ...
Azad Neelam - - 2010
Bcl-2 is a key apoptosis regulatory protein of the mitochondrial death pathway. The oncogenic potential of Bcl-2 is well established, with its overexpression reported in various cancers. The antiapoptotic function of Bcl-2 is closely associated with its expression levels. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are important intracellular signaling molecules ...
Gao Feng - - 2010
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has shown a therapeutic potential to repair the ischemic and infracted myocardium, but the effects are limited by the apoptosis and loss of donor cells in host cardiac microenvironment. The aim of this study is to explore the cytoprotection of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) ...
Cleland M M MM Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2011
The regulation of both mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis is key for maintaining the health of a cell. Bcl-2 family proteins, central in apoptosis regulation, also have roles in the maintenance of the mitochondrial network. Here we report that Bax and Bak participate in the regulation of mitochondrial fusion in mouse ...
Jääskeläinen Minna - - 2010
Of eight million oocytes formed in fetal ovaries, only 400 are ovulated and the rest are degraded via apoptosis. Studies in rodents suggest an important role for Bok and Bcl-X(L) in ovarian apoptosis, but their expression patterns and roles in human ovaries are not well known. Protein expression of Bok ...
Santidrián Antonio F - - 2010
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or acadesine (AICAR) induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. A clinical study of AICAR is currently being performed in patients with this disease. Here, we have analyzed the mechanisms involved in AICAR-induced apoptosis in CLL cells in which it activates its only well-known molecular target, adenosine ...
Zhang Hai-Tao HT Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023, Guangdong Province, China. - - 2010
To investigate the mechanism by which galangin, a polyphenolic compound derived from medicinal herbs, induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to measure cell viability. Apoptosis was evaluated by in situ uptake of propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and was then detected by fluorescence ...
Galmiche Antoine - - 2010
Proteins of the BCL2 family are key regulators of apoptosis. Their expression levels are frequently altered in cancers, enabling tumor cells to survive. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we performed a comprehensive survey of the expression of the members of the BCL2 family in samples ...
Luna-López Armando - - 2010
Hormesis is the process whereby exposure to a low dose of a chemical agent induces an adaptive effect on the cell or organism. This response evokes the expression of cytoprotective and antioxidant proteins, allowing pro-oxidants to emerge as important hormetic agents. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is known to protect cells ...
Shi Lei - - 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate protein expression by cleaving or repressing the translation of target mRNAs. In mammal animals, their function mainly represses the target mRNAs transcripts via imperfectly complementary to the 3'UTR of target mRNAs. Several miRNAs have been recently reported to be involved in ...
Stewart Michelle L ML Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2010
The development of selective inhibitors for discrete anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins implicated in pathologic cell survival remains a formidable but pressing challenge. Such precisely tailored compounds would serve as molecular probes and targeted therapies to study and treat human diseases driven by specific anti-apoptotic blockades. In particular, MCL-1 has emerged ...
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