Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1262
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Galindo Kathleen A - - 2009
Bcl-2 family members are pivotal regulators of programmed cell death (PCD). In mammals, pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members initiate early apoptotic signals by causing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, a step necessary for the initiation of the caspase cascade. Worms and flies do not show a requirement for ...
Jabbour A M - - 2009
Bcl-2 family members regulate apoptosis in response to cytokine withdrawal and a broad range of cytotoxic stimuli. Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak are essential for apoptosis triggered by interleukin-3 (IL-3) withdrawal in myeloid cells. The BH3-only protein Puma is critical for initiation of IL-3 withdrawal-induced apoptosis, because IL-3-deprived ...
Chipuk Jerry E - - 2008
Normal cellular lifespan is contingent upon preserving outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) integrity, as permeabilization promotes apoptosis. BCL-2 family proteins control mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) by regulating the activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 effector molecules, BAX and BAK. Sustainable cellular stress induces proteins (e.g., BID, BIM, and cytosolic p53) capable ...
Xiong Jian-Jun - - 2008
Redox factor-1 (Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in DNA base excision repair (BER) and transcription factor modification. By the use of retrovirus-delivered shRNA, we effectively suppressed endogenous Ref-1 expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Our results showed that downregulation of Ref-1 rendered cells more sensitive to H(2)O(2)-induced ...
Yu J - - 2008
PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only Bcl-2 family member and a critical mediator of p53-dependent and -independent apoptosis induced by a wide variety of stimuli, including genotoxic stress, deregulated oncogene expression, toxins, altered redox status, growth factor/cytokine withdrawal and infection. It serves as a ...
Piñon J D - - 2008
Among all BH3-only proteins known to date, most information is available on the biological role and function of Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death)/BOD (Bcl-2 related ovarian death agonist), whereas little is still known about its closest relative, Bcl-2 modifying factor (Bmf). Although Bim has been implicated in the ...
Li Xiaomei - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) is considered to be a tumor suppressor implicated in several human malignancies by tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis enhancement. In present study, the effects of ING4 on apoptosis and its mechanisms were investigated through the transduction of ING4 cDNA into lung adenocarcinoma cell line ...
Miller Leslie A - - 2009
The Bcl-2 family is important in modulating sensitivity to anticancer drugs in many cancers, including melanomas. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-w. In this report, we examined whether ABT-737 is effective in killing melanoma cells in combination with the proteasome inhibitor ...
Mao Jianning - - 2008
Drak2 is a serine threonine kinase in the death-associated protein family. In this study, we investigated its role in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced islet apoptosis. Drak2 mRNA and protein were rapidly induced in islet beta-cells after FFA stimulation. Such Drak2 upregulation was accompanied by increased beta-cell apoptosis, which was inhibited ...
Reagan-Shaw Shannon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial (SELECT) is aimed at determining the usefulness of a combination of vitamin E and selenium for Prostate cancer (PCa) prevention in humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and mechanistic basis of this combination. METHODS: We determined the ...
Richardson Alan - - 2008
Conventional chemotherapy for cancer utilizes cytotoxic agents which elicit their therapeutic effect in part through the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, drugs which have been developed more recently and which are referred to as "targeted therapy" may exhibit less unwanted toxicity but in some cases these drugs are cytostatic. The ...
Santamaría Beatriz - - 2008
Conventional glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDS) with a high glucose degradation product content accelerate leukocyte apoptosis and impair peritoneal defense. Mononuclear cells are less sensitive than neutrophils to PDS-induced apoptosis, suggesting that they may express antiapoptotic molecules. Since apoptosis induced by PDS requires Bax, we explored the role of an ...
Onoue Satomi - - 2008
Oxidative stress, followed by the apoptotic death of pancreatic beta cells, is considered to be one of causative agents in the evolution of the type 2 diabetic state; therefore, the protection of beta cells can comprise an efficacious strategy for preventing type 2 diabetes. In the present study, RIN-m5F cells ...
Sahebgharani Mousa - - 2008
Opioid drugs are considered as important members of drugs of abuse. Opioid abusers are more likely to be infected which may be due to apoptotic effects of the drugs on immune cells. Furthermore, there are some reports on the apoptotic effect of morphine on neural cells. In the present study, ...
Liu Jie - - 2008
Shikonin derivatives, which are the active components of the medicinal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, exhibit many biological effects including apoptosis induction through undefined mechanisms. We recently discovered that orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 migrates from the nucleus to the mitochondria, where it binds to Bcl-2 to induce apoptosis. Here, we report that ...
Nakashima Takayuki - - 2008
Bcl-2 is an intracellular membrane protein that prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to various cell-death signals. It negatively regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which is responsible for the release of apoptogenic factors and the subsequent activation of caspases. A microbial metabolite, aranorosin, was identified as an inhibitor of ...
Porter John - - 2009
Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protects cells from apoptosis by binding to pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family thereby playing a role in tumour survival in response to chemo- or radiation therapy. We describe a series of phenyl pyrazoles that have high affinity for Bcl-2 and rationalise the observed SAR by means of ...
Nemec Kathleen N - - 2008
A vast portion of human disease results when the process of apoptosis is defective. Disorders resulting from inappropriate cell death range from autoimmune and neurodegenerative conditions to heart disease. Conversely, prevention of apoptosis is the hallmark of cancer and confounds the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. In the search for optimal ...
Heath-Engel H M - - 2008
Apoptosis is essential for normal development and maintenance of homeostasis, and disruption of apoptotic pathways is associated with multiple disease states, including cancer. Although initially identified as central regulators of apoptosis at the level of mitochondria, an important role for BCL-2 proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum is now well established. ...
Wei Zelan - - 2009
The antipsychotic drug haloperidol is still used to treat psychosis and "agitation", often with devastating consequences, particularly in geriatric and pre-demented patients. Cytotoxicity induced by haloperidol has been associated with induction of Bcl-XS, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, as well as with modulation of the Akt pro-survival pathway. ...
Suzuki Maiko - - 2009
During tumorigenesis, tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes are commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in their promoter regions, which is one of the important determinants of susceptibility to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Here, we examine the chemotherapeutic efficacy of epigenetic agents on 5-FU cytotoxicity. We ...
Rieber Manuel - - 2008
Since it is important to lower the death threshold in tumor cells and to enhance response to genotoxic damage, the mechanisms of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-mediated radiosensitization were now examined in human C8161 melanoma. This revealed that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and cell cycle controlling hyperphosphorylated Rb and cyclin A were downregulated by BrdU, ...
Callus Bernard A - - 2008
Puma (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) belongs to the BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only protein family of apoptotic regulators. Its expression is induced by various apoptotic stimuli, including irradiation and cytokine withdrawal. Using an inducible system to express Puma, we investigated the nature of Puma-induced apoptosis. In BaF(3) cells, expression of ...
Meyerkord C L - - 2008
The Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) cell cycle checkpoint complex plays a key role in the DNA damage response. Cells with a defective 9-1-1 complex have been shown to be sensitive to apoptosis induced by certain types of genotoxic stress. However, the mechanism linking the loss of a functional 9-1-1 complex to the ...
Morales P - - 2008
Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development, including hippocampus. We investigated hippocampal plasticity after perinatal asphyxia, measuring postnatal apoptosis and neurogenesis. Asphyxia was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 20 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. ...
Ghoneum Mamdooh - - 2008
We have recently demonstrated that non-metastatic human breast cancer cell lines undergo apoptosis following phagocytosis of S. cerevisiae. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of heat-killed yeast against human metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cells, MDA-MB-231 in vitro, and the underlying mechanistic bases of this effect. Results show that ...
Sun Lin - - 2008
The role of tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy is relatively unknown, despite that apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells is commonly observed in human renal biopsies. The GTPase Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1b) is upregulated in the hyperglycemic state and is known to increase B-Raf, an antiapoptotic effector protein. In this study, the effects ...
Thomson Susan J - - 2008
Bcl-2 is reported to augment the antioxidant capacity of cells and this is hypothesized to contribute to the anti-apoptotic activity of this oncoprotein. We generated a number of stable Jurkat cell lines expressing varying levels of Bcl-2, and showed a strong correlation between Bcl-2 levels and resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. ...
Brito Paula M - - 2008
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytochemical believed to be partly responsible for the cardioprotective effects of red wine due to its numerous biological activities. Here, we studied biochemical pathways underlying peroxynitrite-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells and potential mechanisms responsible for resveratrol cytoprotective action. Peroxynitrite triggered endothelial cell apoptosis through caspases-8, -9 ...
Mott Justin L - - 2008
Human cholangiocarcinomas evade apoptosis by overexpression of Mcl-1. The drug obatoclax (GX15-070) inhibits antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family including Mcl-1. The purpose of this study is to determine if obatoclax sensitizes human cholangiocarcinoma cells to apoptosis. The human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, KMCH, KMBC, and TFK, were employed for these ...
Kyrönlahti Antti - - 2008
Excessive cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs). We hypothesized that transcription factor GATA-4 controls expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 and the cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in normal and neoplastic granulosa cells. To test this hypothesis, a tissue ...
Alzate Juan Fernando - - 2008
The alkyl-lysophospholipids edelfosine and miltefosine induce apoptosis in Leishmania infantum promastigotes. The finding that edelfosine-induced cell death can be regulated by the ectopic expression of the antiapoptotic and proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins Bcl-X(L) and Hrk suggests that this process is similar to apoptosis in eukaryotic cells.
Cuddihy Sarah L - - 2008
Isothiocyanates are a class of phytochemicals able to induce apoptosis in numerous cells including Jurkat T-lymphoma cells overexpressing the oncoprotein Bcl-2. To test if isothiocyanates are also effective against other anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family we generated Jurkat cells stably overexpressing Bcl-X(L). Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) was cytotoxic to these ...
Akhtar Rizwan S - - 2008
Members of the Bcl-2 family include pro- and antiapoptotic proteins that regulate programmed cell death of developing tissues and death in response to cellular damage. In developing mice, the antiapoptotic Bcl-x(L) is necessary for survival of neural and hematopoietic cells, and consequently, bcl-x-deficient mice die around Day 13.5 of embryogenesis. ...
Park Cheol - - 2008
Streptochlorin is a small molecule that produced by marine Streptomyces sp. that is known to have anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanism by which streptochlorin functions is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of streptochlorin in human leukemic U937 cells. Streptochlorin treatment resulted in ...
Marzo Isabel - - 2008
Escape from apoptosis is often a hallmark of cancer cells, and is associated to chemotherapy resistance or tumor relapse. Proteins from the Bcl-2 family are the key regulators of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, controlling the point-of no-return and setting the threshold to engage the death machinery in response to ...
Zhang Jun - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy of topotecan, a topoisomerase I specific inhibitor in S-phase, the reagent-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity as well as related proteins expression, had been preliminarily investigated in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. METHODS: Microculture tetrazolium assay (MTT), HE staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry (FCM), quantitative immunocytochemistry ...
Wong W Wei-Lynn - - 2008
Bcl-2 family members are the arbiters of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is conserved through evolution. The stoichiometry of pro- versus antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members in the cell determines whether the cell lives or dies. This fine balance is regulated at the transcriptional or posttranslational level in response to various cellular ...
Lee Shin-Hee - - 2009
The cell proliferation of p53-deficient Jurkat T cells is controlled after prolonged exposure to human lactoferrin (Lf). However, the molecular mechanism by which Lf influences these cellular responses remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Lf-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells occurs in a dose- and time-dependent manner via ...
Droga-Mazovec Gabriela - - 2008
As a model for defining the role of lysosomal cathepsins in apoptosis, we characterized the action of the lysosomotropic agent LeuLeuOMe using distinct cellular models. LeuLeuOMe induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization, resulting in release of lysosomal cathepsins that cleave the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid and degrade the antiapoptotic member Bcl-2, ...
Pan Rui - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that many neurons may die through apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in this process of neuronal cell death. One promising approach for preventing AD is based upon anti-apoptosis to decrease death of nerve cells. In this study, we observed the memory ...
Wang Kai-Rong - - 2008
Leu5AMD ([D-Val2, L-MeLeu5]2 AMD) is a novel actinomycin D (AMD) analog, in which both N-methylvalines were replaced by N-methylleucines. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of Leu5AMD on the proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901. The results showed that Leu5AMD inhibited ...
Golbano Jesús M - - 2008
We investigated the effects of finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, on cell death machinery through the induction of apoptosis in an in vitro model for prostate cancer. Finasteride treatment of the LNCaP hormone-dependent human prostate cancer cell line caused the loss of cell viability and accelerated apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. ...
Radogna Flavia - - 2008
We have recently shown that melatonin antagonizes damage-induced apoptosis by interaction with the MT-1/MT-2 plasma membrane receptors. Here, we show that melatonin interferes with the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis at the mitochondrial level. In response to an apoptogenic stimulus, melatonin allows mitochondrial translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, but it ...
George Joseph - - 2009
The anti-neoplastic drug taxol binds to beta-tubulin to prevent tumor cell division, promoting cell death. However, high dose taxol treatment may induce cell death in normal cells too. The anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 is upregulated in many cancer cells to protect them from apoptosis. In the current study, we knocked down ...
Swerdlow Sarah - - 2008
Glucocorticosteroid hormones, including prednisone and dexamethasone (Dex), have been used to treat lymphoid malignancies for many years because they readily induce apoptosis in immature lymphocytes lacking Bcl-2. However, elevated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis and contributes to glucocorticoid resistance. Using the Bcl-2-negative WEHI7.2 lymphoma line as an ...
Barron Luke - - 2008
Multiple pathways can induce and maintain peripheral T cell tolerance. The goal of this study was to define the contributions of apoptosis and anergy to the maintenance of self-tolerance to a systemic Ag. Upon transfer into mice expressing OVA systemically, OVA-specific DO11 CD4+ T cells are activated transiently, cease responding, ...
Cottet Sandra - - 2008
Mutations in RPE65 protein is characterized by the loss of photoreceptors, although the molecular pathways triggering retinal cell death remain largely unresolved. The role of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in retinal degeneration is still controversial. However, alteration in Bcl-2-related proteins has been observed in several models of retinal injury. ...
Dong Guie - - 2008
Inhibitors of histone deacetylases, including suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and Trichostatin A, are a new class of anticancer agents. With potent chemotherapy effects in cancers, these agents are not obviously toxic in normal nonmalignant cells or tissues. However, their toxicity in kidney cells has not been carefully evaluated. Here, we ...
Labi Verena - - 2008
Members of the Bcl-2 protein family play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by regulating apoptosis in response to developmental cues or exogenous stress. Proapoptotic BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family are essential for initiation of cell death, and they function by activating the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >