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Laliberte A M - - 2013
The role of the immune response in spinal cord injury has become a frequent object of debate. Evidence exists to suggest that autoimmunity following neurotrauma can be either beneficial or detrimental to recovery. The following commentary examines the recent findings indicating that mice lacking mature B- and T-lymphocytes have improved ...
Aguzzi Adriano - - 2013
Microglia are resident immune cells in the brain and spinal cord. These cells provide immune surveillance and are mobilized in response to disparate diseases and injuries. Although microglial activation is often considered neurotoxic, microglia are essential defenders against many neurodegenerative diseases. It also seems increasingly likely that microglial dysfunction can ...
Dulin Jennifer N - - 2013
Inflammation is a major factor shaping outcome during the early, acute phase of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). It is known that pro-inflammatory signaling within the injured spinal cord drives pathological alterations in neurosensory processing and shapes functional outcome early after injury. However, it is unclear whether inflammation persists into ...
Verhey Leonard H - - 2013
Acute nontraumatic myelopathies of childhood include inflammatory, infectious, and vascular etiologies. Inflammatory immune-mediated disorders of the spinal cord can be categorized as idiopathic isolated transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. In recent years, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, West Nile virus, enterovirus-71, and Lyme disease have been increasingly ...
Ma Bin - - 2013
Neuropathic intermittent claudication (NIC) is a typical clinical symptom of lumbar spinal stenosis and the apoptosis of neurons caused by cauda equina compression (CEC) has been proposed as an important reason. Whereas, the factors and the mechanism involved in the process of apoptosis induced by CEC remain unclear. In our ...
Padovani Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira - - 2013
Introduction The progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the anogenital tract has been associated with the involvement of cells with regulatory properties. Evidence has shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) is an important surface molecule for the characterization of these cells and proposes that GITR ligand may ...
Zhu Ping - - 2013
During aortic surgery, interruption of spinal cord blood flow might cause spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The incidence of spinal cord IRI after aortic surgery is up to 28%, and patients with spinal cord IRI might suffer from postoperative paraplegia or paraparesis. Spinal cord IRI includes two phases. The immediate ...
Chi Zhiyong - - 2013
Astrocytes are important for protecting neurons in the central nervous system. It has been reported that some antioxidants could protect astrocytes from ischemia/reperfusion-induced dysfunction. Cinnamtannin B-1 is a naturally occurring A-type proanthocyanidin that exhibits anti-oxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on spinal cord astrocytes. ...
Abdelmoaty Sally - - 2013
Lipoxins and resolvins have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions and accumulating evidence indicates that these lipid mediators also attenuate pain-like behavior in a number of experimental models of inflammation and tissue injury-induced pain. The present study was undertaken to assess if spinal administration of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) or 17 (R)-resolvin D1 ...
Ren Yi - - 2013
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers inflammation with activation of innate immune responses that contribute to secondary injury including oligodendrocyte apoptosis, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and neuronal death. Macrophage activation, accumulation, and persistent inflammation occur in SCI. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells with extensive functional plasticity and have the capacity to switch phenotypes ...
Hirai Takayuki T Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui, - - 2013
Cervical compressive myelopathy, e.g. due to spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Although human pathological studies have reported neuronal loss and demyelination in the chronically compressed spinal cord, little is known about the mechanisms involved. In particular, the neuroinflammatory processes ...
Matsui H - - 2013
Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is an animal model of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an inflammatory demyelination disease of the peripheral nervous system. Although this disease has been extensively studied on peripheral nerves, the pathology of the central nervous system has not been fully understood. Previous studies demonstrate that expression of keratan sulfate ...
Ren Liang L Department of Orthopaedics, Shijiazhuang No. 3 Hospital - - 2013
Ossification of Ligamentum Flavum (OLF) is associated with serious neurologic symptoms including thoracic myelopathy and spinal stenosis. The pathogenesis of thoracic OLF is mainly due to the localized mechanical stress on the ligament induced enchondral ossification. However, despite numerous epidemiological and basic science studies, the mechanism of this process remains ...
Bowerman Melissa M The Neuroscience Institute of Montpellier, INM, INSERM UMR1051, Saint Eloi Hospital Montpellier, - - 2013
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder characterized by the progressive and selective loss of both upper and lower motoneurons. The neurodegenerative process is accompanied by a sustained inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. The neuron-immune interaction, implicating resident microglia of the central nervous system and blood-derived ...
Yang J F JF Department of Neurobiology, Harbin Medical University Provincial Key Lab of Neurobiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, - - 2012
The nature of pathogenic mechanisms associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been debated. However, limited research was conducted to define the interplay between infiltrating lymphocytes and resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Data presented in this report describe a novel role for astrocyte-mediated alterations ...
Chen Hui-Sheng - - 2012
It is well known that spinal glia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pain. The present study was designed to determine the roles of spinal microglia in bee venom-induced persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN), mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammation. We determined the effects of microglia inhibitor minocycline on BV-induced PSN, ...
Liu Rong - - 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an irreversible and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in part influenced by chronic inflammation. There is no proven effective therapy to stop the pathological progression of MS, although suppressing the immune system to control the inflammatory response may improve the clinical performance acutely. ...
Sasagawa Toshiyuki - - 2012
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important etiological factor for cervical cancer. A recent study demonstrated that more than 20 HPV types were thought to be oncogenic for uterine cervical cancer. Notably, more than one-half of women show cervical HPV infections soon after their sexual debut, and about 90 % of ...
Klopstein Armelle - - 2012
αB-crystallin is a member of the heat shock protein family that exerts cell protection under several stress-related conditions. Recent studies have revealed that αB-crystallin plays a beneficial role in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, brain ischemia, and Alexander disease. Whether αB-crystallin plays a role in modulating the secondary damage ...
Choi Dae Kee - - 2012
It has been demonstrated that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and apoptotic cell death in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following spinal nerve constriction injury play a role in the initiation and continuation of hyperalgesia and allodynia. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ethyl ...
Myers Dean A - - 2012
A commentary on the manuscript by Dr. Steve Yellon's laboratory describing leukocyte recruitment and activation in the murine cervix in preparation for parturition.
Hou Shao-Wei - - 2012
AIM: The purpose of this investigation was to further explore the mechanism(s) underlying the amelioration in EAE caused by Fasudil, particularly focusing on anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS: We induced a chronic-progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in B6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55) and performed Fasudil intervention in early and late ...
Li Fang - - 2012
Our previous studies showed that ligands to type 2 imidazoline receptors (I(2)R), including 2-(2-Benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI) and Idazoxan, were effective in reducing spinal cord inflammation caused by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the present study, we determined the effective therapeutic time window of 2-BFI and found that administration of 2-BFI in ...
Smith Phillip D - - 2012
Paraplegia remains a devastating complication of thoracic aortic surgery. The mechanism of the antecedent spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion injury (IR) remains poorly described. IR involves 2 injuries, an initial ischemic insult and subsequent inflammatory amplification of the injury. This mechanism is consistent with the clinical phenomenon of delayed onset ...
Fukui Daisuke - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly potent professional antigen-presenting cells that play a central role in initiating the primary immune response. Accumulating evidence suggests that immune-mediated inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of AMI, but the mechanism that triggers such immune responses is unknown. METHODS: Using multi-color flow-cytometry, ...
David Samuel - - 2012
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in immediate damage followed by a secondary phase of tissue damage that occurs over a period of several weeks. The mechanisms underlying this secondary damage are multiple and not fully understood. A number of studies suggest that the local inflammatory response in the spinal cord ...
David Samuel - - 2012
Injury to the spinal cord results in direct damage to axons, neuronal cell bodies, and glia that cause functional loss below the site of injury. In addition, the injury also triggers an inflammatory response that contributes to secondary tissue damage that leads to further functional loss. Reducing inflammation after spinal ...
Lozenski Karissa - - 2012
The disappointing clinical failures of five topical vaginal microbicides have provided new insights into factors that impact microbicide safety and efficacy. Specifically, the greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition associated with multiple uses of a nonoxynol-9 (N-9)-containing product has highlighted the importance of application frequency as ...
Golovatscka Viktoriya - - 2012
Spinal glia activation has been proposed as one mechanism underlying visceral hyperalgesia in a rodent model of chronic stress. In order to assess the possible role of changes in circulating cytokines and in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability in spinal glia activation, we studied the time course of peripheral and ...
Xu Deli - - 2011
Animal immunity is usually impaired in obesity. We know little about the effect of being overweight or obese on the immune function of wild rodents. The present study is aimed to test the hypothesis that immunity is suppressed in overweight Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In the study, 16 overweight (body ...
Haase-Kohn Cathleen - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the response to and the physiological consequences of copper-mediated cross-linking of S100A2 and S100A4, two members of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. As demonstrated by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques S100A2 and S100A4 show formation of cross-links due to copper-mediated ...
Rowley Andrew F - - 2011
Both eicosanoid generation and the complement system have long evolutionary histories predating the emergence of the vertebrates over 500myr ago. This study investigated the interplay between these two systems in an example of a bony fish, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Specifically, it examined whether purified complement fragments including C3a-1 ...
Wydooghe Eline - - 2011
Several approaches have been described for differential staining of blastocysts, but these methods are often time-consuming and unreliable. Here we describe a method for simultaneous differential staining and detection of apoptosis. The differential staining is based on the transcription factor CDX2 which is localized in the nucleus of trophectoderm (TE) ...
Li Guang-Yu - - 2011
It has been reported that microcystins (MCs) could accumulate in the gonads of mammals and MCs exposure exerts obvious toxic effects on male reproductive system of mammals. We have comfirmedthat MCs could accumulate and induce apoptosis in rat testis. The p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein play important roles in mitochondria-dependent ...
Choi Sunga - - 2011
The cancer chemoprevention effects of ginseng saponins have been demonstrated against a variety of experimental tumors; however, their molecular mechanisms in vitro and in in vivo models are not well studied. This study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2)-induced cell death in human ...
Guilherme L - - 2011
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes following an untreated throat infection in susceptible children. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD), the most serious complication, occurs in 30-45% of RF patients and leads to chronic valvular lesions. Here, we focus on the genes that confer ...
Lieber Justus - - 2010
BACKGROUND: An increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins is regularly found in malignant cells, contributing to their clonal expansion by conferring an improved survival ability. In Hepatoblastoma (HB) apoptosis regulation contributes to resistance and therapy failure, therefore we modulated apoptosis sensitivity of HB cells for an improved cytotoxic activity of commonly ...
Zhao J - - 2011
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between thermochemotherapy-induced apoptosis and the expressions of the Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in maxillofacial squamous cell carcinomas. Fifteen patients with maxillofacial squamous cell carcinomas were treated with microwave hyperthermia (43°C for 40 min) following the intravenous injection of pingyangmycin (Bleomycin A5 ...
Peng Ying - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Oxidative stress is one of the earliest events in the neurological and pathological changes of AD. L-3-n-butyl-phthalide (L-NBP), an anti-cerebral ischemia agent, has been shown a potential in AD treatment. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of L-NBP ...
Mustata Gabriela - - 2010
PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only Bcl-2 family member and a key mediator of apoptosis induced by a wide variety of stimuli. PUMA is particularly important in initiating radiation-induced apoptosis and damage in the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems. Unlike most BH3-only proteins, PUMA neutralizes ...
Zhang Hao - - 2010
Deregulated microRNAs and their roles in tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. Here, we focused on the roles of miR-143 in osteosarcoma, as previous reports have suggested its importance in some other types of cancer. We found that miR-143 was down-regulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and primary tumor samples, and the ...
Lian Jiqin - - 2010
Bcl-2 is a key dual regulator of autophagy and apoptosis, but how the level of Bcl-2 influences the cellular decision between autophagy and apoptosis is unclear. The natural BH3-mimetic (-)-gossypol preferentially induces autophagy in androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer cells that have high levels of Bcl-2 and are resistant to apoptosis, ...
Olberding Kristen E KE Molecular Targets Group, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, - - 2010
Many types of cancer cells possess the ability to evade apoptosis, leading to their rapid and uncontrolled proliferation. As major regulators of apoptosis, Bcl-2 proteins serve as emerging targets for novel chemotherapeutic strategies. In this study, we examined the involvement of Bcl-2 proteins in apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent ...
Brito de Souza Vânia Nieto - - 2010
Apoptosis eliminates pathogen-infected cells. Its modulation can influence the course of infections, permitting the survival of intracellular pathogens. In leprosy, which presents several clinical manifestations related to bacillary burden and host immune status, the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of the bacillus are unknown. Few studies have focused on apoptosis ...
Sharma Chhavi - - 2011
The multistep process of carcinogenesis is characterized by progressive disorganization and occurrence of initiation, promotion, and progression events. Several new strategies such as chemoprevention are being developed for treatment and prevention at various stages of carcinogenesis. Sulforaphane, a potential chemopreventive agent, possesses anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities and has ...
Matsumoto Ayako - - 2011
Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, stimulates apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. VacA induces apoptosis via activation of the pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family proteins, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), while the implication of such pro-survival Bcl-2 family members as Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) in the VacA-induced apoptosis ...
Mehmeti Ilir - - 2011
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key mediators in the selective and progressive destruction of insulin-producing beta cells during type 1 diabetes development. However, the mechanisms of cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis are not fully understood. This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory cytokines strongly modified the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the pro-apoptotic ...
Jiang Bimei - - 2011
We have previously shown that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) markedly inhibits H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myogenic cells by reducing the release of Smac. However, the molecular mechanism by which HSP70 interferes with Smac release during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is not understood. In the current study, we showed that ...
Chen Dong - - 2010
Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the ubiquitination of protein substrates. The mutations in the parkin gene can lead to a loss of function of parkin and cause autosomal recessive juvenile onset parkinsonism. Recently, parkin was reported to be involved in the regulation of mitophagy. Here, we identify ...
Jamil Sarwat - - 2010
Growth factor withdrawal from hemopoietic cells results in activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Members of the Bcl-2 family regulate this pathway, with anti-apoptotic members counteracting the effects of pro-apoptotic members. We investigated the effect on Mcl-1 function of mutation at a conserved threonine 163 residue (T163) in its ...
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