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Papa Simonetta - - 2013
The possibility to control the fate of the cells responsible of secondary mechanisms following spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most relevant challenges to reduce the post traumatic degeneration of the spinal cord. In particular, microglia/macrophages associated inflammation appears to be a self-propelling mechanism which leads to progressive ...
Kopp Marcel A - - 2013
Infections are the leading cause of death in the acute phase following spinal cord injury and qualify as independent risk factor for poor neurological outcome ("disease modifying factor"). The enhanced susceptibility for infections is not stringently explained by the increased risk of aspiration in tetraplegic patients, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, or ...
Papa Simonetta - - 2013
Much evidence shows that acute and chronic inflammation in spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by immune cell infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators, is implicated in development of the secondary injury phase that occurs after spinal cord trauma and in the worsening of damage. Activation of microglia/macrophages and the associated ...
Zhang Yu-Kai - - 2013
Hemorrhage is a direct consequence of traumatic injury to the central nervous system and may cause innate immune reactions including cerebral Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upregulation which usually leads to poor outcome in the traumatic brain injury. In spinal cord injury (SCI), however, how hemorrhage induces innate immune reaction in ...
Saltzman Jonah W JW Department of Cytokine Biology, Forsyth Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2013
Controversy exists regarding the autoimmune response that has been observed following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). It is not clear if this represents a protective response by the immune system to prevent further tissue damage, a pathological reaction of the immune system to central nervous system antigens released by the ...
Conesa-Zamora Pablo - - 2013
Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer (CC) is still a major problem globally. It is the cancer with the second highest incidence and the third highest mortality in women worldwide, but, in less developed countries, it is an even greater problem being the second ...
Xia Guan-Nan - - 2013
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into lesioned spinal cord demonstrated a beneficial effect for neural repair, the underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elusive. Here, we showed that NSCs, possessing the capacity to differentiate toward into neurons and astrocytes, exhibit a neuroprotective effect by anti-apoptosis mechanism in spinal cord ...
Huang Si-Qin - - 2013
Demyelination is one of the most important pathological factors of spinal cord injury. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis is involved in triggering demyelination. However, fewer reports on pathological changes and mechanism of demyelination have been presented from compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI). The relative effect of oligodendrocyte apoptosis on CSCI-induced demyelination and the ...
Zhang Yi Y Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, - - 2013
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious morbidity and mortality. The ...
Hassanshahi Gholamhossein - - 2013
Chemokines, a subclass of cytokine superfamily have both pro-inflammatory and migratory role and serve as chemoattractant of immune cells during the inflammatory responses ensuing spinal cord injury (SCI). The chemokines, especially CXCL-1, CXCL-9, CXCL-10 and CXCL-12 contribute significant part in the inflammatory secondary damage of SCI. Inhibiting chemokine's activity and ...
Galuppo Maria - - 2013
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly debilitating pathology. Although innovative medical care has been improved, drug therapies to counteract neuronal damage and promote regeneration are limited. An experimental mouse model of SCI was designed to examine the possible neuroprotective role of the glucosinolate (RS)-glucoraphanin (RS-GRA), bioactivated with myrosinase enzyme ...
Vilchez José R - - 2013
Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical cancer are primary due to suboptimal host-dependent immune response against human papillomavirus (HPV). Natural killer cells (NK) are innate-immune response components against virus and tumours. We studied whether the null allele of NKG2C NK cell receptor could be associated with low-grade (LSIL) to high-grade ...
Xia Maosheng - - 2013
Spinal cord injury is characterized by an inflammatory response that includes the increased expression of several cytokines and chemokines. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a critical endogenous signaling molecule in inflammation and immunity. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the proinflammatory cytokines stimulated by ATP are poorly understood. ...
Vaughn Chloe N - - 2013
Postinjury inflammation has been implicated in secondary degeneration following injury to the spinal cord. The cellular inflammatory response to injury has not been described in the lateral compression injury model, although various types of compression injuries account for ∼20% of human spinal cord injuries (SCI). Here, we used forceps to ...
Thawer Sakina G - - 2013
The role of hematogenous (hMΦ) and microglial (mMΦ) macrophages following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains unclear as they are not distinguished easily from each other in the lesion area. We have recently described the temporal and spatial response to SCI of each MΦ population using the lys-EGFP-ki mouse that enables ...
Egeland Nina Gran - - 2013
Sciatica following disc herniation may be associated with compression of spinal nerves, but also by inflammatory substances released from the nucleus pulposus (NP) leaking into the spinal canal. Here, in an animal model mimicking clinical intervertebral disc herniation, we investigate the effect of NP on neuronal activity. In anaesthetized Lewis ...
Daugherty Daniel J - - 2013
Local production of neurosteroids such as progesterone and allopregnanolone confers neuroprotection in central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases. The mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) performs a rate-limiting step in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and its steroid derivatives. Previous studies have shown that TSPO is upregulated in microglia and astroglia ...
Zhang Zheng - - 2013
HAART largely decreases morbidity and mortality in chronic HIV-1-infected patients, but immune nonresponders (INRs) with full viral suppression still fail to reverse the immune deficiency. This study evaluated the safety and immunological responses of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in HIV-1-infected INRs. A total of 13 HIV-1-infected ...
Blomster Linda V LV The University of Queensland, School of Biomedical Sciences, QLD 4072, - - 2013
Macrophages in the injured spinal cord originate from resident microglia and blood monocytes. Whether this diversity in origins contributes to their seemingly dual role in immunopathology and repair processes has remained poorly understood. Here we took advantage of Cx₃cr1(gfp) mice to visualise monocyte-derived macrophages in the injured spinal cord via ...
Dong Yingying Y Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226007, - - 2013
Uncontrolled, excessive inflammation contributes to the secondary tissue damage of traumatic spinal cord, and HMGB1 is highlighted for initiation of a vicious self-propagating inflammatory circle by release from necrotic cells or immune cells. Several regenerative-competent vertebrates have evolved to circumvent the second damages during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration with ...
Barkauskas Deborah S DS Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, - - 2013
Within the central nervous system (CNS), antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a critical role in orchestrating inflammatory responses where they present CNS-derived antigens to immune cells that are recruited from the circulation to the cerebrospinal fluid, parenchyma, and perivascular space. Available data indicate that APCs do so indirectly from outside of ...
Stein Adam - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is elevated in the circulation of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients relative to uninjured subjects. The secondary aim was to identify additional immune mediators that are elevated in chronic SCI subjects. DESIGN: Prospective, observational pilot ...
Yang Wen - - 2013
Impaired local cellular immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, the PD-1/PD-L1 (CD279/CD274) pathway was demonstrated to play a critical role in attenuating T-cell responses and promoting T-cell tolerance during chronic ...
Zhang Yu-Kai - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Our past researches suggested that L. barbarum exhibits direct neuroprotective and immune regulatory effects on the central nervous system, which are highly related to the events involved in the spinal cord injury, but not yet been investigated. Immune responses play an important role in the development of the pathology ...
Lu Ying - - 2013
Neuroinflammation in the spinal cord plays a critical role in the processing of inflammatory pain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a predominant omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the central nervous system, is known to modulate inflammatory responses in various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated whether DHA could reduce inflammatory pain ...
Shechter Ravid R Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. - - 2013
Monocyte-derived macrophages are essential for recovery after spinal cord injury, but their homing mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that although of common origin, the homing of proinflammatory (M1) and the "alternatively activated" anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages to traumatized spinal cord (SC) was distinctly regulated, neither being through breached blood-brain ...
Guo Yuji - - 2013
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was investigated in the present study to examine whether it could affect the activation status of microglia under microenvironment of spinal cord injury and provide a potential therapeutic treatment for spinal cord injury. We established mouse spinal cord hemisection model and injected recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) ...
Choi Bo Yong - - 2013
The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of clioquinol (CQ), a metal chelator, on multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55)) in female mice. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were ...
Huxtable A G AG Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, - - 2013
Although systemic inflammation occurs in most pathological conditions that challenge the neural control of breathing, little is known concerning the impact of inflammation on respiratory motor plasticity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that low-grade systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg ip; 3 and 24 h postinjection) elicits spinal ...
Shin Taekyun - - 2013
Tissues within the central nervous system (CNS) have generally been regarded as immunologically privileged. However, in recent decades, it has been shown that immune reactions in the CNS continuously occur via various types of inflammation following autoimmune diseases and mechanical insults such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Among the various ...
Laliberte A M - - 2013
The role of the immune response in spinal cord injury has become a frequent object of debate. Evidence exists to suggest that autoimmunity following neurotrauma can be either beneficial or detrimental to recovery. The following commentary examines the recent findings indicating that mice lacking mature B- and T-lymphocytes have improved ...
Aguzzi Adriano - - 2013
Microglia are resident immune cells in the brain and spinal cord. These cells provide immune surveillance and are mobilized in response to disparate diseases and injuries. Although microglial activation is often considered neurotoxic, microglia are essential defenders against many neurodegenerative diseases. It also seems increasingly likely that microglial dysfunction can ...
Dulin Jennifer N - - 2013
Inflammation is a major factor shaping outcome during the early, acute phase of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). It is known that pro-inflammatory signaling within the injured spinal cord drives pathological alterations in neurosensory processing and shapes functional outcome early after injury. However, it is unclear whether inflammation persists into ...
Verhey Leonard H - - 2013
Acute nontraumatic myelopathies of childhood include inflammatory, infectious, and vascular etiologies. Inflammatory immune-mediated disorders of the spinal cord can be categorized as idiopathic isolated transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. In recent years, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, West Nile virus, enterovirus-71, and Lyme disease have been increasingly ...
Ma Bin - - 2013
Neuropathic intermittent claudication (NIC) is a typical clinical symptom of lumbar spinal stenosis and the apoptosis of neurons caused by cauda equina compression (CEC) has been proposed as an important reason. Whereas, the factors and the mechanism involved in the process of apoptosis induced by CEC remain unclear. In our ...
Padovani Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira - - 2013
Introduction The progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the anogenital tract has been associated with the involvement of cells with regulatory properties. Evidence has shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) is an important surface molecule for the characterization of these cells and proposes that GITR ligand may ...
Zhu Ping - - 2013
During aortic surgery, interruption of spinal cord blood flow might cause spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The incidence of spinal cord IRI after aortic surgery is up to 28%, and patients with spinal cord IRI might suffer from postoperative paraplegia or paraparesis. Spinal cord IRI includes two phases. The immediate ...
Chi Zhiyong - - 2013
Astrocytes are important for protecting neurons in the central nervous system. It has been reported that some antioxidants could protect astrocytes from ischemia/reperfusion-induced dysfunction. Cinnamtannin B-1 is a naturally occurring A-type proanthocyanidin that exhibits anti-oxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on spinal cord astrocytes. ...
Abdelmoaty Sally - - 2013
Lipoxins and resolvins have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions and accumulating evidence indicates that these lipid mediators also attenuate pain-like behavior in a number of experimental models of inflammation and tissue injury-induced pain. The present study was undertaken to assess if spinal administration of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) or 17 (R)-resolvin D1 ...
Ren Yi - - 2013
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers inflammation with activation of innate immune responses that contribute to secondary injury including oligodendrocyte apoptosis, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and neuronal death. Macrophage activation, accumulation, and persistent inflammation occur in SCI. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells with extensive functional plasticity and have the capacity to switch phenotypes ...
Hirai Takayuki T Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui, - - 2013
Cervical compressive myelopathy, e.g. due to spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Although human pathological studies have reported neuronal loss and demyelination in the chronically compressed spinal cord, little is known about the mechanisms involved. In particular, the neuroinflammatory processes ...
Matsui H - - 2013
Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is an animal model of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an inflammatory demyelination disease of the peripheral nervous system. Although this disease has been extensively studied on peripheral nerves, the pathology of the central nervous system has not been fully understood. Previous studies demonstrate that expression of keratan sulfate ...
Ren Liang L Department of Orthopaedics, Shijiazhuang No. 3 Hospital - - 2013
Ossification of Ligamentum Flavum (OLF) is associated with serious neurologic symptoms including thoracic myelopathy and spinal stenosis. The pathogenesis of thoracic OLF is mainly due to the localized mechanical stress on the ligament induced enchondral ossification. However, despite numerous epidemiological and basic science studies, the mechanism of this process remains ...
Bowerman Melissa M The Neuroscience Institute of Montpellier, INM, INSERM UMR1051, Saint Eloi Hospital Montpellier, - - 2013
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder characterized by the progressive and selective loss of both upper and lower motoneurons. The neurodegenerative process is accompanied by a sustained inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. The neuron-immune interaction, implicating resident microglia of the central nervous system and blood-derived ...
Yang J F JF Department of Neurobiology, Harbin Medical University Provincial Key Lab of Neurobiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, - - 2012
The nature of pathogenic mechanisms associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been debated. However, limited research was conducted to define the interplay between infiltrating lymphocytes and resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Data presented in this report describe a novel role for astrocyte-mediated alterations ...
Chen Hui-Sheng - - 2012
It is well known that spinal glia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pain. The present study was designed to determine the roles of spinal microglia in bee venom-induced persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN), mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammation. We determined the effects of microglia inhibitor minocycline on BV-induced PSN, ...
Liu Rong - - 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an irreversible and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in part influenced by chronic inflammation. There is no proven effective therapy to stop the pathological progression of MS, although suppressing the immune system to control the inflammatory response may improve the clinical performance acutely. ...
Sasagawa Toshiyuki - - 2012
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important etiological factor for cervical cancer. A recent study demonstrated that more than 20 HPV types were thought to be oncogenic for uterine cervical cancer. Notably, more than one-half of women show cervical HPV infections soon after their sexual debut, and about 90 % of ...
Klopstein Armelle - - 2012
αB-crystallin is a member of the heat shock protein family that exerts cell protection under several stress-related conditions. Recent studies have revealed that αB-crystallin plays a beneficial role in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, brain ischemia, and Alexander disease. Whether αB-crystallin plays a role in modulating the secondary damage ...
Choi Dae Kee - - 2012
It has been demonstrated that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and apoptotic cell death in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following spinal nerve constriction injury play a role in the initiation and continuation of hyperalgesia and allodynia. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ethyl ...
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