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Jongejan Laurian L Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only treatment of allergic diseases that aims at modifying the underlying immune mechanism. Current protocols are long and at risk of anaphylactic reactions. The main aim of current research is decreasing the risk of side effects and increasing efficacy, in particular targeting reduction of treatment duration. ...
Navarro S S IPMC, CNRS UMR7275, INSERM U1080 Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, - - 2014
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung infiltration of Th2 cells, and high levels of IgE. To date, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment that effectively alleviates clinical symptoms and has a long-term effect after termination. Unfortunately, SIT is unsuitable for plurisensitized patients, ...
Muhammad Khan Asad A Department of Pharmacology, University of Health Sciences , Lahore , Pakistan - - 2014
Abstract Context: Ginger has been used commonly in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of respiratory disorders. Objective: The present study investigates the immunosuppressive activity of ginger by using the mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. Materials and methods: Treatment with ethanol extract (500 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (720 mg/kg) ...
Scanlon S T ST MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Protein & Nucleic Acid Chemistry (PNAC) Division, Cambridge University, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, - - 2014
Although type-2 immune responses evolved primarily to defend against extracellular helminths, in part through the co-opting of tissue repair and remodelling mechanisms, it is often inappropriately directed towards relatively innocuous allergens resulting in conditions including asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. The recent discovery of group 2 innate ...
Cheng Laurence E LE Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California - - 2014
Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating ...
Gershwin Laurel J LJ School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; email: - - 2014
Allergic responses occur in humans, rodents, non-human primates, avian species, and all of the domestic animals. These responses are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that bind to mast cells and cause release/synthesis of potent mediators. Clinical syndromes include naturally occurring asthma in humans and cats; atopic dermatitis in humans, ...
Shin Yong-Kyu YK Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of - - 2014
In order to evaluate whether the aqueous fraction of Cinnamomum cassia produced by solid‑state fermentation with Phellinus baumii (afCc/Pb) inhibits atopic symptoms in vivo, its efficacy was evaluated in an animal model of 2,4‑dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)‑induced atopic dermatitis. Immune‑related cells were quantified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and phenotypic cytokines, enzymes and ...
Papazian Dick D Department of Cancer & Inflammation Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; ALK, Hørsholm, - - 2014
The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis is increasing, affecting up to 30% of the human population worldwide. Allergic sensitization arises from complex interactions between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility, resulting in inflammatory T helper 2 (Th2) cell derived immune responses towards environmental allergens. Emerging evidence now suggest ...
Berger Marieke M Department of Respiratory Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp, The - - 2014
House dust contains mite allergens as well as bacterial products like lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Asthma exacerbations are associated with the level of exposure to allergens and LPS. LPS can potentiate allergen effects in steroid-naïve patients. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) were shown to inhibit LPS-induced bronchial inflammation in healthy volunteers. The aim of ...
Vo Thanh-Sang TS Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-739, Republic of - - 2014
Marine polysaccharides have been found as the principle component in cell wall structures of seaweeds or exoskeletons of crustaceans. Due to numerous pharmaceutical properties of marine polysaccharides such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, anti-coagulant, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, and anti-hepatopathy activities, they have been applied in many fields of ...
Gela Anele A Respiratory Medicine & Allergology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
During bacterial infections of the airways, a Th1-profiled inflammation promotes the production of several host defense proteins and peptides with antibacterial activities including β-defensins, ELR-negative CXC-chemokines, and the cathelicidin LL-37. These are down-regulated by Th2 cytokines of the allergic response. Instead, the eosinophil-recruiting chemokines eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26 are expressed. ...
Baiula Monica - - 2014
Glucocorticoids are used to treat chronic and severe forms of allergic conjunctivitis. Although they exert a rapid and powerful therapeutic activity, relevant side effects may limit their ocular use: increase of intraocular pressure, cataract formation and reduced resistance to infections. New glucocorticoids displaying the same potency of classical glucocorticoids but ...
Rosenstein Rachel K RK Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT - - 2014
Allergic diseases represent a significant burden in industrialized countries, but why and how the immune system responds to allergens remain largely unknown. Because many clinically significant allergens have proteolytic activity, and many helminths express proteases that are necessary for their life cycles, host mechanisms likely have evolved to detect the ...
Ghosh Sumit - - 2014
Sensitization to fungi often leads to a severe form of asthma that is particularly difficult to manage clinically, resulting in increased morbidity and hospitalizations in these patients. Although B lymphocytes might exacerbate asthma symptoms through the production of IgE, these cells might also be important in the protective response against ...
Han Hongwei - - 2014
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy are closely linked; however, the mechanisms that guide the progression of AD to allergic inflammatory responses at other mucosal surfaces, including the gastrointestinal tract, are not well understood. Here, we determined that exposure of mice that have been epicutaneously sensitized with thymic stromal lymphopoietin ...
Wang Yong Y Department of Medicine, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, - - 2014
Cigarette smoking enhances oxidative stress and airway inflammation in asthma, the mechanisms of which are largely unknown. Myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) are free radical producing immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory properties that have recently been demonstrated as critical regulators of allergic airway inflammation. NO (nitric oxide)-producing immunosuppressive MDRC suppress T-cell ...
Simpson Laura J LJ Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sandler Asthma Basic Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert powerful effects on immunological function by tuning networks of target genes that orchestrate cell activity. We sought to identify miRNAs and miRNA-regulated pathways that control the type 2 helper T cell (TH2 cell) responses that drive pathogenic inflammation in asthma. Profiling miRNA expression in human airway-infiltrating T ...
Soyka Michael B - - 2014
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) was described as a therapeutic option for the treatment of allergies > 100 years ago. It is based on administration of allergen extracts and leads to the development of clinical allergen tolerance in selected patients. According to current knowledge, AIT results in the restoration of immune tolerance ...
Madonini Enzo R ER Allergopharma S.p.A. Scientific Direction; Via C. Porta - Residenza Bosco 833, 20080 Basiglio (MI) Phone: +39 335 52 62 740 E-mail: enzo.madonini@gmail.com - - 2014
During the last years, along with the growing knowledge about the role and importance of the intestinal flora, interest remarkably increased in probiotic bacteria supplementation. It has indeed been demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is very important in the regulation of several functions of the organism, even those far from ...
Chapman Aaron M AM David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Departments of Molecular Toxicology Los Angeles, - - 2014
Asthma is a common heterogeneous disease with both genetic and environmental factors that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Activated type 2 helper T cells secrete a panel of cytokines, including IL-13, a central immune regulator of many of the hallmark type 2 disease characteristics found in asthma. IL-13 has been ...
Lee Yong Gyu YG The Ohio State University, Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep, Columbus, Ohio, United - - 2014
Rationale: Although alveolar macrophages (AM) from asthmatics are known to be functionally different than those of healthy individuals, the mechanism by which this transformation occurs has not been fully elucidated in asthma. Objective: To define the mechanism(s) that controls AM phenotypic and functional transformation in response to acute allergic airway ...
Kato Go - - 2014
BackgroundLong-acting ß2 adrenergic agonists (LABAs) are commonly used combined with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to treat asthmatic patients. Previous reports suggest that LABAs have an anti-inflammatory effect in bronchial asthma, and this should be further investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LABAs inhibit allergic airway inflammation and ...
Engelke Carsten C Institute for Systemic Inflammation Research, University of Lübeck and Airway Research Center North, member of the German Center for Lung Research, 23538 Lübeck, - - 2014
Conventional dendritic cells (cDC) are necessary and sufficient to drive mixed maladaptive Th2/Th17 immune responses toward aeroallergens in experimental allergy models. Previous studies suggest that the anaphylatoxin C3a promotes, whereas C5a protects from the development of maladaptive immunity during allergen sensitization. However, only limited evidence exists that such effects are ...
Martin Stefan F SF Allergy Research Group, Department of Dermatology, Medical Centre - University of Freiburg, Hauptstrasse 7, D-79104, Freiburg, - - 2014
Allergic contact dermatitis affects a worrying proportion of the general population. The mechanisms underlying this chemical-triggered delayed-type hypersensitivity are still not fully understood. In recent years, basic research has shown that the immune system reacts to contact allergens by activation of signalling pathways that are usually used to fight infections. ...
Jackson David J DJ Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom ; - - 2014
Rationale: Rhinoviruses are the major cause of asthma exacerbations, however mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesised that the epithelial-derived cytokine IL-33 plays a central role in exacerbation pathogenesis through augmentation of type 2 inflammation. Objectives: To assess whether rhinovirus induces a type 2 inflammatory response in asthma in vivo and ...
Lin Pin-Yi PY Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, College of Medicine, Taipei, - - 2014
T helper (Th) 2 cells, which produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, control immunity to all forms of allergic inflammatory responses. IL-21 reduces allergic symptoms in murine models and inhibits IL-4-induced IgE secretion by B cells. However, whether or not IL-21 directly affects Th2 cells which leads to reduced allergic symptoms ...
Je In-Gyu IG CMRI, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422, Republic of - - 2014
In this study, we investigated the effect of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-(8-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzamide) (SG-HQ2), a synthetic analogue of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and the possible mechanism of action. Mast cells play major roles in immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses by the release of histamine, lipid-derived mediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. ...
Asai-Tajiri Yukari - - 2014
BackgroundCD86-CD28 interaction has been suggested as the principal costimulatory pathway for the activation and differentiation of naïve T cells in allergic inflammation. However, it remains uncertain whether this pathway also has an essential role in the effector phase. We sought to determine the contribution of CD86 on dendritic cells in ...
Vogel Elizabeth R ER Mayo - - 2014
Cigarette smoke is a common environmental insult associated with increased risk of developing airway diseases such as wheezing and asthma in neonates and children. In adults, asthma involves airway remodeling characterized by increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, as well as airway hyperreactivity. ...
Gupta Anukriti A Department of Oral Biology, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark, New Jersey, USA; Departments of - - 2014
Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that results from an exaggerated inflammatory response in the airways. Environment stimuli, such as pollen and HDM, cause activation and migration of inflammatory WBCs into the respiratory tract, where they cause lung damage. Migration of these WBCs is dependent on the active configuration ...
Mathie Sara A SA Leukocyte Biology, NHLI, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, - - 2014
Alveolar macrophages are sentinels of the pulmonary mucosa and central to maintaining immunological homeostasis. However, their role in governing the response to allergen is not fully understood. Inappropriate responses to the inhaled environment manifest as asthma. We utilised a mechanistic IL-13 driven model and a house dust mite allergen mucosal ...
Bleier Benjamin S BS Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 2014
Verapamil is an L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) that has been shown to have immunomodulatory properties in a variety of tissues. The goal of this study was determine whether verapamil is capable of regulating cytokine secretion in sinonasal polyps and to compare this effect to dexamethasone, an established immunosuppressive corticosteroid. ...
Rydman Elina M - - 2014
BackgroundCarbon nanotubes (CNT) represent a great promise for technological and industrial development but serious concerns on their health effects have also emerged. Rod-shaped CNT are, in fact, able to induce asbestos-like pathogenicity in mice including granuloma formation in abdominal cavity and sub-pleural fibrosis. Exposure to CNT, especially in the occupational ...
Yang San-Nan SN Department of Pediatrics, E-DA Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. ; School of Medicine, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, - - 2014
The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has increased worldwide over the last few decades. Many common environmental factors are associated with this increase. Several theories have been proposed to account for this trend, especially those concerning the impact of environmental toxicants. The development of the immune system, particularly in ...
Huang Jing J School of Pharmacy, Heath Science Center Xi'an Jiaotong University, 76#, Yanta Westroad, Xi'an, 710061, - - 2014
Allergy is an abnormal immune response to an allergen. Type I hypersensitivity is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic disorder. Fructus piperis is derived from the ripe fruit of the pepper, which is widely used as a spice in human diets and is also administered as a medicine in many countries. ...
Cho Min Kyoung MK Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do, 626-870, Republic of - - 2014
Anisakis (Anisakidae) is one of the most important causes of helminth-induced allergic reactions and elicits clinical responses that include urticaria, rhinitis, bronco-constriction, cough, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. More than 13 reactive allergens have been identified in the serum of Anisakis allergy patients, but the allergenicity of only a few of these ...
Yoo Young Y Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South - - 2014
The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases is still increasing both in developed and developing countries. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant allergens is common and, although not sufficient, a necessary step in the development of allergic diseases. Despite a small number of proteins from certain plants and animals being ...
Legatzki Antje A Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University, Lindwurmstrasse 4, 80337, Munich, Germany, - - 2014
The prevalence of asthma and allergy has been constantly increasing in Westernized countries in the last decades. Asthma and allergies are complex diseases with a local tissue inflammation that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Because the commensal microflora is crucial to maintain inflammatory homeostasis and to induce immune ...
Beale Janine J Airway Disease Infection Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. Medical Research Council (MRC) and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, London W2 1PG, UK. Centre for Respiratory Infection, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, - - 2014
Rhinoviruses (RVs), which are the most common cause of virally induced asthma exacerbations, account for much of the burden of asthma in terms of morbidity, mortality, and associated cost. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) activates type 2-driven inflammation and is therefore potentially important in virally induced asthma exacerbations. To investigate this, we examined ...
Pillai Meenu R MR Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, - - 2014
The JmjC protein Mina is an important immune response regulator. Classical forward genetics first discovered its immune role in 2009 in connection with the development of T helper 2 (Th2) cells. This prompted investigation into Mina's role in the two best-studied contexts where Th2 responses are essential: atopic asthma and ...
Sherkat Roya R Acquired Immunodeficiency Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, - - 2014
In this study, the expression of interleukin-9 (IL-9), IL-17, IL-22, and IL-25 genes that might be the potential predisposing factors for asthma as well as count of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as another source of inflammatory cytokines have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression ...
Lee Tae-Hyeong TH Department of Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Science Major, Soonchunhyang University Graduate School, Bucheon 420-767, - - 2014
Human airways contact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns present in many environments. Asthmatic's airways may be more susceptible to these patterns and lead to inflammasome activation; however, the participation of inflammasome in the development and exacerbation of asthma is not fully understood and remains controversial. Asthma is ...
Yu Sheng-Jie SJ Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40705, Taiwan. ; Section of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, - - 2014
There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can ...
Arrieta Marie-Claire MC Michael Smith Laboratories, 301 - 2185 East Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T - - 2014
There is increasing evidence that environmental changes are involved in the sharp increase in asthma incidence, as well as with other immune-mediated diseases. This increase matches the introduction of modern life advances such as antibiotics and caesarean sections. Several epidemiological studies provide convincing evidence that a lack of exposure to ...
Fyhrquist Nanna N Unit of Systems Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, - - 2014
The human commensal microbiota interacts in a complex manner with the immune system, and the outcome of these interactions might depend on the immune status of the subject. Previous studies have suggested a strong allergy-protective effect for Gammaproteobacteria. Here we analyze the skin microbiota, allergic sensitization (atopy), and immune function ...
Gil Malgorzata A MA Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, Boston, MA, USA - - 2014
Alternaria alternata is a fungal allergen linked to the development of severe asthma in humans. In view of the clinical relationship between A. alternata and asthma, we sought to investigate the allergic activity of this antigen after direct application to the lungs of Brown Norway rats. Here we demonstrate that ...
Platzer B B Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Antigen-mediated cross-linking of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells/basophils via FcɛRI, the high affinity IgE Fc-receptor, is a well-known trigger of allergy. In humans, but not mice, dendritic cells (DCs) also express FcɛRI that is constitutively occupied with IgE. In contrast to mast cells/basophils, the consequences of IgE/FcɛRI signals ...
Fulkerson Patricia C PC Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH - - 2014
Eosinophils originate in the bone marrow from an eosinophil lineage-committed, IL-5Rα-positive, hematopoietic progenitor (eosinophil progenitor). Indeed, IL-5 is recognized as a critical regulator of eosinophilia and has effects on eosinophil progenitors, eosinophil precursors, and mature eosinophils. However, substantial levels of eosinophils remain after IL-5 neutralization or genetic deletion, suggesting that ...
Walford Hannah H HH Department of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; Rady's Children's Hospital of San Diego, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, CA, - - 2014
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have recently been identified in human nasal polyps, but whether numbers of ILC2s differ by polyp endotype or are influenced by corticosteroid use is unknown. Here, we show that eosinophilic nasal polyps contained double the number of ILC2s vs. non-eosinophilic polyps. Polyp ILC2s were ...
Zasłona Zbigniew Z Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI - - 2014
The role and origin of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in asthma are incompletely defined. We sought to clarify these issues in the context of acute allergic lung inflammation using house dust mite and OVA murine models. Use of liposomal clodronate to deplete resident AMs (rAMs) resulted in increased levels of inflammatory ...
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