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Liu Zhiming - - 2013
This project studies a working but manual immunization system in place in Pakistan, subject to concerns such as poor record-keeping, reaching targeted children and unavailability of latest census. We propose an openEHR-based solution, called Light-weight Electronic Traceable and Updatable System (LETUS), which aims at increasing childhood immunization coverage and traceability. ...
Hoffman William H - - 2013
Diastolic dysfunction suggestive of diabetic cardiomyopathy is established in children with T1DM, but its pathogenesis is not well understood. We studied the relationships of systemic inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and cardiac function in 17 children with T1DM during and after correction of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Twenty seven of the 39 measured cytokines/chemokines ...
Leiszter Katalin - - 2013
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) development is a sequential process showing age-dependency, uncontrolled epithelial proliferation and decreased apoptosis. During juvenile growth cellular proliferation and apoptosis are well balanced, which may be perturbed upon aging. Our aim was to correlate proliferative and apoptotic activities in aging human colonic epithelium and colorectal cancer. ...
Gupta Pankaj Kumar PK Department of Community Medicine, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College, Pune, - - 2013
Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. One of the most cost-effective and easy methods for child survival is immunization. Despite all the efforts put in by governmental and nongovernmental institutes for 100% immunization coverage, there are still pockets of low-coverage areas. In India, immunization ...
Wang Chuang-Ming - - 2013
Allergic asthma is a T(H)2 inflammatory disease. Dendritic cells (DCs) play key roles in the T(H)1/T(H)2 balance. Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) has the potential to modify the course of allergy because the ratio of T(H)1 to T(H)2 cytokines produced is increased after SIT. To determine how SIT affects DCs in ...
Garg Ravendra - - 2012
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common human pathogen that causes cold-like symptoms in most healthy adults and children. However, RSV often moves into the lower respiratory tract in infants and young children predisposed to respiratory illness, making it the most common cause of pediatric broncheolitis and pneumonia. The development ...
Breece Elizabeth - - 2012
The pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and ...
Munde Elly O - - 2012
An understanding of the immunogenetic basis of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection would aid in the designing of a rationally based malaria vaccine. Variants within the Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) mediate immunity through engagement of immunoglobulin G and other immune mediators, such as gamma interferon (IFN-γ), resulting in ...
Lee Jae Min - - 2012
Ginseng has been used as an herbal medicine, widely used in Asian countries, for long time. Recently, beneficial effects for immune functions of Korean red ginseng (KRG) have been reported in adults. This study was performed to investigate the effects of ginseng on immune functions in children after cessation of ...
Lambertsen Kate Lykke - - 2012
Inflammation is a hallmark of stroke pathology. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, modulate tissue injury in experimental stroke and are therefore potential targets in future stroke therapy. The effect of these cytokines on infarct evolution depends on their availability in the ischemic penumbra in the ...
Chamorro Angel - - 2012
Recent clinical and experimental studies have highlighted a complex role for the immune system in the pathophysiological changes that occur after acute stroke. Sensors of the innate immune system such as Toll-like receptors, or effectors such as the lectin pathway of complement activation and innate immune cells, are activated by ...
Magnus Tim - - 2012
Only recently has it been realized that immune mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, which for many years was regarded mainly as a vascular disease. These immunologic processes are present during all stages of stroke and involve both the innate and adaptive immune systems. This review highlights the ...
Kim Eunhee - - 2012
Hyperlipidemia exacerbates ischemic stroke outcome and increases CD36 expression in the postischemic brain as well as in peripheral monocytes/macrophages. By exchanging bone marrow-derived cells between CD36-expressing and CD36-deficient mice, this study investigates the contribution of peripheral CD36 in comparison with that of brain CD36 to stroke pathology in hyperlipidemia. Following ...
Akpan Nsikan - - 2012
In ischemic stroke, apoptosis persists for days to weeks after the onset of an ischemic event. Cysteine-ASPartic proteASEs (caspases) are key mediators of apoptosis and neurodegeneration in stroke. The impact of caspase activity is not restricted to neuronal death, as caspases can exacerbate inflammation and alter glial function. Thus, caspases ...
Kahles Timo - - 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act physiologically as signaling molecules. In pathological conditions, such as ischemic stroke, ROS are released in excessive amounts and upon reperfusion exceed the body's antioxidant detoxifying capacity. This process leads to brain tissue damage during reoxygenation. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have long been suggested as a therapy ...
Scheibe Franziska - - 2012
Preclinical trials confirmed the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to improve functional recovery after experimental stroke. Beneficial effects of MSCs are often attributed to their immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory functions. Surprisingly, the influence of MSCs on the immune system after stroke is poorly understood, but requires special consideration because cerebral ischemia is ...
Subirós Nelvys - - 2012
Acute stroke is one of the major causes of death and disabilities. Since the 1980s many clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate neuroprotective approaches to treat this important brain vascular event. However, to date the only drug approved (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rtPA]) represents a thrombolytic, nonneuroprotective approach. An ...
Tang Xian Nan - - 2012
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) was originally identified in immune cells as playing an important microbicidal role. In stroke and cerebrovascular disease, inflammation is increasingly being recognized as contributing negatively to neurological outcome, with NOX as an important source of superoxide. Several labs have now shown that blocking ...
Kamel Hooman - - 2012
Increasing evidence shows that the central nervous system and the immune system interact in complex ways, and better insight into these interactions may be relevant to the treatment of patients with stroke and other forms of central nervous system injury. Atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, and physiological stressors, such as infection or ...
Ritzel Rodney M RM University of Connecticut Health Center, Department of Neuroscience, Farmington, CT 06030, - - 2013
Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of disability in the developed world. Experimental and clinical data indicate that stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease, with males demonstrating an enhanced intrinsic sensitivity to ischemic damage throughout most of their lifespan. The neuroprotective role of estrogen ...
Smith Craig J CJ Brain Injury Research Group, School of Biomedicine, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford M6 8HD, UK. - - 2012
Infections are common following stroke and adversely affect outcome. Cellular immune suppression associated with acute stroke may increase susceptibility to infection. Cytokines are important contributors to both stroke pathology and the response to infection. Since interleukin (IL)-1 blockade is a candidate treatment for cerebral ischemia, we examined whether administration of ...
Yan Jun - - 2012
There is inflammation at the site of pathology in acute ischaemic stroke. In humans there is also elevation of levels of circulating cytokines in the days after stroke. We have previously found increased level of circulating T cells for up to three weeks after stroke. We have now measured cytokine ...
Karuppagounder Saravanan S - - 2012
A major challenge in developing stroke therapeutics that augment adaptive pathways to stress has been to identify targets that can activate compensatory programs without inducing or adding to the stress of injury. In this regard, hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylases (HIF PHDs) are central gatekeepers of posttranscriptional and transcriptional adaptation to ...
Nowak M - - 2012
Minocycline, a tetracycline family antibiotic, is known to inhibit microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokine release in animal models. Experimental data show that these immune processes may play a role in epilepto- and ictogenesis. We present the case of a patient with marked reduction in seizure frequency during minocycline therapy with ...
Su Shan-Yu - - 2012
Poststroke dementia commonly occurs following stroke, with its pathogenesis related to β-amyloid production and apoptosis. The present study evaluate the effects of paeonol, one of the phenolic phytochemicals isolated from the Chinese herb Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (MC), on protection from memory loss after ischemic stroke in the subacute stage. Rats ...
Bernheim N - - 2012
A child's immune system cannot depend on a memory-type immune response and it also induces cytokine responses less efficiently. Biological conditions like allergy or cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency or gastrooesophageal reflux can induce and maintain background inflammation in children's upper airways, making newborns and children more susceptible to upper airway ...
Campi-Azevedo Ana Carolina - - 2012
This study aimed to compare the cytokine-mediated immune response in children submitted to primary vaccination with the YF-17D-213/77 or YF-17DD yellow fever (YF) substrains. A non-probabilistic sample of eighty healthy primary vaccinated (PV) children was selected on the basis of their previously known humoral immune response to the YF vaccines. ...
Palamaro Loredana - - 2012
Clustering of Autoimmune Diseases (CAD) is now emerging as a novel clinical entity within monogenic immune defects with a high familial occurrence. Aim of this study is to evaluate the regulatory mechanisms governing cell survival, paying a particular attention to Fas-induced apoptosis, in a cohort of 23 children affected with ...
Bohacek Ivan - - 2012
Using a live imaging approach, we have previously shown that microglia activation after stroke is characterized by marked and long-term induction of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 biophotonic signals. However, the role of TLR2 (and potentially other TLRs) beyond the acute innate immune response and as early neuroprotection against ischemic ...
Lopera-Mesa Tatiana M TM Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of - - 2012
Plasmodium falciparum elicits host inflammatory responses that cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. One proposed mechanism involves formation of immunostimulatory uric acid (UA) precipitates, which are released from sequestered schizonts into microvessels. Another involves hypoxanthine and xanthine, which accumulate in parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) and may be ...
Iwamoto S - - 2011
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells capable of initiating primary/adaptive immune responses and tolerance. DC functions are regulated by their state of maturation. However, the molecular pathways leading to DC development and maturation remain poorly understood. We attempted to determine whether inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which ...
Good James T JT - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the importance of macrolide therapy in the treatment of asthma, discusses macrolide mechanisms of action, and outlines new clinical data supporting their use. The effects of macrolides on both the innate and adaptive immune responses are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Subacute bacterial infection with both ...
Allen Rebecca G RG Integrated Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2012
The indigenous microbiota impact mucosal, as well as systemic, immune responses, but whether the microbiota are involved in stressor-induced immunomodulation has not been thoroughly tested. A well characterized murine stressor, called social disruption (SDR), was used to study whether the microbiota are involved in stressor-induced enhancement of macrophage reactivity. Exposure ...
Christaki Eirini - - 2011
Currently the treatment mainstay of sepsis is early and appropriate antibiotic therapy, accompanied by aggressive fluid administration, the use of vasopressors when needed and the prompt initiation of measures to support each failing organ. Activated protein C and hydrocortisone, when used accordingly can affect mortality. As the pathophysiologic events that ...
Landmann Frederic - - 2011
Filarial nematodes maintain a mutualistic relationship with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Depletion of Wolbachia produces profound defects in nematode development, fertility and viability and thus has great promise as a novel approach for treating filarial diseases. However, little is known concerning the basis for this mutualistic relationship. Here we demonstrate using ...
Spiller Robin R NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom. - - 2011
Recent data developing from the study of postinfectious IBS has challenged the belief that IBS is a purely psychological disorder. Distinct abnormalities of the gut mucosa have been reported including immune activation and increased release of inflammatory mediators with some overlap with IBD. New studies show that genetic factors which ...
José de Souza Danival - - 2011
Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) have mutualistic, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia whose main contribution to their hosts is alimentary. It was also recently demonstrated that they play a role in improving immune function as well. In this study, we show that treatment with an antibiotic produces a physiological response ...
Denamur Sophie - - 2011
Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections, may cause acute renal failure. At therapeutic concentrations, gentamicin accumulates in lysosomes and induces apoptosis in kidney proximal tubular cells. In gentamicin-treated renal LLC-PK1 cells, acridine orange release from lysosomes, previously interpreted as lysosomal membrane permeabilization, precedes the apoptotic cascade ...
Varghese George M - - 2011
Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin manifestation of systemic sepsis commonly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with neutropenia or underlying immune deficiency. Although the usual outcome is poor, early recognition and appropriate systemic antibiotic treatment can lead to successful outcome. We report a case of a previously healthy lady with ...
Shakir L - - 2011
Metronidazole (MTZ) is a nitroimidazole antibiotic used mainly for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Distinct from its antibiotic, amoebicidal, and antiprotozoal effects, MTZ displays immunopharmacological behaviour. This review outlines multiple effects of MTZ on different aspects of immunity, including innate and acquired ...
Besirli Cagri G CG Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, W. K. Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105-0714, - - 2011
To examine the activation of autophagy and its relationship to Fas-mediated photoreceptor apoptosis during experimental retinal detachment. Retina-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) separation was created in Brown-Norway rats by subretinal injection of 1% hyaluronic acid and the intraretinal levels of the autophagy proteins LC3 and Atg5, the time course of LC3-I ...
Subbian Selvakumar - - 2011
Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even after successful microbiological cure of TB, many patients are left with residual pulmonary damage that can lead to chronic respiratory impairment and greater risk of additional TB episodes due to reinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Elevated levels of the proinflammatory ...
Zhang Jing-Jing - - 2011
The proof-of-principle of the integration of electrically heated carbon paste electrode with immunoassay as a potential alternative for ultrasensitive detection of cytokines was demonstrated.
Park Seung-Kyu - - 2011
The immune responses of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients undergoing lung resection surgery were investigated in order to understand the mechanism of strong immune suppression in MDR-TB. We examined changes in cell-mediated immune response (CMI) of a total of sixteen MDR-TB patients, three of them extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients, after ...
Hu Yong-Hua - - 2011
CXCL8, or interleukin-8, is a CXC chemokine that promotes neutrophil migration in response to inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we identified and analyzed a CXCL8 orthologue, SmCXCL8, from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The deduced amino acid sequence of SmCXCL8 is 99-residue in length and shares 52-83% overall identities with the lineage ...
Peltier Morgan R - - 2011
Citation Peltier MR, Gurzenda EM, Murthy A, Chawala K, Lerner V, Kharode I, Arita Y, Rhodes A, Maari N, Moawad A, Hanna N. Can oxygen tension contribute to an abnormal placental cytokine milieu? Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; Objective  The aim of this study was to determine whether culturing human ...
Zhu Chunlei - - 2011
A new positively charged fluorescent probe poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative (PPV-1) has been developed for the detection of an important biological process, apoptosis, in a simple and fluorescent label-free way.
Yu Chung-Chieh - - 2011
Macrophage activation assisted by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a primary mechanism by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis is killed, but IFN-γ (production is inhibited in tuberculosis (TB) patients. The production of IFN-γ is influenced by many factors, such as interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, IL-18, and clinical diseases; but the relative importance of each factor ...
Balboa Luciana - - 2011
The role of CD16(-) and CD16(+) Mo subsets in human TB remains unknown. Our aim was to characterize Mo subsets from TB patients and to assess whether the inflammatory milieu from TB pleurisy modulate their phenotype and recruitment. We found an expansion of peripheral CD16(+) Mo that correlated with disease ...
Tang Lu - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) play a crucial role in protecting against oral bacteria in periapical tissue. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) are two major forms of innate immune sensors that recognize microbial pathogens and initiate pro-inflammatory signalling. Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is ...
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