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Shoemark Deborah K DK School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, - - 2014
This review, gathered from diverse sources, shows how our microbiome influences health and ultimately how well we age. Evidence linking oral bacteria to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is discussed in the context of aging, drawing together data from epidemiological, experimental, genetic, and environmental studies. Immunosenescence results in increased bacterial load as ...
Boyman Onur O Department of Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, Gloriastrasse 30, CH-8091 Zurich, - - 2014
Biologic agents have substantially advanced the treatment of immunological disorders, including chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, these drugs are often associated with adverse events (AEs), including allergic, immunological and other unwanted reactions. AEs can affect almost any organ or system in the body and can occur immediately, within minutes ...
Chasen Martin M aDivision of Palliative Care, Élisabeth-Bruyère Hospital bDepartment of Medicine, University of Ottawa cBruyère Research Institute dDepartment of Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, - - 2014
In patients with advanced cancer, AIDS and end-stage organ diseases, symptoms of cachexia syndrome include decrease in appetite, weight loss, decreased performance status, and an increase in the systemic inflammatory response. Inflammatory cytokines and other immune interactions affect the lean tissue mass and body fat. It is hopeful that modulation ...
Rigby Mark R MR aIndiana University School of Medicine and Riley Hospital for Children at IU Health, Indianapolis, Indiana bImmune Tolerance Network, San Francisco, California, - - 2014
Although insulin is lifesaving and sustaining for those with type 1 diabetes (T1D), curing the disease will be much more complex than simple replacement of this hormone. T1D is an autoimmune disease orchestrated by T cells, and includes many arms of the immune response. Tremendous effort has gone into understanding ...
Winters Ryan R Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, - - 2014
Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis encompasses a spectrum of sterile bony inflammatory lesions that are incompletely understood and not well known in the otolaryngology community. Current research is investigating the underlying immunologic mechanisms postulated to be responsible for chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis. Disruption in the innate balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is ...
Graber Jerome J JJ 1 Department of Neurology, Montefiore-Einstein Medical Center , Bronx, New - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by episodes of inflammatory damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system mediated by T, B, and Natural killer lymphocytes of various types, antibody and complement, dendritic cells, macrophages, microglia, and secreted cytokines and chemokines. These relapses cause significant neurologic dysfunction, which is ...
Fyhrquist Nanna N aUnit of Systems Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health bDepartment of Dermatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, - - 2014
Contact allergies are complex diseases and an important challenge for public health. The purpose of this review is to discuss new developments in the field, including epidemiology and molecular mechanisms of contact allergy. Understanding how contact allergens promote allergic reactions is important for preventing the disease. According to the latest ...
Seneschal Julien J Department of Dermatology and Pediatric Dermatology, National Centre for Rare Skin disorders, Hôpital Saint-André, Bordeaux, France; INSERM U1035, Bordeaux Segalen University, - - 2014
While the goal of available treatment in vitiligo is to regain pigmentation, some patients affected by extensive and treatment-resistant vitiligo, with a major social and emotional impact, may benefit from depigmentation therapy. However results from such therapy may not always be satisfactory. So to achieve better, faster and complete bleaching, ...
Gooch Jennifer L JL Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Suwanee, Georgia, - - 2014
Research over the past decade has significantly deepened our understanding of mechanisms that drive the development of hypertension. In particular, a novel paradigm of inflammation as a common mediator of cardiovascular and kidney disease has emerged. This review will summarize the role of the immune system in cardiovascular disease, explore ...
Lionakis Michail S MS Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA - - 2014
Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic ...
Barouch Dan H DH Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2014
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is able to suppress HIV-1 replication indefinitely in individuals who have access to these medications, are able to tolerate these drugs, and are motivated to take them daily for life. However, ART is not curative. HIV-1 persists indefinitely during ART as quiescent integrated DNA within memory CD4(+) ...
Schwartz Noa N aDepartment of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center bPediatric Nephrology, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine cDivision of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine dDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA *Noa Schwartz and Beatrice Goilav contributed equally to the writing of this - - 2014
Renal involvement is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus. In this review, we provide an update on recent discoveries in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of lupus nephritis. Localized long-lived plasma cells have been identified as playing an important role in lupus nephritis. In addition, ...
Raedler Diana D University Children's Hospital Munich, Department of Allergy and Pulmonary, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany; German Centre for Lung Research, Comprehensive Pneumology Centre, Munich, - - 2014
Early life influences are crucial for the development of distinct childhood asthma phenotypes, which are currently included under the term asthma syndrome. Improved characterisation of different childhood asthma phenotypes will help to elucidate specific underlying immune mechanisms-namely, endotypes. Besides genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors have an effect on innate and ...
Maji Amal K AK a Department of Botany and Forestry , Vidyasagar University , Midnapore 721102 , - - 2014
Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC is a perennial herb commonly known as 'vidarikanda', distributed throughout south east Asia. The plant's tuber is widely used in ethanomedicine as well as in traditional systems of medicine, particularly in ayurveda. It has been used in various ayurvedic formulations as restorative tonic, antiaging, spermatogenic and ...
Satheeshkumar P S PS Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Velindre Hospital, Cardiff University, Wales, CF 14 2TL, UK, - - 2014
The alimentary tract mucosal inflammation has been a topic of concern in oncology; though many modalities of treatment have been proposed for mucosal inflammation, the contributing adverse effects have severely affected the quality of life of patients. This review focuses on the importance of neurogenic peptide, Substance P and its ...
Brod Samuel S William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, - - 2014
While the concept of a palpable relationship between our mental and physical wellbeing is certainly not new, it is only in the light of modern scientific research that we have begun to realize how deeply connected our emotional and immune states may be. We begin this review with a series ...
Hato Tai T Edwin L. Steele Laboratory, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, - - 2014
Immune checkpoint blockade has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for various malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown the potential benefit of modulating immunogenicity of HCC. In addition, recent advances in tumor immunology have broadened our understanding of the complex mechanism of immune evasion. ...
Catanzaro R R Section of Gastroenterology Department of Medical and Pediatric Sciences Institute of Internal Medicine "A. Francaviglia" University of Catania, "G. Rodolico" Hospital, Catania, Italy - - - 2014
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a high prevalence disease, whose symptoms are reported by a large number of young adults with significant effects on quality of life and social costs. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with dietary and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological and pharmacological therapy. Since its complex and ...
Kannan Rajni R Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University Medical Center in New York - - 2014
Advances in the understanding of the immunogenicity of tumors have provided the basis for immuno-oncology, the development of immunotherapeutic agents that augment the patient's antitumor immunity and disrupt the immune-regulatory circuits that allow tumors to evade the immune system. Two immunomodulatory agents recently have been introduced for the treatment of ...
Buchbinder Elizabeth I EI Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cytokines are a diverse group of signaling molecules with immunomodulatory activity. This article reviews the application of cytokine therapy in melanoma with a focus on interferon-α and interleukin-2. In addition, it addresses the clinical considerations of these therapies including patient selection, reduction in toxicity, and combination regimens.
Kircik Leon H - - 2014
Two primary factors are changing current approaches to the management of acne vulgaris (AV): the continuously evolving role of <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em> in the pathophysiology of AV and recent evidence of an inflammatory basis for AV via innate immunity. The developing concepts emphasize that acne is primarily an inflammatory disease. The ...
Miller David M - - 2014
Key molecular and immunological insights over the past decade have radically changed the face of therapy in melanoma. Whereas 5 years ago, treatment for advanced melanoma was restricted to the alkylating agent dacarbazine and the immunostimulants interleukin-2 and interferon-α-2b, today the therapeutic menu includes precise therapies that target key determinants ...
Di Rosa R R Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, S. Andrea University Hospital, Via di Grottarossa 1035-1039, 00189 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sepsis syndrome is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response to infection potentially leading to acute organ failure and rapid decline to death. Polyclonal intravenous immune globulin, a blood product derived from human donor blood, in addition to antiinfective activities, also exerts a broad antiinflammatory and immunomodulating effect. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) ...
Taneja Veena V Department of Immunology and Division of Rheumatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology though both genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to be involved in its pathogenesis. While infections and other environmental factors (eg. smoking) have been studied extensively and show some association, a direct link between all the factors has been ...
Vuilleumier Nicolas N Nicolas Vuilleumier, Fabrizio Montecucco, Department of Genetics and Laboratory Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, 1211 Geneva, - - 2014
Immune-driven inflammation plays an important part in atherogenesis and is therefore believed to be key to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is currently the leading cause of death in the Western world. By fulfilling some of the Koch postulates, atherogenesis has even been proposed to be considered as ...
Martin Jérôme C JC CHU Nantes, Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Nantes F-44000; INSERM UMR1064, ITUN, Nantes, France; Nantes University Medical School, Nantes, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Despite the success of targeted therapies in managing Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) such as RA, IBDs, MS and psoriasis, unmet needs for such approach in SLE are widely recognized. In the past 2years, exciting insights supporting previous evidences1-3 on the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in SLE have emerged4-11. This ...
Ascierto Paolo A - - 2014
Until recently, most immunotherapeutic approaches used to fight cancer were ineffective, counteracted by the tumour's ability to evade immune attack. However, extensive research has improved our understanding of tumour immunology and enabled the development of novel treatments that can harness the patient's immune system and prevent immune escape. Over the ...
Bedaiwi Mohamed K MK Division of Rheumatology, UHN - Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
The gut microbiome plays an integral role in the development and maintenance of the host immune system. Expanding knowledge about this microbial microenvironment has raised the possibility of new treatments based on this knowledge. In this review, we describe the recent evidence of the impact of the gut microbiome on ...
Juergens U R UR Department of Pneumology, Allergology, Sleep Medicine Medical Clinic II, Bonn University Hospital Bonn, - - 2014
1,8-cineole is a natural monoterpene, also known as eucalyptol. It is a major compound of many plant essential oils, mainly extracted from Eucalyptus globulus oil. As an isolated compound, 1,8-cineole is known for its mucolytic and spasmolytic action on the respiratory tract, with proven clinical efficacy. 1,8-cineole has also shown ...
Arsenault Ryan J - - 2014
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts to control JD through traditional animal ...
Petersen Charisse C Department of Pathology, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT - - 2014
Mammalian immune system development depends on instruction from resident commensal micro-organisms. Diseases associated with abnormal immune responses toward environmental and self antigens have been rapidly increasing over the last fifty years. These diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), type I diabetes (T1D), allergies and asthma. The observation ...
Edwards N Lawrence NL Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 South West Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610-0277, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Over the past decade much has been learned about the mechanisms of crystal-induced inflammation and renal excretion of uric acid, which has led to more specific targeting of gout therapies and a more potent approach to future management of gout. This article outlines agents being developed for more aggressive lowering ...
Vrachnis Nikolaos N 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
Immune senescence denotes the general decline in immune system function, characterized by a reduced immune response and an increased inflammatory state. Menopause is a natural change in a women's life, the menopause-related low estrogen levels affecting many body functions, among them the immune system. Numerous human studies with menopausal women ...
Ahmadpoor Pedram P Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. - - 2014
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a group of diseases that seem to become separate entities by etiology in the near future. Its pathogenesis remains elusive; however, multifactorial interactions among genetic and environmental factors may be involved. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the perfect prototype of autoimmune disorder with multiple derangements, starting from ...
Brennan Frank R FR Preclinical Safety, New Medicines, UCB-Celltech, Slough, SL1 3WE, - - 2014
Preclinical Development Toxicology, Formulation Drug Delivery, Pharmacokinetics Clinical Development Phases I-III Regulatory, Quality, Manufacturing An increasing number of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and IgG Fc fusion proteins are either approved or in early-to-late stage clinical trials for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. The ...
Semerano Luca L Inserm UMR 1125 , 74, rue Marcel Cachin 93017 Bobigny , - - 2014
Introduction: IL-6 is a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The clinical efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-IL6-receptor mAb, confirmed the value of IL-6 blockade in this disease. A number of new anti-IL-6 biologics are currently in Phase I - III of clinical development for RA. ...
Fajt Merritt L ML Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Asthma Institute at UPMC/University of Pittsburgh School of - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Asthma is a common chronic disease with various phenotypes and therapeutic responses. Unlike other diseases, current anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids does not include any reference to biological measures which may vary among different asthma phenotypes. Morbidity from uncontrolled asthma suggests a need for specific targeted treatment approaches such ...
Pimplikar Sanjay W SW Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA, - - 2014
The top-down, reductionist approach of the past three decades has resulted in remarkable progress in identifying genes and proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and tau protein. Recently, a number of genes of the innate immune pathway have been identified as AD risk factors and several ...
Kramer Laura L Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, via del Taglio 10, 43126 Parma, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dirofilaria immitis, the cause of canine and feline heartworm disease, was the first filarial nematode described to harbour the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. This ground-breaking discovery has led to intense research aimed at unravelling the nature of the endosymbiotic relationship; genomic studies have revealed how the bacteria may interact with the ...
Venkatasubramanian Ganesan G The Schizophrenia Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. ; Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, Neurobiology Research Centre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, - - 2014
Within the wide-ranging gamut of factors that comprise gene-environment interactions postulated to underlie schizophrenia, the crosstalk between environmental factors and feto-maternal immune components has been put forth as one of the important mechanisms that increase the risk towards schizophrenia in the offspring. Interestingly, immune factors have been shown to critically ...
Haass Nikolas K NK The University of Queensland, The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Qld, Australia; The Centenary Institute, Newtown, NSW, Australia; Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, - - 2014
Drug resistance in melanoma is commonly attributed to ineffective apoptotic pathways. Targeting apoptosis regulators is thus considered a promising approach to sensitizing melanoma to therapy. In this issue of Experimental Dermatology, Plötz & Eberle discuss the role that apoptosis plays in melanoma progression and drug resistance and the utility of ...
Castiblanco Claudia C Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution (MERSI), Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation (OIUF), 5 Cambridge Center, 8th Floor, Cambridge, MA, 02142, - - 2014
The purpose of this review is to comprehensively examine the various therapeutic agents available to treat autoimmune eye disease, their indications, clinical safety and recent developments. The stepladder approach is reviewed, including corticosteroid administration of various forms, classic immunomodulators, and newer biologic response modifiers. The authors present that corticosteroid monotherapy ...
Sipeki Nora N Nora Sipeki, Maria Papp, Institute of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, - - 2014
Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), ...
Chotirmall Sanjay H SH Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9, - - 2014
Improvement to the life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF) brings about novel challenges including the need for evaluation of the role of fungi in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. To determine if such organisms represent bystanders or pathogens affecting clinical outcomes we review the existing knowledge from a ...
Daulatzai Mak Adam MA Sleep Disorders Group, EEE Department, Melbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, 3rd Floor, Room No. 344, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia, - - 2014
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder world wide that lasts for decades. The human gut harbors a diverse population of microbial organisms which is symbiotic and important for well being. However, studies on conventional, germ-free, and obese animals have shown that alteration in normal ...
Brayer Jason J *Medical Oncology & Hematology Fellowship Training Program, University of South Florida †Department of Genitourinary Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, - - 2014
Aldesleukin [interleukin-2 (IL-2)] induces durable complete responses in some kidney cancer and melanoma patients. Nivolumab is an investigational antibody drug targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) as a treatment, demonstrating activity in multiple cancer types. An expanding complement of immunotherapeutics raises important issues regarding the best way to use them. There are ...
Heylen Marthe M Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, - - 2014
The incidence of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders is highest in well-developed countries which is directly related to their higher hygienic standards: it is suggested that the lack of exposure to helminths contributes to the susceptibility for immune-related diseases. Epidemiological, experimental and clinical data support the idea that helminths provide protection ...
Hassett Daniel J DJ Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 45267, USA, - - 2014
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease manifested by significantly impaired airflow, afflicts ∼14.2 million cases in the United States alone with an estimated 63 million people world-wide. Although there are a number of causes, the predominant cause is excessive tobacco smoke. In fact, in China, there have been estimates ...
Zecca Marco M Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Cell Factory, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The care of immunosuppressed patients has constantly improved over the years, and pharmacologic developments contributed significantly to this success. However, despite these advances, current anti-infectious agents are limited in their efficacy by either weak specificity or side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function. Control of infection will ultimately depend ...
Chyu Kuang-Yuh KY Oppenheimer Atherosclerosis Research Center, Division of Cardiology, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
In addition to hypercholesterolemia, innate and adaptive immune mechanisms play a critical role in atherogenesis, thus making immune-modulation therapy a potentially attractive way of managing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These immune-modulation strategies include both active and passive immunization and confer beneficial reduction in atherosclerosis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated promising results and ...
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