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Edwards N Lawrence NL Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 South West Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610-0277, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Over the past decade much has been learned about the mechanisms of crystal-induced inflammation and renal excretion of uric acid, which has led to more specific targeting of gout therapies and a more potent approach to future management of gout. This article outlines agents being developed for more aggressive lowering ...
Fajt Merritt L ML Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Asthma Institute at UPMC/University of Pittsburgh School of - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Asthma is a common chronic disease with various phenotypes and therapeutic responses. Unlike other diseases, current anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids does not include any reference to biological measures which may vary among different asthma phenotypes. Morbidity from uncontrolled asthma suggests a need for specific targeted treatment approaches such ...
Pimplikar Sanjay W SW Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA, - - 2014
The top-down, reductionist approach of the past three decades has resulted in remarkable progress in identifying genes and proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and tau protein. Recently, a number of genes of the innate immune pathway have been identified as AD risk factors and several ...
Haass Nikolas K NK The University of Queensland, The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Qld, Australia; The Centenary Institute, Newtown, NSW, Australia; Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, - - 2014
Drug resistance in melanoma is commonly attributed to ineffective apoptotic pathways. Targeting apoptosis regulators is thus considered a promising approach to sensitizing melanoma to therapy. In this issue of Experimental Dermatology, Plötz & Eberle discuss the role that apoptosis plays in melanoma progression and drug resistance and the utility of ...
Sipeki Nora N Nora Sipeki, Maria Papp, Institute of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, - - 2014
Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), ...
Chotirmall Sanjay H SH Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9, - - 2014
Improvement to the life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF) brings about novel challenges including the need for evaluation of the role of fungi in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. To determine if such organisms represent bystanders or pathogens affecting clinical outcomes we review the existing knowledge from a ...
Daulatzai Mak Adam MA Sleep Disorders Group, EEE Department, Melbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, 3rd Floor, Room No. 344, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia, - - 2014
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder world wide that lasts for decades. The human gut harbors a diverse population of microbial organisms which is symbiotic and important for well being. However, studies on conventional, germ-free, and obese animals have shown that alteration in normal ...
Brayer Jason J *Medical Oncology & Hematology Fellowship Training Program, University of South Florida †Department of Genitourinary Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, - - 2014
Aldesleukin [interleukin-2 (IL-2)] induces durable complete responses in some kidney cancer and melanoma patients. Nivolumab is an investigational antibody drug targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) as a treatment, demonstrating activity in multiple cancer types. An expanding complement of immunotherapeutics raises important issues regarding the best way to use them. There are ...
Heylen Marthe M Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, - - 2014
The incidence of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders is highest in well-developed countries which is directly related to their higher hygienic standards: it is suggested that the lack of exposure to helminths contributes to the susceptibility for immune-related diseases. Epidemiological, experimental and clinical data support the idea that helminths provide protection ...
Hassett Daniel J DJ Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 45267, USA, - - 2014
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease manifested by significantly impaired airflow, afflicts ∼14.2 million cases in the United States alone with an estimated 63 million people world-wide. Although there are a number of causes, the predominant cause is excessive tobacco smoke. In fact, in China, there have been estimates ...
Zecca Marco M Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Cell Factory, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The care of immunosuppressed patients has constantly improved over the years, and pharmacologic developments contributed significantly to this success. However, despite these advances, current anti-infectious agents are limited in their efficacy by either weak specificity or side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function. Control of infection will ultimately depend ...
Champiat Stéphane S *SITEP (Service d'Innovations Therapeutiques Precoces), Department of Medicine, Gustave Roussy, †Institut Gustave Roussy, University Paris Sud, Villejuif, France; ‡Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia; §Thoracic Multidisciplinary Committee, Gustave Roussy, University Paris Sud, Villejuif, France; and ‖Department of Medical Oncology, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, - - 2014
Despite current therapeutic options metastatic non- small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains incurable. Targeted therapies have opened new opportunities for several molecular subtypes, but virtually all patients treated will ultimately develop progressive disease by treatment resistance. Recent clinical trials have shown that immune-checkpoint blockade can result in striking and durable responses ...
Nobile-Orazio Eduardo E Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine (BIOMETRA), University of Milan, 2nd Neurology, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, - - 2014
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic and often disabling sensory motor neuropathy postulated as caused by an immune attack against peripheral nerve myelin. In addition to a classic sensory-motor polyneuropathy, other phenotypes of CIDP have been described including the Lewis-Sumner syndrome, distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy, pure ...
Gangadhar Tara C TC Abramson Cancer Centre, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2014
Advances in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the immune system have led to the development of novel approaches for cancer therapy, including inhibition of immune checkpoints with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies. An increasing number of immunomodulatory treatments are under investigation, and are beginning to show promise in clinical ...
Kallenberg Cees G M CG Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, AA21, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) is a small vessel vasculitis. The disease is defined by the 2012 revised Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides [1] as necrotizing vasculitis, with few or no immune deposits, predominantly affecting small vessels (i.e. capillaries, venules, or arterioles). Necrotizing arteritis involving small and medium arteries may ...
Eldar Adi Hersalis AH Department of Neurology, Sheba medical center, Tel Hashomer, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, - - 2014
Immune mediated neuropathies are uncommon but important to diagnose because they are potentially treatable. This chapter summarizes the clinical approach to diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and related neuropathies which are thought to be caused by direct autoimmune attack on peripheral nerves.
Silva C A CA Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Department of Pediatric, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Rheumatology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Autoimmune orchitis is characterized by testis inflammation and the presence of specific antisperm antibodies (ASA). It is classified in two categories. Primary autoimmune orchitis is defined by infertility and asymptomatic orchitis associated with ASA (100%) directed to the basement membrane or seminiferous tubules in infertile men, without any systemic disease ...
Kosovrasti Verbena Y VY Northeastern University, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 140 The Fenway Building, R170, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 , - - 2014
Introduction: Sepsis is an extremely fast-paced disease, initiated by an infection that can progress to multiple organ dysfunction and death. The complexity associated with sepsis makes the therapies difficult to develop. Moreover, the 'one-fits-all' kind of therapy is far from being realistic. Areas covered: This review provides a conspectus of ...
Harper Richart W RW Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA, - - 2014
It is now recognized that asthma incorporates a broad spectrum of syndromes with varying clinical manifestations. Future improvements in asthma treatment will require a clear characterization of these asthma phenotypes and the cellular mechanisms underlying these clinical manifestations. Herein, we will describe the current knowledge of asthma biology. This will ...
Rovin Brad H BH Division of Nephrology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH. Electronic address: - - 2014
Immune complex accumulation in the kidney is the hallmark of lupus nephritis and triggers a series of events that result in kidney inflammation and injury. Cytotoxic agents and corticosteroids are standard of care for lupus nephritis treatment, but are associated with considerable morbidity and suboptimal outcomes. Recently, there has been ...
Pedersen Jannie J Jannie Pedersen, Mehmet Coskun, Christoffer Soendergaard, Mohammad Salem, Ole Haagen Nielsen, Department of Gastroenterology, Medical Section, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, DK-2730 Herlev, - - 2014
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as well as increased recruitment of leukocytes to ...
Luxon Bruce A - - 2014
Asthma and airway inflammation are responses to infectious stimuli and the mechanisms of how they are mediated, whether by the innate or adaptive immune response systems, are complex and results in a broad spectrum of possible metabolic products. In principle, a syndrome such as asthma should have a characteristic temporal-spatial ...
Apter Andrea J AJ Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, & Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Electronic address: - - 2014
In 2013, several themes emerged: (1) a dedicated search for new therapies using new mechanisms; (2) the importance of the plasticity of the immune system (eg, that molecules that mediate inflammation in one setting can promote its resolution and return to homeostasis in other circumstances); (3) the complex role of ...
Li Min M Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, - - 2014
The human gastrointestinal tract inhabits a complex microbial ecosystem that plays a vital role in host health through its contributions to nutrient synthesis and digestion, protection from pathogens, and promoting maturation of host innate and adapt immune systems. The development of gut microbiota primarily occurs during infancy and is influenced ...
Ronco Claudio C Department of Nephrology, Ospedale San Bortolo, Vicenza, - - 2014
One of the key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin, which is a component of the cellular wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Clinical studies have shown that the level of circulating LPS is correlated with illness severity (APACHE II), the onset ...
Duggleby Richard Charles RC Anthony Nolan Research Institute, Royal Free Hospital, London, - - 2014
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) remains one of the few curative treatments for high-risk hematological malignancies (high-risk leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, advanced myeloproliferative disorders, high-risk lymphomas, and multiple myeloma) and is currently applied in more than 15,000 patients per year in Europe. Following HSCT, patients experience a period of reconstitution ...
Ramos Frederick L FL Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2014
Airway mucus is part of the lung's native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet ...
Müller Norbert N Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, - - 2014
Increased proinflammatory markers like cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Animal models have shown that a hit in early life to the immune system might trigger a lifelong increased immune reactivity. Many epidemiological and clinical studies show the role of various ...
Vojdani Aristo A 0000-0003-2925-9334 Immunosciences Lab., Inc., 822 S. Robertson Boulevard, Suite 312, Los Angeles, CA 90035, - - 2014
Autoimmune diseases have registered an alarming rise worldwide in recent years. Accumulated evidence indicates that the immune system's ability to distinguish self from nonself is negatively impacted by genetic factors and environmental triggers. Genetics is certainly a factor, but since it normally takes a very long time for the human ...
Gelao Lucia L Division of Early Drug Development for Innovative Therapies, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Via Ripamonti 435, Milano 20141, Italy. - - 2014
Targeted immune checkpoint blockade augments anti-tumor immunity and induces durable responses in patients with melanoma and other solid tumors. It also induces specific "immune-related adverse events" (irAEs). IrAEs mainly include gastrointestinal, dermatological, hepatic and endocrinological toxicities. Off-target effects that arise appear to account for much of the toxicity of the ...
Raju Sudesh S SS Department of Chemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 231 S. 34th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6323, - - 2013
Psoriasis is a chronic immunological disorder that affects the joints and skin. The disease is strongly correlated with genetic predisposition and environmental factors that can act as triggers of the innate and adaptive immune response. Once this immune response has begun many different signaling factors lead to inflammation and plaques ...
Maijó Mònica M Gut Health & Food Safety Research Programme, Institute of Food Research, Norwich, - - 2013
Ageing is characterized by immunosenescence and the progressive decline in immunity in association with an increased frequency of infections and chronic disease. This complex process affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems with a progressive decline in most immune cell populations and defects in activation resulting in loss of ...
Urbańska Justyna J Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Kraków, Ingardena 3, - - 2013
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are broadly used in the treatment of inflammation and in suppressing hyperactivity of the immune system expressed in allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases and sepsis. They are pleiotropic in nature, showing a wide range of diverse effects, including those which are harmful for the organism. Dexamethasone (DEX) is one ...
Rousseau Benoît B Gustave-Roussy, université Paris-Sud, DITEP, département des innovations thérapeutiques et des essais précoces, 114, rue Édouard-Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif, - - 2013
New immunotherapies, also called "immune checkpoints", are promising and showed interesting antitumoral activities in particular in advanced setting of melanoma, clear cell renal cancer or non-small cell lung carcinoma. These treatments include ipilimumab, anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1. There is a strong rational for combination of immunotherapies and targeted therapies. This review ...
Marini Maria Giulia - - 2013
Atherothrombosis is a worldwide epidemic accounting for an unacceptable toll of deaths and disabilities. Its pathophysiology is complex and hardly referable to a specific mechanism; however, in the last 20 years, a growing amount of evidence has demonstrated that inflammatory processes play a major role from the very beginning to the ...
Arron Joseph R JR 1 Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, - - 2013
Although human asthma is commonly regarded as an allergic disorder characterized by type 2 cytokine expression and eosinophilic inflammation in the airways, it is clearly heterogeneous with respect to airway inflammation. Genomic approaches have identified heterogeneous gene expression patterns in asthmatic airways corresponding to the degree of type 2 cytokine ...
Smyth Annya M AM Department of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United - - 2013
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a polygenic, multi-factorial disorder and a definitive understanding of its pathophysiology has been lacking since it was first described more than a century ago. The predominant pharmacological approach used to treat SCZ is the use of dopamine receptor antagonists. The fact that many patients remain symptomatic, despite ...
Gomes Quinderé A L - - 2013
Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process underlying cardiovascular diseases. Current therapies are largely focused on alleviating hyperlipidaemia and preventing thrombotic complications, but do not completely eliminate risk of suffering recurrent acute ischaemic events. Specifically targeting the inflammatory processes may help to reduce this residual risk of major adverse cardiovascular ...
Rozas M - - 2013
The bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis is the aetiological agent of piscirickettsiosis a severe disease that has caused major economic losses in the aquaculture industry since its appearance in 1989. Recent reports of P. salmonis or P. salmonis-like organisms in new fish hosts and geographical regions have increased interest in the bacterium. Because this ...
Parulekar Amit D - - 2013
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with multiple, overlapping phenotypes. Biomarkers are currently being investigated to better characterize the disease phenotypes and to identify the responders to specific targeted therapies. This review focuses on the emerging data surrounding the use of one such biomarker for T helper 2 (TH2)-driven asthma: periostin. ...
Jena Gopabandhu - - 2013
: Ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory bowel disease, affects many people across the globe, and its prevalence is increasing steadily. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the perpetuation of inflammatory process and the subsequent DNA damage associated with the development of UC. UC induces not only local ...
Pull Christopher D - - 2013
Pathogens exert a strong selection pressure on organisms to evolve effective immune defences. In addition to individual immunity, social organisms can act cooperatively to produce collective defences. In many ant species, queens have the option to found a colony alone or in groups with other, often unrelated, conspecifics. These associations ...
von Gunten S - - 2013
Deeper insight into pathogenetic pathways and into the biological effects of immunomodulatory agents will help to optimize or adopt therapeutic strategies for atopic disorders. In this article, we highlight selected findings of potential therapeutic relevance that emerged from recent mechanistic studies with focus on molecular and cellular aspects of allergic ...
Talbot Thomas R - - 2013
Healthcare personnel (HCP) play a pivotal role in the transmission of contagious pathogens in the healthcare setting, and HCP are themselves at risk for infection with such pathogens due to the nature of their occupation. Many practices are important in order to reduce infection transmission, including HCP immunization. Unfortunately, HCP ...
Misbah Siraj A SA Department of Clinical Immunology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United - - 2013
The increasing therapeutic use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for an expanding range of indications, from immunodeficiency to autoimmune disease coupled with the availability of multiple products has prompted debate on whether IVIG products should be considered to be generic. Although the manufacturing process and associated excipients for individual products varies, ...
Rydén Anna Ke - - 2013
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells. Current T1D therapies are exclusively focused on regulating glycemia rather than the underlying immune response. A handful of trials have sought to alter the clinical course of T1D using various broad immune-suppressors, e.g., cyclosporine A and azathioprine. (1)(-) ...
Ibrahim Ashraf S - - 2013
Mucormycosis is an increasingly common fungal infection with unacceptably high mortality. The recent sequencing genome projects of Mucorales and the development of gene manipulation have enabled significant advances in understanding the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Therefore, we review the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and highlight potential development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic ...
Thanou Aikaterini - - 2013
Despite rapid accumulation of knowledge about complex immune dysregulation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and major primary lupus syndromes, and a plethora of promising new treatments reaching preclinical and early clinical studies, advanced-phase trials of new biologic agents have repeatedly failed to achieve their clinical end points. It is possible ...
Izak Marina - - 2013
Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune-mediated disorder and the treatment strategies were directed mainly to suppression of the immune system or to removal of the spleen as a place of thrombocyte destruction. In last years, it was shown that other mechanisms are responsible for development of immune thrombocytopenia: reduced thrombocyte lifespan ...
Drago L - - 2013
In the last decades the prevalence of allergic diseases and eczema raised significantly, and today they are the most common chronic pathologies affecting children. It has been shown that a functional intestinal mucosa provides a defensive barrier to the host against potential dangerous antigens, regulating the tolerance to them. Some ...
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