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Gao Bo B United States ; - - 2014
Apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) is an essential pathogenic factor of osteoporosis. Ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2), a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol glycoside extracted from ginseng, is a potent treatment for bone loss which raises interest regarding the bone metabolism area. In the present study, we found that dose-response Rb2 inhibited high dosage ...
Qiu Shang S Orthopaedic Department of Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Jiangsu, 223000, - - 2014
The type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) is expressed in osteoblasts and plays a role in bone metabolism through regulation on bone mass and bone turnover, but the functional importance of CB2 in osteoblasts under Titanium (Ti) stimulation is incompletely understood. This study aimed to investigate the CB2 expression in osteoblasts under ...
Nandi Ajeya A Department of Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, University of Calcutta, University Colleges of Science and Technology, APC Road, Calcutta, 700009, West Bengal, - - 2014
Among the known Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a key sensor for detecting Staphylococcus aureus invasion. But the function of TLR2 during S. aureus infection in different cell populations is unclear. Two different cell subtypes were chosen to study the interaction of S. aureus with TLR2 because ...
Moriyama Kanako K 1] Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Oral Anatomy, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Graduate School of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan [2] Department of Orthodontics, Graduate School of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, - - 2014
Galectins are a unique family of lectins bearing one or two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) that have the ability to bind molecules with β-galactoside-containing carbohydrates. It has been shown that galectins regulate not only cell growth and differentiation but also immune responses, as well as inflammation. Galectin-9, a tandem repeat ...
Araujo-Pires Ana Claudia AC Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry of Bauru, Sao Paulo University (FOB/USP), Bauru, SP, - - 2014
Inflammatory bone resorption is a hallmark of periodontitis, being Treg and Th2 cells independently associated with disease progression attenuation. In this study, we employed an infection-triggered inflammatory osteolysis model to investigate the mechanisms underlying Treg and Th2 cell migration and impact on disease outcome. A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected C57Bl/6 (WT) mice develop ...
Anaraki Parnian Kalbasi PK Department of Nephrology and Hypertensiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625, - - 2014
Bone remodeling is a dynamic process based on a fine-tuned balance between formation and degradation of bone. While osteoblasts (OBL) are responsible for bone formation, bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts (OCL). The mechanisms regulating OBL-OCL balance are critical in health and disease, however they remain far from being understood. ...
Barker Tyler T The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital, Murray, UT 84107, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of physical disability. At the early stage of knee OA, the increase in synovial fluid cytokine concentrations could contribute to the pathogenesis of OA by degrading articular cartilage. It is unknown, however, if inflammatory cytokines increase systemically at the early or advanced stage ...
Eymard Florent F INSERM UMR-S938, UPMC, UnivParis06F-75252Cedex5, Paris, France; Department of Rheumatology, AP-HP Henri Mondor Hospital, F-94010, Créteil Cedex, - - 2014
Objectives: The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of the knee joint has an inflammatory phenotype in osteoarthritis (OA). Its close location to the synovial membrane suggests that IFP could be involved in the induction of OA synovitis. We investigated the response of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) to autologous IFP and subcutaneous adipose ...
Hedskog Louise - - 2011
Markers for caspase activation and apoptosis have been shown in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and AD-mouse models. In neurons, caspase activation is associated with elevated amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production. Caspases cleave numerous substrates including presenilin-1 (PS1). The cleavage takes place in the large cytosolic loop of PS1-C-terminal fragment ...
Eguchi Ryoji - - 2011
Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor of serosal surfaces, which is refractory to current treatment options. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is used clinically to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia, and also to inhibit proliferation of several solid tumors including hepatoma, esophageal, and gastric cancer in vitro. Here we found that As2O3 inhibited ...
Ramiro Ricardo S - - 2011
Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting ...
Roulin Alexandre - - 2011
The melanocortin system is implicated in the expression of many phenotypic traits. Activation of the melanocortin MC(1) receptor by melanocortin hormones induces the production of brown/black eumelanic pigments, while activation of the four other melanocortin receptors affects other physiological and behavioural functions including stress response, energy homeostasis, anti-inflammatory and sexual ...
Chauhan Prashant Singh - - 2011
Argyrolobium roseum (Papilionaceae) is a sexually reproducing, rare, annual herb that grows in tropical and sub-temperate tracts of the north-western Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent. The present investigation was carried out to study the immunomodulatory properties of this herb in well established experimental models. For preliminary pharmacological activity evaluation, ...
Li Rong - - 2010
Approaches inducing fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have been considered as a promising strategy for treating RA. Here, adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rat was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant and FLS were separated and cultured using a tissue explant cultivation method. The apoptotic effect of 7,3'-dimethoxy ...
Mace Peter D PD Program in Apoptosis and Cell Death Research, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2010
Multi-cellular animals have evolved a variety of mechanisms to respond to diverse apoptotic stimuli. In general these proceed through activation of apical caspases and culminate in executioner caspase activation and cell death. Because of the breadth of possible initiators, various molecular platforms are used to trigger different apical caspases. Although ...
Olin Michael R MR Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. - - 2010
Caspases are a family of proteins important for the elimination of infected cells through the induction of apoptosis as well as the initiation of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and IL-18. Morphine exposure to animals and/or cells has been associated with the induction of apoptosis. The most common practices of apoptosis ...
Graham Rona K - - 2010
Caspase cleavage of huntingtin (htt) and nuclear htt accumulation represent early neuropathological changes in brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD). However, the relationship between caspase cleavage of htt and caspase activation patterns in the pathogenesis of HD remains poorly understood. The lack of a phenotype in YAC mice expressing ...
Jin Xing-Kun - - 2011
Apoptosis is a central regulatory feature of the immune system, and the most common form of death among immunological cells. However, the function of apoptosis, within the innate immune system of invertebrates, remains largely unknown. For this reason, we investigated the immune functionality of two apoptosis genes, caspase and nm23, ...
Babas Evaggelos - - 2010
When apoptosis is disrupted, the transformed cells can survive, proliferate, and evolve into a malignancy. The strictly conserved caspase genes and the reliable experimental data clearly show that some caspases play a crucial role in apoptosis even if some of them have no apoptotic activity and others exhibit both apoptotic ...
Rohn Troy T - - 2010
Although apoptosis plays a critical role in molding the CNS into its final appearance and function, inappropriate activation of this pathway in the aging brain may contribute to neurodegeneration. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an overwhelming body of evidence supports the activation of apoptosis in general, and caspases specifically as an ...
Scott Gina B - - 2010
Cytotoxic lymphocytes eliminate infected cells and tumours via the perforin-mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic serine proteases known as granzymes. Granzyme B triggers apoptosis via the cleavage of a repertoire of cellular proteins, leading to caspase activation and mitochondrial depolarization. A simple bioinformatics strategy identified a candidate granzyme B cleavage site in ...
Kim Min Jung - - 2010
Triptolide, the main active component of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has been shown to have potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of triptolide in human cervical cancer cells and its underlying mechanisms. Exposure of cervical cancer cells to triptolide induced ...
DeBiasi Roberta L - - 2010
Apoptosis of cardiac myocytes plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many cardiac diseases, including viral myocarditis. The apoptotic signaling pathways that are activated during viral myocarditis and the role that these pathways play in disease pathogenesis have not been clearly delineated. We investigated the role of apoptotic signaling ...
Sampson Erik R - - 2011
Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a rare malignancy that is generally resistant to chemotherapy. We investigated the ability of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat to sensitize STS cells versus normal fibroblasts to chemotherapy. Fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and liposarcoma cells and normal fibroblasts were treated with vorinostat to determine effects on proliferation ...
Lin Feng-Lang - - 2011
The effect of the natural compound damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia on SKHep 1 cell growth regulation was investigated. Treatment of SKHep 1 cells with damnacanthal for 24h indicated a dose-dependent antiproliferative activity. Damnacanthal seems to be selective for tumor cell lines, since there is only minimal toxicity against normal hepatocyte ...
Chekeni Faraaz B - - 2010
Apoptotic cells release 'find-me' signals at the earliest stages of death to recruit phagocytes. The nucleotides ATP and UTP represent one class of find-me signals, but their mechanism of release is not known. Here, we identify the plasma membrane channel pannexin 1 (PANX1) as a mediator of find-me signal/nucleotide release ...
Zhi Bin - - 2011
Epidemic diseases cost large amount of economic loss in the shrimp aquaculture. To control the epidemic diseases, it is a very efficient approach to enhance the shrimp immunity by immunostimulants. In aquaculture, however, the applications of the available immunostimulants are very limited due to the lack of information about the ...
Li Fang F Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2010
The molecular mechanisms involved in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from differentiated cells are poorly understood. Here we report that caspases 3 and 8, two proteases associated with apoptotic cell death, play critical roles in induction of iPSCs from human fibroblasts. Activation of caspases 3 and 8 ...
Fiorito Filomena - - 2010
Our previous studies have demonstrated that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) replication through a dose-dependent increase in cytopathy and increased viral titer. Furthermore, TCDD was able to trigger BHV-1-induced apoptosis by up-regulating the activation of initiator caspases 8 and 9, as well as of effector caspase 3. Since ...
Aresvik Dina M - - 2010
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is frequently used in cancer treatment. Previous studies with 5-FU suggest that proapoptotic protein BAX and tumor suppressor protein TP53 are central factors in this process. As the leukemic T cell line Jurkat E6 has mutations in both these genes, we investigated a possible activation of alternative death ...
Wallach David - - 2010
The two main known functions of the caspases act antagonistically in regulating inflammation. "Inflammatory" caspases trigger inflammation by catalyzing the processing of IL-1β precursors and other proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, "apoptotic" caspases safeguard against the triggering of inflammation by imposing a cell-death form that withholds release of alarmins by dying ...
Mattila Riikka - - 2010
Apoptosis is frequently found in oral lichen planus (OLP) lesions, but the pathways leading to apoptosis are unknown. This study focused on analysis of caspase expression which is essential for apoptosis. Expression of caspases 2, 3, 8, 9, and 12 was studied in 70 biopsy samples from atrophic OLP to ...
Sandu Cristinel C Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Strang Laboratory of Apoptosis and Cancer Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, - - 2010
Apoptosis is a specific form of cell death that is important for normal development and tissue homeostasis. Caspases are critical executioners of apoptosis, and living cells prevent their inappropriate activation through inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In Drosophila, caspase activation depends on the IAP antagonists, Reaper (Rpr), Head involution defective ...
Bae Soochan - - 2010
Although caspase activation is generally thought to be necessary to induce apoptosis, recent evidence suggests that apoptosis can be activated in the setting of caspase inhibition. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that caspase-independent apoptotic pathways contribute to the development of heart failure in the absence of caspase activation. ...
Kisiswa Lilian - - 2010
Apoptosis, is the main type of cell death that occurs in ageing and neurodegenerative disease, such as glaucoma. This study therefore characterises the expression profile of caspases (pro-apoptosis) and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs; anti-apoptosis) during maturation of the Brown Norway rat retina between 6 weeks and >24 weeks and also ...
Leonardi Rosalia - - 2010
In this study, we hypothesized that caspase 3, which plays a central role in the execution phase of cell apoptosis, could be involved in limiting fatty degeneration of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disks and therefore inhibit the TMJ disk tissue from completely degenerating into fatty tissue. Therefore, caspase 3 immunohistochemical ...
Yu Kyung Sook - - 2010
Expression of the protease inhibitor elafin is deregulated in several human cancers. However, functions of the protein in cancer are yet to be established. Here, we show that elafin elicits pro-apoptotic effects in melanoma cells but not in normal melanocytes. Elafin triggered the intrinsic apoptotic pathway as evidenced by the ...
Suo G J - - 2010
A significant portion of pancreatic islet grafts can be destroyed by apoptosis, failing to engraft in the early period after transplantation. Recently, we observed that overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in islet grafts achieved an antiapoptotic effect, prolonging graft survival in a rat transplant model. Caspase 3 ...
MacKenzie Sarah H SH North Carolina State University, Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, 128 Polk Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695, - - 2010
Caspases are a family of proteases that are involved in the execution of apoptosis and the inflammatory response. A plethora of diseases occur as a result of the dysregulation of apoptosis and inflammation, and caspases have been targeted as a therapeutic strategy to halt the progression of such diseases. Hundreds ...
Antoine Daniel James - - 2010
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure and serves as a paradigm to elucidate mechanisms, predisposing factors and therapeutic interventions. The roles of apoptosis and inflammation during APAP hepatotoxicity remain controversial. We investigated whether fasting of mice for 24 h can inhibit APAP-induced caspase activation and ...
Lamkanfi Mohamed M Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. - - 2010
Endotoxin administration recapitulates many of the host responses to sepsis. Inhibitors of the cysteine protease caspase 1 have long been sought as a therapeutic because mice lacking caspase 1 are resistant to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. According to current thinking, caspase 1-mediated shock requires the proinflammatory caspase 1 substrates IL-1β and ...
Gray Daniel C DC Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2010
Apoptosis is a conserved cellular pathway that results in the activation of cysteine-aspartyl proteases, or caspases. To dissect the nonredundant roles of the executioner caspase-3, -6, and -7 in orchestrating apoptosis, we have developed an orthogonal protease to selectively activate each isoform in human cells. Our approach uses a split-tobacco ...
Flynn Patrick G - - 2010
Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) helps mediate survival and apoptosis in response to TNF-alpha (TNF), however, NM II's mechanism of action in these processes is not fully understood. NM II isoforms are involved in a variety of cellular processes and differences in their enzyme kinetics, localization, and activation allow NM ...
Vaux David L - - 2011
When cells kill themselves, they usually do so by activating mechanisms that have evolved specifically for that purpose. These mechanisms, which are broadly conserved throughout the metazoa, involve two processes: activation in the cytosol of latent cysteine proteases (termed caspases), and disruption of mitochondrial functions. These processes are linked in ...
Würstle Maximilian L - - 2010
Apoptosis is driven by positive feedback activation between aspartate-specific cysteinyl proteases (caspases). These feedback loops ensure the swift and efficient elimination of cells upon initiation of apoptosis execution. At the same time, the signaling network must be insensitive to erroneous, mild caspase activation to avoid unwanted, excessive cell death. Sublethal ...
Yang Chih-Sheng - - 2010
Apoptosis ensures tissue homeostasis in response to developmental cues or cellular damage. Recently reported genome-wide RNAi screens have suggested that several metabolic regulators can modulate caspase activation in Drosophila. Here, we establish a previously unrecognized link between metabolism and Drosophila apoptosis by showing that cellular NADPH levels modulate the initiator ...
Jacinto-Alemán L F - - 2010
Excessive fluoride ingestion has been identified as a risk factor for fluorosis and oxidative stress. The oxidative stress results from the loss of equilibrium between oxidative and antioxidative mechanisms that can produce kinase activation, mitochondrial disturbance and DNA fragmentation, resulting in apoptosis. Actually many people are exposed to no-adverted fluoride ...
Kashkar Hamid - - 2010
The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is the only cellular protein that has evolved to potently inhibit the enzymatic activity of mammalian caspases and promotes resistance to apoptosis. Given its role in apoptosis and its frequently elevated expression in malignant cells, XIAP has garnered the most attention as a promising ...
Wu Hao H Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38103-3308, - - 2010
Islet transplantation has the potential to treat type I diabetes, however, its clinical application is limited due to the massive apoptotic cell death and other post-transplantation challenges to islet grafts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether ex vivo transduction of rat insulin producing INS-1E cells and ...
Gyrd-Hansen Mads - - 2010
The realization that alterations in inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are found in many types of human cancer and are associated with chemoresistance, disease progression and poor prognosis, has sparked a worldwide frenzy in the development of small pharmacological inhibitors of IAPs. The development of such inhibitors has radically changed ...
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