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Ren Zhenzhen - - 2014
Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) is one of the main medicinal ingredients of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and possesses a variety of pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to discover the new mechanism of action of Sal B based on the protein interaction network (PIN) analysis. A PIN ...
Zorov D B - - 2012
Programmed execution of various cells and intracellular structures is hypothesized to be not the only example of elimination of biological systems - the general mechanism can also involve programmed execution of organs and organisms. Modern rating of programmed cell death mechanisms includes 13 mechanistic types. As for some types, the ...
Schleich Kolja - - 2012
The CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) is essential for the initiation of CD95-mediated apoptotic and nonapoptotic responses. The CD95 DISC comprises CD95, FADD, procaspase-8, procaspase-10, and c-FLIP proteins. Procaspase-8 and procaspase-10 are activated at the DISC, leading to the formation of active caspases and apoptosis initiation. In this study we ...
Floerchinger Bernhard - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Brain death impairs donor organ quality and accelerates immune responses after transplantation. Detailed aspects of immune activation following brain death remain unclear. We have established a mouse model and investigated the immediate consequences of brain death and anesthesia on immune responses. METHODS: C57JBl/6 mice (n=6/group) were anesthetized with isoflurane ...
Robinson Richard - - 2012
A newly discovered apoptotic-like death is inhibited by the previously described mazEF-mediated death pathway, revealing two programmed cell death systems in Escherichia coli.
Locatelli Giuseppe - - 2012
Anti-myelin immunity is commonly thought to drive multiple sclerosis, yet the initial trigger of this autoreactivity remains elusive. One of the proposed factors for initiating this disease is the primary death of oligodendrocytes. To specifically test such oligodendrocyte death as a trigger for anti-CNS immunity, we inducibly killed oligodendrocytes in ...
El-Hani Charbel N - - 2012
Apoptotic death and apoptotic mimicry are defined respectively as a non-accidental death and as the mimicking of an apoptotic-cell phenotype, usually by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. In the case of the murine infection by Leishmania spp, apoptotic death has been described in promastigotes and apoptotic mimicry in amastigotes. In both situations ...
Pascoli F - - 2011
The temperate aquatic environment is affected by two primary components of season, temperature and photoperiod, during the annual cycle. Many organisms respond to seasonal change physiologically, behaviorally or both. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of seasonality on cortisol, hematological and innate immune parameters in European ...
Ciacci C - - 2011
In aquatic organisms, the immune function can be affected by exposure to environmental pollutants, including heavy metals. In vertebrate systems, different forms of Cr have been shown induce either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive processes. Hexavalent Cr, Cr(VI), is an important contaminant released from both domestic and industrial effluents, and the predominant ...
Matozzo Valerio - - 2011
The effects of Triclosan (TCS) on the immune parameters of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated after a 7-day exposure to sublethal TCS concentrations (300, 600, and 900 ng l(-1)). Hemocytes from controls and exposed clams were collected, and the effects of TCS on total hemocyte count (THC), hemocyte diameter and volume, ...
Herrmann Kristin K - - 2011
SUMMARYEach transmission event in complex, multi-host life cycles create obstacles selecting for adaptations by trematodes. One such adaptation is life cycle abbreviation through progenesis, in which the trematode precociously matures and reproduces within the second intermediate host. Progenesis eliminates the need for the definitive host and increases the chance of ...
Rae Chris S - - 2011
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is naturally resistant to lysozyme. Recently, it was shown that peptidoglycan modification by N-deacetylation or O-acetylation confers resistance to lysozyme in various Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes peptidoglycan is deacetylated by the action of N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (Pgd) and acetylated by ...
Meevissen Moniek H J - - 2011
Schistosome eggs and egg-derived molecules are potent immunomodulatory agents. There is increasing evidence that the interplay between egg glycoproteins and host C-type lectins plays an important role in shaping immune responses during schistosomiasis. As most experiments in this field so far have been performed using complex protein/glycoprotein mixtures or synthetic ...
Das A - - 2011
A decline in production of Puntius sarana worldwide and subsequent intensification of its culture as a measure for conservation and increase food fish production have led to emergence of diseases. Investigations on innate immunological changes in fish that survives an acute bacterial infection are a few or lacking. An attempt ...
Li W L - - 2011
The aim of this study was to show a stimulatory role in ovarian follicle development by prolactin (PRL) in chicken hens. In experiment 1, anti-PRL antibodies were generated in hen plasma by intramuscular administrations of recombinant PRL antigen. Egg laying remained at levels lower (P < 0.05) in the PRL-immunized ...
Helal Racha - - 2011
Lysozyme is one of the most important factors of innate immunity and a unique enzybiotic in that it exerts not only antibacterial activity, but also antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether in vitro exposure to saponins can affect the release ...
Gupta A - - 2012
The overall neurobiological mechanisms by which lithium and valproate stabilize mood in bipolar disorder patients have yet to be fully defined. The therapeutic efficacy and dissimilar chemical structures of these medications suggest that they perturb both shared and disparate cellular processes. To investigate key pathways and functional clusters involved in ...
De Meyer Inge - - 2011
Lithium chloride (LiCl) inhibits inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) at therapeutic concentrations. Given that LiCl induces death in cultured macrophages and that macrophages play an active role in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization, we investigated whether LiCl would induce selective macrophage death to stabilize the structure of the plaque. The effect of LiCl was ...
Tokmakov Alexander A - - 2011
A characteristic feature of frog reproduction is external fertilization accomplished outside the female's body. Mature fertilization-competent frog eggs are arrested at the meiotic metaphase II with high activity of the key meiotic regulators, maturation promoting factor (MPF) and cytostatic factor (CSF), awaiting fertilization. If the eggs are not fertilized within ...
Yuan Weijia - - 2011
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by autoantibody production and immune complex deposition. The level of interleukin-10 (IL-10), predominantly an antiinflammatory cytokine, is paradoxically elevated in patients with SLE. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the antiinflammatory function of IL-10 is ...
Bussmann C - - 2010
Allergen-specific venom immunotherapy (VIT) represents the only rational-based option to treat allergic sensitizations against bee and wasp venom. So far, there is not much knowledge about early induction of protective and tolerogenic pathways during VIT. To identify the earliest markers for protective mechanisms against allergic reactions in the peripheral blood ...
Werry E L - - 2011
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with important endogenous and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects. Given this, it is of interest to investigate factors that modulate IL-10 levels in the central nervous system. IL-10 is released after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of microglia. Microglia also express functional glutamate receptors and in inflammatory conditions are ...
Ueda Yoshiyasu - - 2010
Several subsets of innate immune cells, all with unique properties, reside within the intestinal lamina propria. However, compared with intestinal dendritic cells (DCs), intestinal macrophages are less well characterized. In this study, we examined the properties of macrophages in the colonic lamina propria (LM). Colonic DCs (LDC) showed LPS-induced production ...
Iyer Shankar Subramanian SS Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2010
IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that regulates excessive production of inflammatory cytokines during an infection or tissue damage. Dysregulation of IL-10 is associated with a number of autoimmune diseases, and so, understanding the mechanisms by which IL-10 gene expression is regulated remains an important area of study. Macrophages represent ...
Vosters O - - 2010
Previous studies have suggested that the susceptibility of newborns to infections is linked to the immaturity of their immune system, but very few data are available on the early stages of maturation of the immune response. Therefore, we decided to investigate the evolution of the interferon (IFN)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 ...
Margel David - - 2011
Cancer often involves inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that immune mediators in urine may serve as biomarkers for bladder cancer (BCa). To investigate whether BCa might be marked by urinary levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs; HSP60, HSP70, or HSP90) or cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, tumor growth factor ...
Krushna N S A - - 2011
Immune responses to recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor homolog (rBm-33) were investigated in patients with human lymphatic filariasis (microfilaremics (MF) and chronic pathology (CP)) along with endemic normals (EN). Flow cytometric analysis (24 h) revealed CD4(+) T cell activation in patients (MF and CP) compared to normals (EN), with increased ...
Wegenka Ursula Maria - - 2010
IL-20 was discovered 10 years ago as a new member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. IL-20 shares the highest amino-acid sequence identity with IL-10, IL-24 and IL-19. IL-20 is secreted by immune cells and activated epithelial cells like keratinocytes. A high expression of the corresponding IL-20 receptor chains is ...
Schulz U - - 2010
Under inflammatory conditions, the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is released in many tissues. It mediates anti-inflammatory effects in particular by inhibiting the release of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines. In contrast, we show here that NK cell cytotoxicity against autologous macrophages is elevated if both cell types are cultured ...
Tomicić Sara - - 2010
The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-[gamma], TGF-[beta]1, and TGF-[beta]2 were analyzed with ELISA ...
Akhtar Nasim - - 2010
Parthenium dermatitis is a common airborne allergic contact dermatitis induced by exposures to the weed Parthenium hysterophorus. The disease manifests as itchy erythematous papules, papulovesicular and plaque lesions on exposed areas of the body. The aim of this study was to show the alterations in pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines in parthenium dermatitis. ...
Donnelly Raymond P - - 2010
IL-26 is classified as a member of the IL-10 cytokine family because it has limited sequence homology to IL-10 and the IL-10-related cytokines. The human IL-26 gene, IL26, is located on chromosome 12q15 between the genes for two other important class-2 cytokines, IFNG (IFN-γ) and IL22 (IL-22). IL-26 is often ...
Chaves D G - - 2010
Despite the clinical relevance of anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies (anti-FVIII inhibitors) impairing haemostatic activity of haemophilia A (HA) patients, the immunological mechanisms underlying their production are unknown. Aiming to understand more clearly the immune response in patients with [HAα-FVIII(+)] and without [HAα-FVIII(-)] anti-FVIII inhibitors, we have characterized the cytokine pattern ...
Turner J J O - - 2010
The poor prognosis of obesity is now known to involve a proinflammatory state associated with elevated circulating levels of cytokines and with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. In particular, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-driven adipose inflammation has been implicated recently in obesity and the development of diabetes. Adipocytes are now recognized as ...
Carvalho Vera - - 2010
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which active form is a non-covalent homodimer with two intramolecular disulphide bonds essential for its biological activity. A mutated form of murine IL-10 was successfully expressed in E. coli, recovered and purified from inclusion bodies. Its ability to reduce tumor necrosis factor α synthesis ...
Keski-Nisula L - - 2010
The effect of labour and different labour-related factors on the cord blood (CB) cell cytokine production is still relatively unknown. To study the relationships between the production of IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ in CB samples and maternal, early neonatal and birth-related factors. Whole-blood samples were collected after birth (n=423) and ...
Bielecka A M - - 2010
An increasing body of evidence indicates that glial activation and neuroinflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Activated glial cells secrete various cytokines that influence neurotransmission, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis. It has been suggested that alterations in cytokine networks are involved ...
Kazak Esra - - 2010
Background: Because of high morbidity of the brucellosis in humans and the potential use of the microorganism as an agent of biologic warfare, protection of effective vaccines and specific diagnostic reagents become necessary to eradicate brucellosis. Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate the cytokine responses and changes in ...
Colic Miodrag - - 2010
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions. Its expression is up-regulated by interleukin (IL)-12) and down-regulated by IL-10. The aim of this work was to study the cellular source of these cytokines and their mutual interactions in human periapical lesions. Mononuclear cells, macrophages and dendritic ...
Lim Andrew - - 2010
It remains unclear why some individuals and not others are susceptible to non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD). To determine whether NTMLD is associated with defects or biases in Th1/Th2/Th17 immunity, blood leukocytes from NTM patients with nodular bronchiectasis, their adult offspring, and healthy population controls were stimulated with staphylococcal enterotoxin ...
Silva Maria Luiza - - 2011
The mechanisms of immune response following yellow fever (YF-17DD) vaccination are still poorly understood. In this study, we have performed a longitudinal investigation (days 0, 7, 15 and 30) to characterize the cytokine profile of innate and adaptive immunity following YF-17DD first-time vaccination. Data from non-stimulated cultures demonstrated a prominent ...
Barbeiro Denise Frediani - - 2011
Sepsis syndrome is caused by inappropriate immune activation due to bacteria and bacterial components released during infection. This syndrome is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Specialized B-lymphocytes located in the peritoneal and pleural cavities are known as B-1 cells. These cells produce IgM and IL-10, both ...
Xin Junping J Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. - - 2011
We have previously shown that immunodeficient mice exhibit significant facial motoneuron (FMN) loss compared to wild-type (WT) mice after a facial nerve axotomy. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is known as a regulatory cytokine that plays an important role in maintaining the anti-inflammatory environment within the central nervous system (CNS). IL-10 is produced ...
Conzelmann Michael - - 2010
CD40Ligand (CD40L) represents a strong endogenous danger signal associated with chronic inflammatory disease. CD40L induces activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as DCs, monocytes, B-cells and endothelial cells. However, CD40 activation alone, whilst inducing IL-10 production, is insufficient to induce interleukin (IL)-12p70 release in human APCs suggesting that additional cytokine ...
Bergman Michael - - 2010
Since both statins and lycopene exert immunomodulatory activities following incubation with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the present work was designed to examine whether they may induce a synergistic or antagonistic effect on cytokine production while applied together. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 15 healthy subjects were incubated ...
Pechkovsky Dmitri V - - 2010
Activated macrophages have been characterized as M1 and M2 according to their inflammatory response pattern. Here we analyzed the M2 marker expression and intracellular signal transduction in the course of cytokine-driven differentiation. We found elevated spontaneous production of the chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 and increased expression of CD206 by ...
Gallo Paul - - 2010
We have previously demonstrated that the addition of immune complexes (IC) to stimulated macrophages could profoundly influence cytokine production. In the present work we sought to determine the density of IgG on immune complexes necessary to mediate phagocytosis, inhibit IL-12 production and induce IL-10 production from stimulated macrophages. We developed ...
Xu Ai-Jing - - 2010
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory cytokine. In autoimmune diabetes of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, IL-10 has exhibited paradoxical effects. Systemic IL-10 expression prevented or delayed diabetes onset in NOD mice while local expression of IL-10 did not. As antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a central role in ...
Majoie H J M - - 2011
The vagus nerve has important immunological functions that may be relevant for its anticonvulsive action. We postulate that this anticonvulsive action is activated by a shift in the immune system resulting in a reduction of neurotoxic and an increase of neuroprotective tryptophan metabolites. Eleven patients with refractory epilepsy and 11 ...
Edwards Justin P - - 2010
Classical activating stimuli like LPS drive macrophages to secrete a battery of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-12/23, through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. TLR activation in the presence of some factors, including prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), promotes an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, with production of IL-10 and suppression of IL-12/23 secretion. Extracellular signal-regulated ...
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