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Breed Elise R ER Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, 2-114 Wallin Medical Biosciences Building, 2101 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55414, - - 2015
Autoimmune carditis is associated with many human rheumatic conditions, including rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. The immune mechanisms that mediate the cardiovascular pathology connected to these diseases are poorly defined. Several animal models are used to recapitulate human pathophysiology in order to better characterize the immunopathogenic mechanisms ...
Lipiäinen Tiina T University of Helsinki, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helsinki, - - 2014
Cytokines are messenger proteins that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells and control immune responses. Interferons, interleukins, and growth factors have applications in cancer, autoimmune, and viral disease treatment. The cytokines are susceptible to chemical and physical instability. This article reviews the structure and stability issues of clinically used ...
Phadnis Nitin N Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this issue of Cell, Chae et al. find that genomic "hot spots" encoding NLR plant immune receptor genes are recurrently responsible for hybrid necrosis, highlighting the role of host-pathogen evolutionary arms races in driving the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities.
Saxena Ankit A Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2014
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is arguably the most potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. It is produced by almost all the innate and adaptive immune cells. These cells also serve as its targets, indicating that IL-10 secretion and action is highly regulated and perhaps compartmentalized. Consistent with this notion, various efforts directed at systemic administration ...
Caramalho Iris I Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
Thymus-derived FOXP3-expressing regulatory T-cells (tTregs) are master orchestrators of physiological and pathological immune responses, thus constituting ideal targets for the treatment of autoimmunity. Despite their clinical importance, the developmental program governing their differentiation in the human thymus remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of common gamma-chain cytokines in ...
Nicolas Molnarfi M Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Neurology, Unit of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, - - 2014
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been extensively studied over several decades, but was only recently recognized as a key player in mediating protection of many types of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. HGF was reported to prevent and attenuate disease progression by influencing multiple pathophysiological processes ...
Orian Jacqueline M JM Department of Biochemistry and La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University , Bundoora, Victoria , Australia - - 2014
Abstract The regulation of cytokine expression by immune deviation from a pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory or "regulatory" milieu is crucial to the prevention of permanent central nervous system (CNS) damage in neuroinflammation. Earlier studies in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model pointed to an anti-inflammatory role for the Th2 cytokine, ...
Tran Ngoc Lan NL Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, - - 2014
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder characterized by increased levels of lymphocyte activation, antigen presentation by dendritic cells, and the formation of autoantibodies. This leads to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. TLR7 and TLR9 localize to the endosomal compartment and play important roles in the generation of autoantibodies against nuclear components, ...
Cho Michael Jeffrey MJ Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2014
The immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays beneficial but also potentially detrimental roles in inflammation, infection, and autoimmunity. Recent studies suggest a regulatory role for IL-10-expressing B cells in the autoimmune blistering disease pemphigus vulgaris. Here we review the studies on IL-10 in pemphigus vulgaris and discuss the potential pathophysiological significance ...
Temajo Norbert O NO Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia, - - 2014
The viruses stand salient as environmental factors that trigger autoimmunity. The virus realizes its effects through induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) as well as by the viral IE-axis-mediated conversion of organ epithelial cells into virgin de novo professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The HSP is the accomplished operator in homeostasis by ...
Borgognoni Camila F CF Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech) and Physical Institute, University of Münster, Heisenbergstraße 11, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
The cytokine secretion of primary cells of human macrophages during the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (with an average primary size of 100-120nm) is investigated down to concentration levels suggested to be relevant for in vivo conditions. We find that high TiO2 concentrations induce the cytokines Interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 ...
Costanza Massimo M Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Disorder Unit, Neurological Institute Foundation IRCCS C. Besta, Milan 20133, - - 2014
Prolactin (PRL) has long been proposed as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in autoimmune disorders. However, recent findings have challenged this common view, showing that PRL does not play a crucial role in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), and even protects against adjuvant-induced ...
Akiyama Nobuko N Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, - - 2014
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) expressing the autoimmune regulator AIRE and various tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) are critical for preventing the onset of autoimmunity and may attenuate tumor immunity. However, molecular mechanisms controlling mTEC development remain elusive. Here, we describe the roles of the transcription factor Spi-B in mTEC development. Spi-B ...
Zanin-Zhorov Alexandra A Kadmon Research Institute, New York, NY 10016; - - 2014
Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) regulates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and the development of autoimmunity in mice. Data from a phase 1 clinical trial demonstrate that oral administration of KD025, a selective ROCK2 inhibitor, to healthy human subjects down-regulates the ability of T cells to secrete IL-21 and IL-17 by ...
Klarquist Jared J Division of Immunobiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229; - - 2014
Adaptive immune responses to Ags released by dying cells play a critical role in the development of autoimmunity, allograft rejection, and spontaneous as well as therapy-induced tumor rejection. Although cell death in these situations is considered sterile, various reports have implicated type I IFNs as drivers of the ensuing adaptive ...
Zhang Min M Suzhou Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 72 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu, People's Republic of - - 2014
Being a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcription factors, Egr-2 is expressed in a variety of cell types of the immune system. Recent findings imply that Egr-2 is important in the development and function of T helper (Th) 17 cell, regulatory T (Treg) cell, as well ...
Clarke Elizabeth V EV Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Institute for Immunology, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California, USA; - - 2014
A complete genetic deficiency of the complement protein C1q results in SLE with nearly 100% penetrance in humans, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this association have not yet been fully determined. C1q opsonizes ACs for enhanced ingestion by phagocytes, such as Mϕ and iDCs, avoiding the extracellular release of ...
Alidjinou Enagnon Kazali EK Université Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine, CHRU de Lille, Laboratoire de virologie EA3610, Lille, - - 2014
Beyond acute clinical conditions, the role of enteroviruses (EVs) in chronic human diseases has been described. Although they are considered as highly cytolytic viruses, EVs can persist in various tissues. The persistence is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of EV related chronic diseases such as type ...
O'Reilly L A LA 1] Molecular Genetics of Cancer Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia [2] Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria, - - 2014
FASL/FAS signaling imposes a critical barrier against autoimmune disease and lymphadenopathy. Mutant mice unable to produce membrane-bound FASL (FasL(Δm/Δm)), a prerequisite for FAS-induced apoptosis, develop lymphadenopathy and systemic autoimmune disease with immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Prior to disease onset, FasL(Δm/Δm) mice contain abnormally high numbers of leukocytes displaying activated and elevated ...
Raphael Itay I Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, TX 78249, United - - 2014
CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells are critical for proper immune cell homeostasis and host defense, but are also major contributors to pathology of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Since the discovery of the Th1/Th2 dichotomy, many additional Th subsets were discovered, each with a unique cytokine profile, functional properties, and presumed ...
Bell Charles J M CJ JDRF/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 OXY, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing FOXP3 are essential for the maintenance of self-tolerance and are deficient in many common autoimmune diseases. Immune tolerance is maintained in part by IL-2 and deficiencies in the IL-2 pathway cause reduced Treg function and an increased risk of autoimmunity. Recent studies expanding Tregs in vivo ...
Bawadekar Mandar M Department of Translational Medicine, University of Eastern Piedmont, Via Solaroli 17, Novara 28100, Italy; Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases (IRCAD), Via Solaroli 17, Novara 28100, - - 2014
The nuclear DNA sensor IFI16, a member of PYHIN family of proteins, was previously studied for its role in cell cycle regulation, tumor suppression, apoptosis and DNA damage signaling. Autoantibodies against IFI16 are prevalent in the sera of patients with systemic autoimmunity, thus depicting physiological significance as an autoantigen. At ...
Monteiro Bárbara Vanessa de Brito BV *Post Graduation Program of Oral Pathology, Department of Oral Pathology †Department of Pathology, Post Graduation Program of Pathology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte ‡Post Graduation Program of Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, State University of Paraiba, - - 2014
A recently described lineage of lymphocytes, Th17 cells, has been associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this article was to assess the immunoexpression of cytokines related to this lineage, interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-23 and in reticular and erosive oral lichen planus (OLP). The sample included 41 cases ...
Nagelkerke Sietse Q SQ Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; - - 2014
In immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA), circulating IgG-opsonized blood cells are cleared from the circulation by macrophages. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) can prevent uptake, but the exact working mechanism is not known. The prevailing theory from murine studies, which states that Fc-sialylated IgG alters the ...
Steed Ashley L AL Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2014
A potential role for viral and bacterial-viral interactions in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease has been long recognized. Recently, intensive investigation has begun to decipher interactions between specific microbes with the host that contribute toward autoimmunity. This work has primarily focused on known viral and bacterial pathogens. A major challenge ...
Lavrnja Irena I Institute for Biological Research "Sinisa Stankovic", University of Belgrade, Boulevard Despot Stefan 142, Belgrade, 11060, Serbia, - - 2014
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73) (eN) is a 70-kDa glycoprotein expressed in several different mammalian tissues and cell types. It is the rate-limiting enzyme of the purine catabolic pathway, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of AMP to produce adenosine with known anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. There is strong evidence for lymphocyte ...
Kroese Frans G M FG Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
The study of fundamental mechanisms of autoimmunity has been instrumental to clinical progress in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Dutch immunology has made major contributions to these developments, ranging from fundamental studies on immune cells, antibodies and cytokines to translational and clinical studies with ...
Bashi Tomer T The Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated to Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv, - - 2014
The incidence of autoimmune diseases has risen throughout the last half a century, mostly in the industrialized world. Helminths and their derivatives were found to have a protective role in autoimmunity and inflammatory conditions, as they manipulate the immune network, attenuating the host's cellular and humoral responses. Indeed, various helminth ...
Mackern-Oberti Juan Pablo JP Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the activation of the immune response against pathogens, as well as in the modulation of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens (Ags). Furthermore, an imbalance in the activating/inhibitory receptors expressed on the surface of DCs has been linked to increased susceptibility to develop autoimmune ...
Islam Naseeha N Division of Rheumatology/Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis CA - - 2014
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring dermatologic condition regularly distinguished by patches of hair loss on the scalp also manifesting in other, severe forms, including alopecia totalis (total loss of hair on the scalp) and alopecia universalis (complete loss of hair on the scalp and body). AA is a ...
Dwivedi Mitesh M C. G. Bhakta Institute of Biotechnology, Uka Tarsadia University, Tarsadi, Surat, Gujarat-394350, India; Department of Biochemistry, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat-390002, - - 2014
Vitiligo is a hypomelanotic autoimmune skin disease arising from a breakdown in immunological self-tolerance, which leads to aberrant immune responses against melanocytes. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to the development of self-tolerance and so are major foci in the study of autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo. This review will summarise ...
Gong Xin X Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Provincial Hospital Affiliated with Shandong - - 2014
CD40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis, and inhibition of CD40 expression could be a promising treatment for myocarditis. In this study, we used an animal model, experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), to investigate whether CD40 siRNA could be exploited for myocarditis therapy.Lewis rats were immunized with purified ...
Padgett Lindsey E LE Department of Microbiology, Comprehensive Diabetes Center, University of Alabama - Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, - - 2014
Macrophages are early islet-infiltrating cells in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). While pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages induce T1D, M2 macrophages have been shown to delay this autoimmune disease in Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the environmental cues that govern macrophage polarization and differentiation remain unresolved. We previously demonstrated the importance of reactive ...
Chen Ding D Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX - - 2014
Plasma cells and the autoreactive Abs they produce are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, but recent attempts to target these components of humoral immunity have failed. MEDI551, an anti-CD19 Ab that depletes mature B cells including plasma cells may offer a compelling alternative that reduces pathogenic ...
Wang Li L Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226; lilywang@mcw.edu - - 2014
V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator that suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses. Previous studies using a VISTA-neutralizing monoclonal antibody show that VISTA blockade enhances T-cell activation. The current study describes a comprehensive characterization of mice in which the gene for VISTA has been ...
Guo Wei W State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, - - 2014
T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, a recently identified CD4+ T subset with a unique characteristic to produce Interleukin-17 (IL-17), are critical for the development of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, in which IL-23 plays an important role in the differentiation of Th17 cells through IL-23/IL-23-receptor/STAT3 pathway. Previously, soluble recombinant human ...
Stegajev Vasili V Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, - - 2014
Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H4R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H4R ...
Lewis Nuruddeen D ND Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT 06877-0368, - - 2014
The role of microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis pathogenesis has been controversial. To gain insight into their respective roles, we developed a method for differentiating between microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages in the CNS by flow cytometry utilizing anti-CD44 antibodies. We used this system to monitor changes in ...
Toomey Christopher B CB *Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Duke University, 2351 Erwin Road, Durham, North Carolina 27710, Department of Surgery and Center for Investigations of Health and Education Disparities, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, No. 0739, La Jolla, California 92093-0739 and Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California - - 2014
Susceptibility and resistance to systemic autoimmunity are genetically regulated. This is particularly true for murine mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgIA) where DBA/2J mice are considered resistant to disease including polyclonal B cell activation, autoantibody responses, and immune complex deposits. To identify possible mechanisms for the resistance to mHgIA, we exposed mHgIA sensitive ...
Ding Lixia L Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, - - 2014
Macrophage polarization is a dynamic and integral process of tissue inflammation and remodeling. Here we demonstrate an important role of Aurora kinase A in the regulation of inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. We found that there was an elevated expression of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages and inhibition of Aurora-A by small ...
Zhao Yong-Fei YF Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Institutes of Brain Science and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Although therapeutic potential of fasudil in EAE is promising, action mechanism and clinical limitations are still not fully understood and resolved. In this study, we observed the therapeutic potential of a novel Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor FaD-1, a fasudil derivative, and explored possible mechanism in MOG35-55-induced EAE. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ...
Manoharan Indumathi I Cancer Immunology, Inflammation, and Tolerance Program, Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) sense microbes via multiple innate receptors. Signals from different innate receptors are coordinated and integrated by DCs to generate specific innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens. Previously, we have shown that two pathogen recognition receptors, TLR2 and dectin-1, which recognize the same microbial stimulus (zymosan) on ...
Schwartz Michal M Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address: - - 2014
Immune cell infiltration to the brain's territory was considered for decades to reflect a pathological process in which immune cells attack the central nervous system (CNS); such a process is observed in the inflammatory autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). As neuroinflammatory processes within the CNS parenchyma are also common to ...
Burger Megan L ML Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, United - - 2014
T cell self-tolerance is thought to involve peripheral tolerance and negative selection, involving apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. However, evidence supporting an essential role for negative selection is limited. Loss of Bim, a Bcl-2 BH3-only protein essential for thymocyte apoptosis, rarely results in autoimmunity on the C57BL/6 background. Mice with T ...
Temajo Norbert O NO Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The viruses are salient in the roles of environmental factors that trigger autoimmunity. The virus realizes its effects by the power of its induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) as well as by the viral IE-axis-mediated conversion of organ epithelial cells into virgin de novo professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The ...
Lisi Sabrina S Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, Laboratory of Cell Biology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The discovery of the disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), originally identified as tumor necrosis factor-a converting enzyme (TACE) for its ability as sheddase of TNF-α inspired scientists to attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying ADAM17 implication in diseased conditions. In recent years, it has become evident that this protease ...
Liu Yujie Y Division of Transplant Immunology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Biesecker Center for Study of Pediatric Liver Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
T-regulatory (Treg) cells are important to immune homeostasis, and Treg cell deficiency or dysfunction leads to autoimmune disease. An histone/protein acetyltransferase (HAT), p300, was recently found important for Treg function and stability, but further insights into the mechanisms by which p300 or other HATs affect Treg biology are needed. Here ...
Alunno Alessia A Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, - - 2014
Compelling evidence suggests that the IL-17 axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders including primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). However, although several studies have been carried out in experimental models and patients with pSS, many aspects of this field are not fully elucidated. In particular, the ...
Blyuss K B KB Department of Mathematics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Onset and development of autoimmunity have been attributed to a number of factors, including genetic predisposition, age and different environmental factors. In this paper we discuss mathematical models of autoimmunity with an emphasis on two particular aspects of immune dynamics: breakdown of immune tolerance in response to an infection with ...
Singh Ram Pyare RP Division of Rheumatology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1670; Research Service, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Health Care System, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1670. Electronic address: - - 2014
T helper 17 (Th17), a distinct subset of CD4(+) T cells with IL-17 as their major cytokine, orchestrate the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Dysregulated Th17 cells contribute to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Candidate biologics are in development for targeting IL-17, IL-17 receptors or IL-17 pathways. Several drugs that ...
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