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Lavrnja Irena I Institute for Biological Research "Sinisa Stankovic", University of Belgrade, Boulevard Despot Stefan 142, Belgrade, 11060, Serbia, - - 2014
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73) (eN) is a 70-kDa glycoprotein expressed in several different mammalian tissues and cell types. It is the rate-limiting enzyme of the purine catabolic pathway, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of AMP to produce adenosine with known anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. There is strong evidence for lymphocyte ...
Islam Naseeha N Division of Rheumatology/Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis CA - - 2014
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring dermatologic condition regularly distinguished by patches of hair loss on the scalp also manifesting in other, severe forms, including alopecia totalis (total loss of hair on the scalp) and alopecia universalis (complete loss of hair on the scalp and body). AA is a ...
Dwivedi Mitesh M C. G. Bhakta Institute of Biotechnology, Uka Tarsadia University, Tarsadi, Surat, Gujarat-394350, India; Department of Biochemistry, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat-390002, - - 2014
Vitiligo is a hypomelanotic autoimmune skin disease arising from a breakdown in immunological self-tolerance, which leads to aberrant immune responses against melanocytes. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to the development of self-tolerance and so are major foci in the study of autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo. This review will summarise ...
Gong Xin X Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Provincial Hospital Affiliated with Shandong - - 2014
CD40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis, and inhibition of CD40 expression could be a promising treatment for myocarditis. In this study, we used an animal model, experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), to investigate whether CD40 siRNA could be exploited for myocarditis therapy.Lewis rats were immunized with purified ...
Padgett Lindsey E LE Department of Microbiology, Comprehensive Diabetes Center, University of Alabama - Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, - - 2014
Macrophages are early islet-infiltrating cells in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). While pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages induce T1D, M2 macrophages have been shown to delay this autoimmune disease in Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the environmental cues that govern macrophage polarization and differentiation remain unresolved. We previously demonstrated the importance of reactive ...
Chen Ding D Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX - - 2014
Plasma cells and the autoreactive Abs they produce are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, but recent attempts to target these components of humoral immunity have failed. MEDI551, an anti-CD19 Ab that depletes mature B cells including plasma cells may offer a compelling alternative that reduces pathogenic ...
Wang Li L Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226; lilywang@mcw.edu - - 2014
V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator that suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses. Previous studies using a VISTA-neutralizing monoclonal antibody show that VISTA blockade enhances T-cell activation. The current study describes a comprehensive characterization of mice in which the gene for VISTA has been ...
Guo Wei W State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, - - 2014
T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, a recently identified CD4+ T subset with a unique characteristic to produce Interleukin-17 (IL-17), are critical for the development of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, in which IL-23 plays an important role in the differentiation of Th17 cells through IL-23/IL-23-receptor/STAT3 pathway. Previously, soluble recombinant human ...
Stegajev Vasili V Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, - - 2014
Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H4R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H4R ...
Lewis Nuruddeen D ND Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT 06877-0368, - - 2014
The role of microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis pathogenesis has been controversial. To gain insight into their respective roles, we developed a method for differentiating between microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages in the CNS by flow cytometry utilizing anti-CD44 antibodies. We used this system to monitor changes in ...
Toomey Christopher B CB * Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Duke University, 2351 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27710. Email: - - 2014
Susceptibility and resistance to systemic autoimmunity are genetically regulated. This is particularly true for murine mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgIA) where DBA/2J mice are considered resistant to disease including polyclonal B cell activation, autoantibody responses and immune complex deposits. To identify possible mechanisms for the resistance to mHgIA we exposed mHgIA sensitive ...
Ding Lixia L Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, - - 2014
Macrophage polarization is a dynamic and integral process of tissue inflammation and remodeling. Here we demonstrate an important role of Aurora kinase A in the regulation of inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. We found that there was an elevated expression of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages and inhibition of Aurora-A by small ...
Zhao Yong-Fei YF Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Institutes of Brain Science and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Although therapeutic potential of fasudil in EAE is promising, action mechanism and clinical limitations are still not fully understood and resolved. In this study, we observed the therapeutic potential of a novel Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor FaD-1, a fasudil derivative, and explored possible mechanism in MOG35-55-induced EAE. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ...
Manoharan Indumathi I Cancer Immunology, Inflammation, and Tolerance Program, Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) sense microbes via multiple innate receptors. Signals from different innate receptors are coordinated and integrated by DCs to generate specific innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens. Previously, we have shown that two pathogen recognition receptors, TLR2 and dectin-1, which recognize the same microbial stimulus (zymosan) on ...
Schwartz Michal M Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address: - - 2014
Immune cell infiltration to the brain's territory was considered for decades to reflect a pathological process in which immune cells attack the central nervous system (CNS); such a process is observed in the inflammatory autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). As neuroinflammatory processes within the CNS parenchyma are also common to ...
Burger Megan L ML Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, United - - 2014
T cell self-tolerance is thought to involve peripheral tolerance and negative selection, involving apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. However, evidence supporting an essential role for negative selection is limited. Loss of Bim, a Bcl-2 BH3-only protein essential for thymocyte apoptosis, rarely results in autoimmunity on the C57BL/6 background. Mice with T ...
Temajo Norbert O NO Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The viruses are salient in the roles of environmental factors that trigger autoimmunity. The virus realizes its effects by the power of its induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) as well as by the viral IE-axis-mediated conversion of organ epithelial cells into virgin de novo professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The ...
Lisi Sabrina S Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, Laboratory of Cell Biology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The discovery of the disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), originally identified as tumor necrosis factor-a converting enzyme (TACE) for its ability as sheddase of TNF-α inspired scientists to attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying ADAM17 implication in diseased conditions. In recent years, it has become evident that this protease ...
Liu Yujie Y Division of Transplant Immunology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Biesecker Center for Study of Pediatric Liver Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
T-regulatory (Treg) cells are important to immune homeostasis, and Treg cell deficiency or dysfunction leads to autoimmune disease. An histone/protein acetyltransferase (HAT), p300, was recently found important for Treg function and stability, but further insights into the mechanisms by which p300 or other HATs affect Treg biology are needed. Here ...
Alunno Alessia A Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, - - 2014
Compelling evidence suggests that the IL-17 axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders including primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). However, although several studies have been carried out in experimental models and patients with pSS, many aspects of this field are not fully elucidated. In particular, the ...
Blyuss K B KB Department of Mathematics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Onset and development of autoimmunity have been attributed to a number of factors, including genetic predisposition, age and different environmental factors. In this paper we discuss mathematical models of autoimmunity with an emphasis on two particular aspects of immune dynamics: breakdown of immune tolerance in response to an infection with ...
Singh Ram Pyare RP Division of Rheumatology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1670; Research Service, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Health Care System, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1670. Electronic address: - - 2014
T helper 17 (Th17), a distinct subset of CD4(+) T cells with IL-17 as their major cytokine, orchestrate the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Dysregulated Th17 cells contribute to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Candidate biologics are in development for targeting IL-17, IL-17 receptors or IL-17 pathways. Several drugs that ...
Halpert Gilad G C.A.I.R. Institute, The Safdié AIDS and Immunology Research Center, The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, - - 2014
Tellurium is a rare element, which has been regarded as a non-essential trace element despite its relative abundance in the human body. The chemistry of tellurium supports a plethora of activities, but its biochemistry is not clearly established to date. The small tellurium(IV) compound, ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o')tellurate (AS101) developed and ...
Smith Siobhán S Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics and RCSI Research Institute, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St. Stephens Green, Dublin 2, - - 2014
Innate immune detection and subsequent immune responses rely on the initial recognition of pathogen specific molecular motifs. Foreign nucleic acids are key structures recognised by the immune system, recognition of which occurs mainly through the use of nucleic acid receptors including members of the Toll-like receptors, AIM2-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors ...
Shabgah Arezoo Gowhari AG Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Head of Department: Prof. Abbas - - 2014
Human Th17 pro-inflammatory cells are currently defined as cells that produce IL-17A and F, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-23. Recently discovered related molecules are forming a family of cytokines, the IL-17 family, IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E and IL-17F. The associated receptors for the IL-17 family ...
Shiang Jeng-Chuan - - 2014
Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor is a form of thnon steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and is commonly used in autoimmune and rheumatic diseases to control inflammation and alleviate pain. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production and an imbalance of T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and also anti-tumour ...
Zhao Yuanbo Y Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China yuanbo_zhao@126.com - - 2014
Really interesting new gene (RING) finger proteins represent a large protein family in the human genome, and play crucial roles in physiological activities and cancer development. The biological functions of some RING finger proteins remain unknown. Here, we described the biological activity of a novel, human Golgi-localized RING finger protein ...
Fernando Merennege Dilan Anush MD Genes and Development Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United - - 2014
A relatively unexplored nexus in Drosophila Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway is TGF-beta Activating Kinase 1 (TAK1), which triggers both immunity and apoptosis. In a cell culture screen, we identified that Lysine at position 142 was a K63-linked Ubiquitin acceptor site for TAK1, required for signalling. Moreover, Lysine at position 156 ...
Bon Jessica J Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Emphysema and osteoporosis are epidemiologically associated diseases of cigarette smokers. The causal mechanism(s) linking these illnesses is unknown. We hypothesized autoimmune responses may be involved in both disorders. To discover an antigen-specific autoimmune response associated with both emphysema and osteoporosis among smokers. Replicate nonbiased discovery assays indicated that autoimmunity to ...
Verhagen Johan J School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United - - 2014
In vitro induced Foxp3+ T regulatory (iTreg) cells form a novel and promising target for therapeutic tolerance induction. However, the potential of these cells as a target for the treatment of various immune diseases, as well as the factors involved in their development and function, remain debated. Here, we demonstrate ...
Kosmaczewska Agata A Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Department of Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 R. Weigla St., 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland. - - 2014
For many years, the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in autoimmune responses was established as a cytokine possessing strong pro-inflammatory activity. Studies of the past few years have changed our knowledge on IL-2 in autoimmune chronic inflammation, suggesting its protective role, when administered at low-doses. The disrupted balance between regulatory and ...
Mackern-Oberti Juan P JP Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Portugal 49, Santiago 8330025, Chile. - - 2014
Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play ...
Pan Hai-Feng HF Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Anhui Provincial Laboratory of Population Health & Major Disease Screening and Diagnosis, Anhui Medical University, Hefei,Hefei, - - 2013
CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells are central to the modulation of immune responses, with distinct effector subsets defined by their lineage-specific transcription factor expression, cytokines production and immune function. Th9, one of the recently defined subsets of Th cells, are identified by the potent production of interleukin-9 (IL-9). Recent studies ...
Brinkler Rebecca R Department of Anaesthetics, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Harlow CM20 1QX, - - 2013
A systemic inflammatory response causing multi-organ failure and requiring multiple amputations was refractory to all treatments except Anakinra, and the cause remains unclear.
Son Kyung-No - - 2013
The Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) leader (L) protein zinc-finger domain was mutated to study its role in cell death in infection of the murine macrophage cell line M1-D, revealing that an intact zinc-finger domain is required for full apoptotic activity. A functional L zinc-finger domain was also required for ...
Tsunoda Toshiyuki - - 2013
A zinc-finger gene in autoimmune thyroid disease susceptibility region (ZFAT) was originally identified as a highly conserved immune-related transcriptional regulator containing one adenosine-thymidine (AT)-hook and 18 C2H2-type zinc-finger domains. Subsequently, roles of ZFAT in development, primitive haematopoiesis, angiogenesis, immune responses and several common diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, hypertension and ...
Liu Xingguang X National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology and Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2013
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is critical in innate response against invading pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms for full activation of TLR-triggered innate immunity need to be fully elucidated. The broad complex tramtrack bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) family is a class of transcription factors involved in many biological processes. However, ...
Mentlak Thomas A - - 2012
Plants use pattern recognition receptors to defend themselves from microbial pathogens. These receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate signaling pathways that lead to immunity. In rice (Oryza sativa), the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP) recognizes chitin oligosaccharides released from the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Here, we show ...
Riboldi Elena - - 2011
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are specialized in the production of type I interferon (type I IFN), which promotes antiviral and antitumor responses, as well as autoimmune disorders. Activation of type I IFN secretion depends on the pattern recognition receptors TLR7 and TLR9, which sense microbial RNA and DNA, respectively. Type I ...
Singodia Deepak - - 2012
In this study the potential of 2 different ligands, i.e., palmitoyl mannose (Man-Lip) and 4-SO(4)GalNAc (Sulf-Lip) to target resident macrophages was investigated after surface decoration of Amphotericin B (AmB) loaded liposomes. In the case of Sulf-Lip, the 4-SO(4)GalNAc was adsorbed through electrostatic interaction on cationic liposomes, which was confirmed by ...
Osanya Alex - - 2011
Pathogen glycolipids, including Leishmania spp. lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), modulate essential interactions with host phagocytic cells. Polysaccharide and lipid components promote immunomodulation. Owing to the stereochemistry required to synthesize oligosaccharides, the roles for oligosaccharides in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases have remained largely unknown. Recent advances ...
Feldstein Ariel E - - 2011
Fatty liver disease (FLD), associated with chronic alcohol consumption or obesity, is a serious medical problem. Strong evidence indicates that oxidative stress and dysregulation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways are central to the pathobiology of FLD. Herein, this Forum summarizes current knowledge regarding mechanisms of FLD from both clinical and experimental ...
Aloman Costica - - 2011
Alcohol consumption impairs the development of innate and adaptive immune responses, however the exact mechanism by which alcohol leads to immune defects remains to be established. Dendritic cells (DCs) form a heterogeneous population of hematopoietic cells that are present in all tissues including the liver. DC are initially described playing ...
Wu Yue - - 2011
Alcohol-induced proinflammatory central immune signaling has been implicated in the chronic neurotoxic actions of alcohol, although little work has examined if these non-neuronal actions contribute to the acute behavioral responses elicited by alcohol administration. The present study examined if acute alcohol-induced sedation (loss of righting reflex, sleep time test) and ...
Kelley Keith W KW Integrative Immunology and Behavior Program, Department of Animal Sciences, College of ACES, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. - - 2011
Alcohol abuse changes behavior and can induce major mood disorders such as depression. Recent evidence in pre-clinical rodent models and humans now supports the conclusion that the innate immune system is an important physiological link between alcoholism and major depressive disorders. Deficiency of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a protein that ...
Yuan Lin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes to cardiac complications of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in myocardial cell apoptosis induced by chronic alcohol intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Alcohol induced oxidative stress in the heart as evidenced by a decrease in SOD and ...
Sakaguchi Shuhei - - 2010
  Growing evidence indicates that the innate immune system and oxidative stress caused by gut-derived endotoxins play a key role in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Intracellular mechanisms associated with endotoxin-induced signaling play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of ALD. It is now widely accepted that activation of the ...
Gattorno Marco - - 2010
Inherited autoinflammatory diseases are experiments in nature in which mutations of proteins playing a pivotal role in the regulation of the innate immunity lead to unprovoked episodes of inflammation. The understanding of the molecular pathways involved in these disorders has shed a new light on the pattern of activation and ...
Youm Yoon-Seok - - 2010
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is classified into idiopathic and secondary forms. A number of etiological factors in the development of osteonecrosis have been suggested but the biological mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, some reports suggested that the apoptosis is closely related to osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Therefore, this ...
Girard Sylvie - - 2010
A preclinical model showed a direct role of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) system in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage, but evidence linking these findings to human white matter damage (WMD) requires confirmation in human cases. We analyzed the IL-1β system using immunohistochemistry to characterize the expression of IL-1 receptors ...
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