Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2613
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Serra Magda F - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Evidence suggests that nebulized lidocaine is beneficial in asthma therapy, but to what extent and the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lidocaine treatment using a murine model of allergic asthma characterized by expression of pivotal features ...
Hanke M L - - 2012
During physiological or psychological stress, catecholamines produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune system. Previous studies report that the activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) mediates the actions of catecholamines and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a number of different cell types. The impact of the SNS on ...
Hartemink Koen J - - 2012
Catecholamines have been suggested to modulate innate immune responses in experimental settings. The significance hereof in the treatment of human septic shock is unknown. We therefore sought if and how vasopressor/inotropic doses relate to pro-inflammatory mediators during treatment of septic shock. We prospectively studied 20 consecutive septic shock patients. For ...
Obregón-Henao Andrés - - 2012
The molecular basis of pathogen-induced host cell apoptosis is well characterized for a number of microorganisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to induce apoptosis and it was shown that live but not heat killed M. tuberculosis stimulates this biological pathway in monocytes. The dependence of this activity on live bacilli led ...
Chung Su Wol SW Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2012
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a cytoprotective molecule that is induced during the response to injury. An increase in HO-1 is an acute indicator of inflammation, and early induction of HO-1 has been suggested to correlate with severity of injury. While a great deal is known about the induction of HO-1 ...
Zhang Haixia - - 2011
In this work, by incorporating a specific DNAzyme sequence into a hairpin aptamer probe, we describe a label-free and sensitive method for electrochemical detection of cytokines using recombinant human IFN-γ as the model analyte. The hairpin aptamer probes are immobilized on a gold electrode through self-assembly. The presence of IFN-γ ...
Zhang Yong-Zhen - - 2011
Background. Hemorrhagic fever-like illness caused by a novel Bunyavirus, Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV), has recently been described in China.Methods. Patients with laboratory-confirmed HYSV infection who were admitted to Union Hospital or Zhongnan Hospital between April 2010 and October 2010 were included in this study. Clinical and routine laboratory data were collected and blood, ...
Forsbach Alexandra - - 2011
The toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7, 8, and 9 stimulate innate immune responses upon recognizing pathogen nucleic acids. Certain GU- or AU-rich RNA sequences were described to differentiate between human TLR7- and TLR8-mediated immune effects. Those single-stranded RNA molecules require endosomal delivery for stabilization against ribonucleases. We have discovered RNA sequences ...
D'Agostino Luca - - 2011
NSP 5a3a is a novel structural protein found to be over-expressed in certain cancer cell lines in-vitro such as Hela, Saos-2, and MCF-7 while barely detectable levels in normal body tissues except for Testis. This particular isoform has been known to interact with cyto- nuclear proteins B23, known to be ...
Chen S-Y - - 2011
Knockdown of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is a novel therapeutic strategy in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the effects of lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of TLR7 short hairpin RNA gene (Lt.shTLR7) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). After being immunized on days 0 and 7, Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-articular (i.a.) injection ...
Guerau-de-Arellano Mireia - - 2011
Pro-inflammatory T cells mediate autoimmune demyelination in multiple sclerosis. However, the factors driving their development and multiple sclerosis susceptibility are incompletely understood. We investigated how micro-RNAs, newly described as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, contribute to pathogenic T-cell differentiation in multiple sclerosis. miR-128 and miR-27b were increased in naïve and ...
Lundberg Patric P Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute at City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, - - 2012
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a classic proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including viral encephalitis. Macrophages being major producers of TNFα are thus attractive targets for in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) mediated down regulation of TNFα. The application of RNAi technology to in ...
Olejniczak Marta - - 2011
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the most commonly used RNA interference (RNAi) triggers. They hold promise as potent therapeutic tools, as demonstrated by recent successful in vivo experiments. However, in addition to triggering intended sequence-specific silencing effects, the reagents of RNAi technology can often cause side effects, including immunological off-target ...
Forsbach Alexandra - - 2011
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) induce robust degradation of homologous mRNAs. Highly specific silencing of target genes makes siRNA an interesting tool in drug development. However, several non-specific effects complicate the use of RNA interference (RNAi). One of the most prevalent unspecific effects is triggering the innate immune system in mammals. ...
Gutiérrez-Venegas Gloria - - 2011
The vasoactive hydrophilic amine histamine is the most important molecule released by mast cells. However, histamine's role in activating intracellular responses in HGFs (human gingival fibroblasts) has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, we investigated the effect of histamine and of Gram-negative [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)] and Gram-positive [LTA ...
Takayama Satoshi - - 2011
Respiratory viral infections are frequently associated with exacerbations of asthma. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral infections may be one of the stimuli for exacerbation. We aimed to assess the potential effect of dsRNA on certain aspects of chronic asthma through the administration of polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), synthetic dsRNA, ...
Yang Wei - - 2011
Abstract Radiation plays an important role in the treatment of hepatoma. In order to improve its therapeutic ratio, there has been much interest in augmenting the effect of radiation on tumors by combining it with molecularly targeted therapeutics. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an excellent potential candidate for targeted molecular therapy ...
Kato Hiroki - - 2011
Summary:  Viral infection results in the generation of non-self RNA species in the cells, which is recognized by retinoic acid inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and initiates innate antiviral responses, including the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon. In this review, we summarize reports on virus-specificity of RLRs, structures ...
Pifer Reed R Department of Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, - - 2011
Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii stimulates production of high levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) by cells of the innate immune system. These two cytokines are central to resistance to T. gondii. Signaling through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein MyD88 is indispensible for activating early innate ...
Klein Kathryn A - - 2011
While autophagy has been shown to act as an anti-viral defense, the Picornaviridae avoid and, in many cases, subvert this pathway to promote their own replication. Evidence indicates that some picornaviruses hijack autophagy in order to induce autophagosome-like membrane structures for genomic RNA replication. Expression of picornavirus proteins can specifically ...
Hakimi Mohamed-Ali - - 2011
RNA silencing plays a major role in innate antiviral and antibacterial defenses in plants, insects, and animals through the action of microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs can act in favor of the microorganism, either when it is pathogen-encoded or when the microorganism subverts host miRNAs to its benefit. Recent data point to ...
Khare Reeti - - 2011
Adenovirus is a robust vector for therapeutic applications, but its use is limited by our understanding of its complex in vivo pharmacology. In this review we describe the necessity of identifying its natural, widespread, and multifaceted interactions with the host since this information will be crucial for efficiently redirecting virus ...
Ahi Yadvinder S YS Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University Center for Cancer Research, and Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, - - 2011
Adenoviral (Ad) vectors have emerged as a promising gene delivery platform for a variety of therapeutic and vaccine purposes during last two decades. However, the presence of preexisting Ad immunity and the rapid development of Ad vector immunity still pose significant challenges to the clinical use of these vectors. Innate ...
Jiang Miao - - 2011
Recognition of viral genetic material takes place via several different receptor systems, such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors and TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9. At present, systematic comparison of the ability of different types of RNAs to induce innate immune responses in human immune cells has been limited. ...
Vallejo Jesus G - - 2011
The discovery and characterization of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family has led to a better understanding of the innate immune system. The strategy of innate immune recognition is based on the detection of constitutive and conserved products of micro-organisms. However, host molecules that are released during injury can also activate ...
Inoue Shigeaki - - 2011
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is one of the critical inhibitory regulators of early stages of T-cell activation and proliferation, which opposes the actions of CD28-mediated costimulation. Anti-CTLA-4 therapy has been effective clinically in enhancing immunity and improving survival in patients with metastatic cancer. Sepsis is a lethal condition that ...
Hart Kelsey A KA Department of Large Animal Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA. - - 2011
Low-dose hydrocortisone (LDHC) therapy modulates inflammatory responses in adults and improves outcomes in some septic adults and neonates, but its immunologic effects have not been evaluated in neonates. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of LDHC therapy on ex vivo immune function in neonatal horses (foals). We ...
Hitchon Carol A - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on recent research that explores the role of infectious organisms in the development of autoimmunity and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RECENT FINDINGS: Human and animal studies provide further evidence supporting a role for the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, in the development of RA. The microbiome ...
Machitani Mitsuhiro - - 2011
A major limitation of the use of adenovirus (Ad) vectors is the innate immune response, which causes inflammatory cytokine production and tissue damages. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to develop safer Ad vectors that are less likely to induce innate immunity. The Ad genome encodes two non-coding small ...
Jurk Marion - - 2011
Microbial infections trigger a multiplicity of responses in the host via innate immune sensors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR7 and TLR8, located in endosomes, detect pathogen-derived RNA, which can be mimicked by synthetic single-stranded oligoribonucleotides (ORNs). Detailed analysis of the immunostimulatory properties of numerous silencing RNAs (siRNAs) revealed that ...
Nagase Hisashi - - 2011
Notch signaling mediates the fates of numerous cells in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In the immune system, Notch signalling contributes to the generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the promotion of HSC self-renewal, T lineage commitment, intrathymic T cell development, and peripheral lymphocyte differentiation/activation. The intracellular domain (ICD) of Notch ...
Sharkhuu Tuya - - 2011
There is growing concern that exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy affects health outcomes in the offspring due to alterations in the development of immune and other homeostatic processes. To assess the risks of maternal inhalation exposure to ozone (O(3)), timed pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to different concentrations of ...
Imani Fooladi Abbas Ali - - 2011
TLR ligands are present on both commensal and pathogenic microbes. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been observed to be largely unresponsive to TLR ligands. This observation has partly been explained by the fact that TLR expression on IECs is sparse. The discovery of the Toll-like receptors finally identified the innate ...
Jurk Marion - - 2011
Microbial infections trigger a multiplicity of responses in the host via innate immune sensors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR7 and TLR8, located in endosomes, detect pathogen-derived RNA, which can be mimicked by synthetic single-stranded oligoribonucleotides (ORNs). Detailed analysis of the immunostimulatory properties of numerous silencing RNAs (siRNAs) revealed that ...
Liu Wenling - - 2011
Researchers and physicians are gaining more understanding of the utility of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) especially in modulation of innate immunity, and choose suitable ones in clinical practice. This review summarizes the recent related research findings. Sustained and/or dysregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is sufficient to produce tissue injury and ...
Haas Michael J - - 2011
This review describes the evidence that supports the hypothesis that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is atheroprotective due to its antiinflammatory effects and benefits on vascular health. Recent investigations have shown that HDL may inhibit atherosclerosis by promoting healthy endothelial function and by limiting or inhibiting the activation of macrophage and other ...
Fabricius Dorit - - 2011
Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are crucial for the modulation of adaptive immune responses in the course of neoplastic, viral and autoimmune diseases. In several of these disorders deregulated pDC-derived interferon-α (IFN-α), a key cytokine produced by pDC, plays a central role. Apart from IFN-α, pDC can produce a variety ...
Latif I K - - 2011
The immune response of broiler chickens exposed to intra-tracheal (i.t.) administration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with and without Nigella sativa (Ns) supplementation was investigated. A total of 120 day-old chicks were divided into four groups comprising 30 birds each, into a control, Ns, BaP, and BaP+Ns group. Immune responses to Newcastle ...
Cunningham-Rundles C - - 2011
The elucidation of the genes leading to selected immune defects has accelerated our understanding of the molecular basis of tolerance in autoimmunity disorders. Mutations in genes of the immune system are known to lead to a catalogue of functional deficits, including loss of activation-induced Fas-mediated apoptosis, an inability to remove ...
Cunningham-Rundles C - - 2011
Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy is the mainstay for treatment in the majority of primary immune deficiencies. While B cell defects are the predominant conditions in man, other diseases in which T cell dysfunction is severe also require antibody replacement. In many medical practices the phenotypic overlap between immune deficiency and symptoms ...
Meijer Annemarie H - - 2011
The zebrafish holds much promise as a high-throughput drug screening model for immune-related diseases, including inflammatory and infectious diseases and cancer. This is due to the excellent possibilities for in vivo imaging in combination with advanced tools for genomic and large scale mutant analysis. The context of the embryo's developing ...
Kaplan Jess L JL Department of Pediatrics and Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, - - 2011
The role of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract has undergone significant modification in the past few decades with new observations from clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research. We now know that the perception of these gut microbes as pathogens or even as commensals is somewhat outdated. It is becoming increasingly ...
Peacock Hayden H Department of Chemistry, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, - - 2011
Immune stimulation is a significant hurdle in the development of effective and safe RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we address this problem in the context of a mimic of microRNA-122 by employing novel nucleobase and known 2'-ribose modifications. The nucleobase modifications are analogues of adenosine and guanosine that contain cyclopentyl and ...
Davis John M JM 3rd Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, - - 2011
Heart failure is an important cause of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Evidence suggests that immune mechanisms contribute to myocardial injury and fibrosis, leading to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). The purpose of this study was to identify a signature of LVDD in patients with RA by analyzing ...
Williams Patrick - - 2011
Chromosomal translocations that combine distinct functional domains of unrelated proteins are an experiment in nature. They demonstrate how endogenous regulatory checkpoints can be overridden by altered cell biochemistry, informing a means to engineering an aberrant signal that the cell is incapable of counterregulating. Thus, our laboratory and others have synthesized ...
Echeverria Itziar - - 2011
Injection of dendritic cells (DCs) presenting viral proteins constitutes a promising approach to stimulate T cell immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we describe a strategy to enhance antigen loading and immunostimulatory functions of DCs useful in the preparation of therapeutic vaccines. Incubation of murine DCs with CFm40L, an ...
Djordje Miljković - - 2011
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Dark Agouti rats immunized with spinal cord homogenate (SCH) and carbonyl iron (CI), as an adjuvant, develop severe hyperacute form of EAE. They succumb to EAE earlier and have higher clinical scores and lethality rate in comparison to counterparts ...
Beaulieu Elaine - - 2011
Glucocorticoids have been exploited therapeutically for more than six decades through the use of synthetic glucocorticoids as anti-inflammatory agents, and are still used in as many as 50% of patients suffering from inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Better understanding of the mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids could enable ...
Loschko Jakob - - 2011
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are capable of presenting Ags to T cells in a tolerogenic or immunogenic manner depending on the formulation of the Ag and the mode of stimulation. It has not been investigated whether effective adaptive immune responses useful for vaccination can be induced by Ab-mediated Ag targeting ...
Wu Minhao - - 2011
As a novel family of cell surface receptors, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREMs) play an important role in inflammatory responses. However, the role of TREMs in the ocular immune system remains unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of TREM-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis, one ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >