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Results 301 - 350 of 1201
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Katzman Shoshana D - - 2008
Compartmentalization of immunity ensures tight regulation of T cell activation in the LN and precise effector T cell delivery to inflamed sites. Herein we show that the tissue-specific accumulation of effector T cells can be subverted by a pathogen at the infection site. Using the Leishmania major mouse model of ...
Huang S J - - 2008
Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality that preferentially affects primiparous patients. It is associated with systemic inflammation and impaired trophoblast invasion of the decidua. Decidual cells are the major cell type of the pregnant endometrium. Macrophages and dendritic cells are major specialized antigen-presenting cells ...
Wendel Martina - - 2008
Increased levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 have been found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. The authors investigated whether inflammatory-activated microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HMVECL) regulate expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in the alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and studied the ...
Lin Yea-Lih - - 2008
The efficiency of CCR5 as an HIV coreceptor is strongly dependent on its level of cell surface expression. Therefore, it is of major importance to identify the factors that regulate cell surface density of CCR5. Among the chemokines that bind to CCR5, and induce its internalization, CCL5 is the most ...
Pokkali Supriya - - 2008
Chemokines mediate their biological functions by transmigration of various immune cells to the site of infection. Tuberculous pleurisy provides an effective model to study the role of chemokines in the recruitment of immune cells to the pleura. Our aim was to understand the cumulative effect of chemokines (IP-10, MIG, IL-8, ...
Gu Y Stephanie - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic connective tissue disease characterized by vascular damage, autoimmunity, and excessive collagen deposition. Despite advances in disease-specific treatment of other rheumatologic diseases, disease-targeted treatment in SSc continues to be elusive. In this review, our goal was to place the contemporary immunobiology of SSc in ...
Tiwari Neeraj - - 2008
Inflammatory responses by mast cells are characterized by massive exocytosis of prestored granular mediators followed by cytokine/chemokine release. The vesicular trafficking mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Vesicular-associated membrane protein-8 (VAMP-8), a member of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family of fusion proteins initially characterized in endosomal ...
Scortegagna Marzia - - 2008
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulatory transcription factor controlling multiple cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous processes, such as metabolism, angiogenesis, matrix invasion, and cancer metastasis. Here we used a new line of transgenic mice with constitutive gain of HIF-1 function in basal keratinocytes and demonstrated a signaling pathway from HIF-1 ...
Campanella Gabriele S V GS Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, - - 2008
Trafficking of leukocytes to sites of inflammation is an important step in the establishment of an immune response. Chemokines are critical regulators of leukocyte trafficking and are widely studied molecules for their important role in disease and for their potential as new therapeutic targets. The ability of chemokines to induce ...
Atanackovic Djordje - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Malignant effusions offer a unique opportunity for the study of interactions between the human immune system and cancer. We have recently demonstrated that malignant effusions are characterized by an accumulation of T cells expressing chemokine receptors such as CCR4, which is commonly found on Th2 cells. In contrast, effector ...
Viola Antonella - - 2008
The chemokine system coordinates leukocyte migration in immunity and inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Although several successful strategies have been identified to develop drugs targeting chemokines and their receptors, this has not yet resulted in many new therapeutics. This is likely due to a ...
Hermsen Joshua L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Migration of lymphocytes into and through the mucosal immune system depends upon adhesion molecules to attract circulating cells and chemokines to stimulate diapedesis into tissues. Decreased enteral stimulation significantly reduces mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) levels, an adhesion molecule critical for homing of T and B cells to ...
Salam Nasir - - 2008
Dendritic cells (DCs) play major roles in mediating immune responses to mycobacteria. A crucial aspect of this is the priming of T cells via chemokines and cytokines. In this study we investigated the roles of chemokines RANTES and IP-10 in regulating protective responses from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) 10 kDa ...
Rehimi Rizwan - - 2008
Cell migration plays a fundamental role in a wide variety of biological processes including development, tissue repair and disease. These processes depend on directed cell migration along and through cell layers. Chemokines are small secretory proteins that exert their effects by activating a family of G-protein coupled receptors and have ...
Marelli-Berg F M - - 2008
Coordinated migratory events are required for the development of effective and regulated immunity. Naïve T lymphocytes are programmed to recirculate predominantly in secondary lymphoid tissue by non-specific stimuli. In contrast, primed T cells must identify specific sites of antigen location in non-lymphoid tissue to exert targeted effector responses. Following priming, ...
Viola Antonella - - 2008
Chemokines and their receptors control leukocyte migration and homing throughout the body in both physiological and pathological conditions. In the context of the adaptive immune system, which requires high efficiency and control, chemokines and chemokine receptors represent a versatile code that orchestrates the "who, where and when" of the immune ...
Fulkerson Patricia C PC Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. - - 2008
Oeosinophils are pleiotropic multi-functional leukocytes that are typically associated with the initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses, particularly helminth infection and allergic disease. However, expanding evidence supports a broader role for oeosinophils in homoeostatic function and organ development and modulation of local immune responses via interaction with other effector cells. ...
Montero Jana - - 2008
In the current work, we have demonstrated that both rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interleukin 8 (IL-8), a CXC chemokine, and CK-6, a CC chemokine, are able of efficiently attracting RTS11, a rainbow trout established macrophage-monocyte-like cell line. Interestingly, two sub-populations of non-adherent cells are distinguishable by flow cytometry that could ...
Heldin Paraskevi - - 2008
Hyaluronan is an apparently simple polysaccharide that is responsible for tissue hydration but also stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation via binding to cell surface receptors, such as CD44. The amounts of hyaluronan increase during inflammation and tumorigenesis through the action of chemokines and growth factors. This review discusses some ...
O'Neill Helen C - - 2008
Exosomes are small vesicles that are secreted from cells. They are derived from multivesicular endosomes that fuse with the plasma membrane, thereby releasing their internal vesicles into the extracellular environment. Exosomes from antigen-presenting cells contain a range of immunostimulatory molecules that activate T cells, which suggests that they may have ...
Linton Nicola F - - 2008
Prenatal mortality due to loss of lymphocyte-promoted endometrial angiogenesis is being investigated as a major cause of litter reductions during pregnancy in pigs. This review discusses immune mechanisms influencing porcine endometrial angiogenesis as well as additional signalling molecules that may play important roles in the compromise of peri-implantation and mid-gestation ...
Yamamoto Toshiyuki - - 2008
Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease with unknown etiology characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the skin. Cellular infiltrates of certain immune cells and proinflammatory mediators are suggested to play a crucial role in cutaneous fibrosis, forming complicated networks between fibroblasts and immune cells via cell-cell communications. Tissue-selective ...
Kulkarni Onkar - - 2008
Lupus nephritis is a common solid organ manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The disease is tightly linked to the production of autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, i.e. immune complex glomerulonephritis. In this process chemokines mediate multiple biological effects, e.g. orchestrating proinflammatory microenvironments, the recruitment of immune cell subsets into ...
Hasegawa Minoru - - 2008
Systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) is an autoimmune disease characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition and vascular injury in the skin and other visceral organs. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, interactions among leukocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts are likely to be central to the pathogenesis of the disease. Chemokines mediate the ...
Filer Andrew - - 2008
New dimensions in our understanding of immune cell trafficking in health and disease have been opened by the discovery of chemokines and their receptors. This family of chemo-attractant cytokines performs essential roles in the recruitment and subsequent positioning of leucocyte subsets within tissue microenvironments. Investigation of chemokine networks offers a ...
Wolf Marlene - - 2008
Chemokines are small, secreted proteins that orchestrate the migration of cells, which are involved in immune defence, immune surveillance and haematopoiesis. However, chemokines are also implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases, cancers and HIV. The chemokine system is considerably large and has a redundancy in the repertoire of ...
Cheng Wen - - 2008
Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces a wide array of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which may contribute to chlamydia-induced pathologies. However, the precise mechanisms by which Chlamydia induces cytokines remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) plays an essential role in chlamydial induction of the chemokine IL-8. Cells ...
Danielsson Kristina Norén - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We determined previously that hypoxia results in increased 15-lipoxygenase type 2 (15-LOX-2) expression and CXCL8 secretion in macrophages. This study sought to determine whether 15-LOX-2 expression links directly with the secretion of inflammatory molecules in macrophages and also investigated its subsequent effects on T cell migration. METHODS: Adenovirus-mediated gene ...
Penido Carmen - - 2008
In the present study, we show that the intra-thoracic injection of ovalbumin (OVA, 12.5 microg per cavity) into C57BL/10 mice induced a significant increase in gammadelta T lymphocyte numbers in the pleural cavity, blood and thoracic lymph node of challenged mice. Such increase was significant within 12 h, peaked within ...
Watkins Heather R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Chemokines are small proteins that signal to and attract cells of the immune system; they are vital components in the modulation of immunity and wound healing. A newly described chemokine was reported to have antibacterial and antifungal activity. This chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28; also called mucosae-associated ...
Rittner Heike L - - 2007
In inflammation, resident cells and infiltrating leukocytes produce proalgesic mediators. Although these mediators induce pain, the role of specific cell populations is still controversial. In addition, resident cells and leukocytes also generate analgesic mediators that counteract inflammatory pain, including anti-inflammatory cytokines, endocannabinoids, and opioid peptides. Chemokines and adhesion molecules orchestrate ...
Jones Jacqueline A - - 2007
Implantation of biomaterial devices results in the well-known foreign body reaction consisting of monocytes, macrophages, and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) at the material/tissue interface. We continue to address the hypothesis that material surface chemistry modulates the phenotypic expression of these cells. Utilizing our human monocyte culture system, we have ...
Adachi T T Department of Conservative Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504, - - 2007
Marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, such as activated T-cells, is observed in the progression of pulpitis; however, little is known about the mechanism of their recruitment into pulpal lesions. It has been recently demonstrated that CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) chemoattracts CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3)-positive activated T-cells. We therefore ...
Markotić Alemka - - 2007
Hantaviruses cause two important human illnesses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Both syndromes are believed to be immune-mediated diseases. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be the main target cells for hantaviruses and important sources of and targets for cytokines/chemokines secretion. THP-1 cells have been used ...
Dey R - - 2007
The resolution from leishmanial infection is dependent on the coordinated interactions between the components of the cell mediated immune system and the activation of T-cell population into appropriate cytokine production and the activation of macrophages. Earlier reports established that C-C chemokines particularly macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and macrophage chemoattractant protein ...
Lee Hak-Mo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sertoli cells (SC) are known to have active mechanism for evading humoral immune response and are known to have immune modulatory effects in the presence of other antigens. This has led us to hypothesize that systemic immune modulating effect of SC might be optimized by their residence on peripheral ...
Arlian Larry G - - 2007
The clinical signs of a Sarcoptes scabiei (De Geer) (Acari: Sarcoptidae) infestation are initially delayed, which suggests that the mites can depress the immune/inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the modulatory properties of scabies mites in vivo at the gene expression level in a secondary lymphoid ...
Salamonsen Lois A - - 2007
The complex processes of embryo implantation and early placentation require a plethora of locally acting molecules, which are themselves tightly regulated. Among these are cytokines (including chemotactic chemokines), which are synthesized by several cell types at the maternal-fetal interface. Those produced by endometrial epithelium may be secreted apically into the ...
Cantor Joseph - - 2007
Adoptive transfer of diabetogenic CD4 Th1 T cell clones into young NOD or NOD.scid recipients rapidly induces onset of diabetes and also provides a system for analysis of the pancreatic infiltrate. Although many reports have suggested a role for macrophages in the inflammatory response, there has been little direct characterization ...
Erin Edward M - - 2008
Dithiothreitol (DTT) is commonly used to liquefy induced sputum samples before assessment of cytology, but causes reduction of disulfide bonds and denaturation of proteins. To process sputum supernatants containing DTT to enable quantification of cytokines and chemokines. A standard solution of 22 pooled chemokines and cytokines was incubated with DTT ...
Zeremski M - - 2007
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Intrahepatic inflammation and liver cell injury are defining features of chronic HCV infection. Chemokines, chemotactic cytokines that attract leucocytes to inflammatory sites, may be important in the development of intrahepatic ...
Eagan Thomas S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Manual medicine treatments (MMTs) rely on biophysical techniques that use manually guided forces in numerous strain directions to treat injuries and somatic dysfunctions. Although clinical outcomes post-MMT are positive, the underlying cellular mechanisms responsible remain elusive. We previously described an in vitro model of strain-induced tissue injury and MMTs. ...
Peña Caterina - - 2007
Melatonin seems to be an important stimulatory factor of the immune system. This indolamine is capable of inducing activation of leukocytes. Tissue leukocyte infiltration is a key feature of inflammatory and immune responses; however, there is no information about the effect of melatonin on leukocyte chemotaxis. Therefore, the aim of ...
Tüzün Yalçin - - 2007
Chemokines are a superfamily of small, secreted proteins that regulate cell traffic in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Keratinocytes synthesize many chemokines, including members of the CC and CXC subfamilies, such as regulated on activation of normal T-cell expressed and secreted, gamma-interferon inducible protein-10, monokine induced by gamma-interferon, and thymus- and ...
Kraaijeveld A O - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Chemokines play an important role in atherogenesis and in ischemic injury and repair; however, prospective data on individual chemokines in unstable angina pectoris (UAP) are scarce. Therefore, we assessed chemokine patterns in a prospective cohort of patients with UAP. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma samples of 54 patients with Braunwald ...
Heijink Irene H - - 2008
The allergen-induced release of CCL17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) may be crucial in asthmatic airway inflammation by recruitment of Th2 cells. In addition, it might lead to aberrant Th2 cell activity through impairment of beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) control. We questioned how chemokine patterns change upon allergen challenge and whether treatment ...
Eberl Gérard - - 2007
In mammalian fetuses, ontogeny dictates the development of secondary lymphoid tissues, the spleen, the lymph nodes and the Peyer's patches. In adults, commensals, infectious microbes and inflammation induce the formation of small reversible lymphoid tissues resembling lymph nodes or Peyer's patches. Crucial to lymphoid-tissue genesis is lymphotoxin-beta receptor-mediated activation of ...
Vandercappellen Jo - - 2007
Chemokines affect inflammation and cancer through leukocyte attraction and angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that CXCL4L1/platelet factor-4 variant (PF-4var), a highly angiostatic chemokine, is poorly chemotactic for phagocytes and is inducible in monocytes by inflammatory mediators but remained undetectable in macrophages and neutrophils. In addition, CXCL4L1/PF-4var production by mesenchymal tumor cells ...
Werts Catherine - - 2007
The Nod-like receptor proteins Nod1 and Nod2 participate in innate immune responses against bacteria through intracellular detection of peptidoglycan, a component of bacterial cell wall. Recent evidence has demonstrated that Nod1 stimulates the release of chemokines that attract neutrophils at the site of infection, such as CXCL8/IL-8 in humans, and ...
Isomoto Hajime - - 2007
The exact pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that mucosal immune and inflammatory responses, characterized by specific cytokine and chemokine profiles, may underlie the diverse esophageal phenotypes of GERD. Interleukin 8 (IL-8), a representative chemokine, mediates neutrophil trafficking via its receptors, mainly ...
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