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Results 201 - 250 of 1201
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Verburg-van Kemenade B M Lidy - - 2009
The opioid system is involved in modulation of both innate and acquired immune responses, thus altering resistance to a variety of infectious agents. We sequenced and characterized carp opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR) and found their regulated expression in piscine leukocytes. Moreover, both in vivo and in vitro opioids ...
Raz Erez - - 2009
Chemokines and their receptors were discovered about twenty years ago as mediators of leukocyte traffic. Over the past decade, functional studies of these molecules have revealed their importance for cell migration processes during embryogenesis, which, in addition to providing mechanistic insights into embryonic development, could complement information about chemokine function ...
Kuscher Katrin - - 2009
The migration of monocytes to sites of inflammation is largely determined by their response to chemokines. Although the chemokine specificities and expression patterns of chemokine receptors are well defined, it is still a matter of debate how cells integrate the messages provided by different chemokines that are concomitantly produced in ...
Errahali Younes J - - 2009
The underlying inflammation present in chronic airway diseases is orchestrated by increased expression of CC chemokines that selectively recruit leukocyte populations into the pulmonary system. Human CCL26 signals through CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), is dramatically upregulated in challenged asthmatics, and stimulates recruitment of eosinophils (EOSs) and other leukocytes. CCL26 ...
Salogni Laura - - 2009
Activin A is a dimeric protein, member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family that plays a crucial role in wound repair and in fetal tolerance. Emerging evidence also proposes activin A as a key mediator in inflammation. This study reports that activin A induces the directional migration of immature ...
Iwabuchi Noriyuki - - 2009
In human trials, Bifidobacterium longum BB536 alleviates subjective symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis, an IgE-mediated type I allergy caused by exposure to Japanese cedar, and significantly suppresses the increase of plasma thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) associated with pollen dispersion. In the present study, we investigated the suppressive effects of ...
Rajagopalan Govindarajan - - 2009
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute, serious systemic illness caused by bacterial superantigens. Nonavailability of a suitable animal model until recently has hampered an in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of TSS. In the current study, we characterized the early molecular events underlying TSS using our HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse model. ...
Schmitz Veronica - - 2009
Previous analysis of the endogenous innate signals that steer T cell-dependent immunity in mice acutely infected by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi revealed that bradykinin (BK) or lysyl-BK, i.e., the short-lived peptides excised from plasma-borne kininogens through the activity of cruzipain, induces dendritic cell maturation via BK B(2) receptors (B(2)R). Here, ...
Lateef Zabeen - - 2009
The parapoxvirus orf virus causes pustular dermatitis in sheep and is transmissible to humans. The virus encodes a secreted chemokine-binding protein (CBP). We examined the ability of this protein to inhibit migration of murine monocytes in response to CC inflammatory chemokines, using chemotaxis assays, and its effects on monocyte recruitment ...
Kuhle J - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is classically assumed to be a neurodegenerative disorder. Inflammation has been observed in CNS tissue in ALS patients. We investigated the expression and prognostic relevance of proinflammatory chemokines in ALS. METHODS: We analyzed nine chemokines, eotaxin, eotaxin-3, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, macrophage derived ...
Ohashi Tomohiko T Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi, - - 2009
Human hepatocytes are known to express an array of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In this study, we examined the potential roles of hepatocytes in regulating immune responses in the liver, by assessing the induction of Th1- or Th2-specific chemokines in HepG2 cells after various inflammatory stimulations. HepG2 cells were stimulated ...
Harimaya Atsushi - - 2009
Alloiococcus otitidis is a newly discovered organism frequently detected in otitis media. However, the association of the organism with the development of otitis media has not been disclosed in detail yet. In the middle ear, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are released in association with infection by pathogens, and these cytokines ...
Bulanova Elena - - 2009
Extracellular ATP mediates a diverse array of biological responses in many cell types and tissues, including immune cells. We have demonstrated that ATP induces purinergic receptor P2X(7) mediated membrane permeabilization, apoptosis, and cytokine expression in murine mast cells (MCs). Here, we report that MCs deficient in the expression of the ...
Bolomini-Vittori Matteo - - 2009
Regulation of the affinity of the beta(2) integrin LFA-1 by chemokines is critical to lymphocyte trafficking, but the signaling mechanisms that control this process are not well understood. Here we investigated the signaling events controlling LFA-1 affinity triggering by chemokines in human primary T lymphocytes. We found that the small ...
Castellani M L - - 2009
IL-33, a member of IL-1 family, induces the differentiation of T-cells (depending on the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-kB) and is involved in T-cell mediated immune responses. IL-33 is also involved in the production of IL-5, IL-4 and IL-13 and several chemokines. In this editorial we show the importance of ...
Saliba Ranime - - 2009
The purpose of this study is to examine the in vitro modulatory effect of tigecycline on staphylococcal superantigen-induced T-cell activation and cytokines and chemokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Isolated human PBMC from ten healthy volunteers were stimulated by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and Staphylococcal toxic shock ...
Hoermannsperger Gabriele - - 2009
Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the probiotic mixture VSL#3 has protective activities in the context of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study was to reveal bacterial strain-specific molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of VSL#3 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). VSL#3 inhibited TNF-induced secretion of the ...
Reinhart Todd A - - 2009
Chemokines are small chemoattractant cytokines involved in homeostatic and inflammatory immune cell migration. These small proteins have multiple functional properties that extend beyond their most recognized role in controlling cellular migration. The complex immunobiology of chemokines, coupled with the use of subsets of chemokine receptors as HIV-1 and SIV entry ...
Borroni Elena M - - 2009
Chemokines play a major role in the induction of inflammatory reactions and development of an appropriate immune response by coordinating leukocyte recruitment. The appropriate control of the chemokine system involves several chemokine decoy receptors, with distinct specificity and tissue distribution, defined as nonactivating chemokine receptors able to bind the ligands ...
Loos Tamara - - 2009
Chemokines attract cells during the development of lymphoid tissues, leukocyte homing, and pathologic processes such as cancer and inflammation. Limited posttranslational modification of chemokines may significantly alter the glycosaminoglycan and/or receptor binding properties and signaling potency of these chemotactic proteins. To compare the in vitro and in vivo biologic activities ...
Sojka Dorothy K - - 2009
The acquisition and execution of CD4 effector function are tightly regulated and spatially compartmentalized. In the lymph node (LN), naïve CD4+ T cells acquire specialized functions by means of expression of distinct cytokines and acquire distinct homing properties. Therefore, both the function and subsequent localization of effector cells appears to ...
Stewart Trina J - - 2009
A surge in interest in the chemokine-chemokine receptor network is probably related to the expanding roles that chemokines have now been identified to play in human biology, particularly immunity. Specific tissue microenvironments express distinct chemokines and both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells have receptor expression profiles that permit the coordinated trafficking ...
Mitchell Ryan M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the MHC class 1-like gene known as HFE have been proposed as genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases that include neuroinflammation as part of the disease process. Variants of HFE are relatively common in the general population and are most commonly associated with iron overload, but can promote ...
Bartee Mee Y - - 2009
Chemokines are important for activation of a host of cellular immune and inflammatory responses including cell signaling, activation, and communication. M-T7, a myxoma virus protein, inhibits the activity of chemokines by direct binding to chemokines and/or with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To study the effects of this chemokine-modulating protein (CMP), we use ...
Starr Amanda E - - 2009
The nature, sequence, and length of the carboxy and amino termini of chemokines are important determinants of chemokine function, being essential for both efficient haptotactic gradient formation and cognate receptor activation events of these chemotactic cytokines. Chemokines are susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in both of these regions, which usually results ...
Lin Francis - - 2009
Leukocyte trafficking in tissues mediates cellular immune responses and can be directed by chemotactic factors such as chemokines. Understanding chemotactic responses of leukocytes to chemoattractant gradients is of great interest and importance to both basic science and clinical research. Conventional methods for studying leukocyte migration and chemotaxis generally lack the ...
Szekanecz Zoltan Z Division of Rheumatology, Third Department of Medicine, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Sciences Center, Debrecen, H-4004, Hungary. - - 2009
In rheumatoid arthritis, chemokines mediate the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the synovium. Among the four known chemokine families, CXC, CC chemokines and fractalkine seem to be of outstanding importance in this process. Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels, is also important during the perpetuation of inflammation underlying rheumatoid arthritis. ...
Jaszczyñska-Nowinka K - - 2009
Cytokines are proteins which regulate and control the basic functions of cells, including proliferation, differentiation and migration by auto- and paracrine communication. Chemokines are a family of proinflammatory chemotactic cytokines. Chemokines play a significant role in many physiological and pathological processes. Chemokines usually join many receptors, and the same receptors ...
Larrubia Juan R - - 2008
Chemokines produced in the liver during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induce migration of activated T cells from the periphery to infected parenchyma. The milieu of chemokines secreted by infected hepatocytes is predominantly associated with the T-helper cell/Tc1 T cell (Th1/Tc1) response. These chemokines consist of CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 ...
Kobayashi M - - 2009
Bepotastine besilate is an antihistaminic drug of the second generation with superior clinical responses. In this study, we investigated whether bepotastine modulates the production of cytokines/chemokines and the expression of CD54 in human epidermal keratinocytes. The production of IL-1alpha, CXCL10, and CCL17 and the expression of CD54 were significantly suppressed ...
Furuichi Kengo - - 2009
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a main cause of acute kidney injury. Tubular necrosis and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration are characteristic pathologic changes of acute kidney injury. The main necrotic area should be repaired with new tubular epithelial cells after the injury. On the other hand, some parts of the injured kidney ...
Yubero S - - 2009
This study focused on the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanisms mediating chemokine production in different cell sources during mild and severe acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO) and 3.5% NaTc, respectively. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as antioxidant treatment. Pancreatic glutathione depletion, acinar overexpression of monocyte ...
Davenport R D - - 2009
Chemokines are a set of structurally related peptides that were first characterized as chemoattractants and have subsequently been shown to have many functions in homeostasis and pathophysiology. Diversity and redundancy of chemokine function is imparted by both selectivity and overlap in the specificity of chemokine receptors for their ligands. Chemokines ...
Cai Zhonghua - - 2009
To elucidate the functional role of piscine incomplete ELR motif, the recombinant CXC and its mutants (mELR and mLoop) were produced in Escherichia coli M15 based on the predicted mature peptide coding sequence of the black sea bream CXC (BS CXC) chemokine. Assays showed that the BS rCXC proteins displayed ...
Qin Shulin - - 2008
Chemokines likely play multiple roles in HIV-1 and SIV pathogenesis. To examine potential associations between chemokine expression levels and apoptosis of cells in lymphoid tissues during SIV infection, we measured chemokine and cytokine mRNA levels in multiple lymphoid tissues compartments from uninfected and SIV-infected cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Real-time RT-PCR ...
Segerer Sabine - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Following implantation, endometrial stroma is transformed into decidual tissue via a complex remodeling process. In parallel with that process, a significant increase in immune cells can be detected. Several studies suggest that chemokines and cytokines orchestrate the transformation of decidual tissue and the infiltration of leukocytes. In this study, ...
Middleton R K - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterised by chronic transmural inflammation. This study investigated the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) within the AAA, and their relationship with mural inflammation. METHODS: Biopsies were obtained from 25 AAAs, 15 abdominal aortas, and 10 atherosclerotic thoracic aortas. IL-8 and ...
Deng R - - 2008
The pathogenesis of human H5N1 influenza remains poorly understood and controversial. 'Cytokine storm' has been hypothesized to be the main cause of the severity of this disease. However, the significance of this hypothesis has been called into question by a recent report, which demonstrates that inhibition of the cytokine response ...
Martini Rudolf - - 2008
In this article we first discuss the factors that regulate macrophage recruitment, activation, and myelin phagocytosis during Wallerian degeneration and some of the factors involved in the termination of inflammation at the end of the period of Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve injuries. In particular, we deal with the early ...
Klinman Dennis - - 2008
Enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOT) were initially developed to detect and quantify individual antibody-secreting B cells. As the sensitivity of this assay improved, the much smaller amounts of cytokine and chemokine produced by individual T cells became amenable to detection. ELISPOT assays utilize high-affinity antibody pairs directed against different epitopes on ...
Stevenson Nigel J - - 2009
The chemokine eotaxin/CCL11 is an important mediator of leukocyte migration, but its effect on inflammatory cytokine signaling has not been explored. In this study, we find that CCL11 induces suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3 expression in murine macrophages, human monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). We also discover that ...
Choi Jung-Won - - 2008
BACKGROUND: CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor that plays important roles in mediating chemotactic signals and modulating the activation of lymphocytes. We have previously conducted a case-control study by using a candidate gene approach to investigate the association of CXCR3 polymorphisms with the risk of asthma. Results from the epidemiologic study ...
Méndez-Samperio Patricia - - 2008
Chemokines are the key molecules that recruit immune cells by chemotaxis and act in leukocyte activation during mycobacterial diseases. Currently, tuberculosis is a leading infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this review is to describe a series of recent scientific evidence concerning to the protective role ...
Elhers William H - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite shorter replacement intervals and new lens materials, giant papillary conjunctivitis still limits the ability of some patients to wear contact lenses. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has elucidated many new mediators of inflammation. The presence of chemokines and cytokines such as IL-8, IL-6, IL-11, macrophage inflammatory protein-delta, ...
Dahm-Kähler Pernilla - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression and localization of the macrophage-specific chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), and macrophages (CD68) in the perifollicular stroma of different phases of the human ovulatory process and its relation to macrophage influx. DESIGN: Experimental study on patient-controlled material. SETTING: University hospital. ...
Rafei Moutih - - 2008
We demonstrate that the secretome of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppresses plasma cell (PC) immunoglobulin (Ig) production, induces plasmablast proliferation, and leads to interleukin-10-mediated blockade in vitro. We found that these effects are the result of MSC-derived CC chemokine ligands CCL2 and CCL7. More specifically, MSCs further processed these CC ...
Shimizu Koichi - - 2008
Despite the development of effective immunosuppressive therapy, transplant graft arterial disease (GAD) remains the major limitation to long-term graft survival. Multiple immune and nonimmune risk factors contribute to this vasculopathic intimal hyperplastic process. Thus, initial interplay between host inflammatory cells and donor endothelial cells triggers alloimmune responses, whereas alloantigen-independent factors ...
Truman Lucy A - - 2008
Cells undergoing apoptosis are efficiently located and engulfed by phagocytes. The mechanisms by which macrophages, the professional scavenging phagocytes of apoptotic cells, are attracted to sites of apoptosis are poorly defined. Here we show that CX3CL1/fractalkine, a chemokine and intercellular adhesion molecule, is released rapidly from apoptotic lymphocytes, via caspase- ...
Cortes-Perez Naima G - - 2008
Chemokines have been described as essential mediators in leukocytes migration to inflammatory sites and to secondary lymphoid organs. Mig and IP-10 are two CXC chemokines that recruit mononuclear cells in vivo and inhibit angiogenesis. In addition to their chemotactic roles, Mig and IP-10 have also an important role in the ...
Bromley Shannon K - - 2008
The understanding of how chemokines orchestrate the trafficking and activity of immune cells has increased considerably. So far, over 50 chemokines and 20 chemokine receptors have been identified. Detailed analyses have demonstrated the function of chemokine receptors on T cell subsets, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of chemokines in ...
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