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Braga P C PC Centre of Respiratory Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy; Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, School of Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, - - 2014
Activated neutrophils (PMNs), the ROS/RNS released by PMNs and the derived inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of human inflammatory airway diseases. Similar diseases are also present in horses which suffer from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) and inflammatory airway diseases (IAD). Hyaluronic acid ...
Berghaus Londa J LJ Department of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United - - 2014
Rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages, causes life-threatening pneumonia in foals and in people with underlying immune deficiencies. As a basis for this study, we hypothesized that macrophage lineage and age would affect intracellular survival of R. equi and cytokine induction after infection. Monocyte-derived and bronchoalveolar macrophages from ...
Waghmare A B AB Antitoxins & Sera Department, Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation Limited, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
Several biochemical and hematological changes in horses are observed during production of snake antivenom. Although conventional adjuvants like Freund's (Complete and Incomplete) are good immunopotentiators, they produce considerable local reactions in animals. Variety of commercial adjuvants, like montanide adjuvants, having high immunopotentiation and showing lesser side effects are available. The ...
Hansen S S Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark. Electronic address: - - 2014
An imbalance in various cytokine mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in horses suffering from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) has been demonstrated; however, the natural variation of cytokine expression in healthy horses has yet to be described. The objectives of this study were to: ...
Frellstedt Linda L University of Liege, Physiology/Center of Equine Sports Medicine, Liege, Belgium ; - - 2014
In humans, strenuous exercise causes increased susceptibility to respiratory infections associated with down-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), co-stimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules. Lower airway diseases are also a common problem in sport and racing horses. Because the innate immunity plays an essential role in lung defense mechanisms, we aimed to ...
Niedzwiedz Artur - - 2014
Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development ...
de Laat M A - - 2013
Equine laminitis, a disease of the lamellar structure of the horse's hoof, can be incited by numerous factors that include inflammatory and metabolic aetiologies. However, the role of inflammation in hyperinsulinaemic laminitis has not been adequately defined. Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation results in up-regulation of inflammatory pathways and the release ...
Nielsen Martin K - - 2013
Cyathostomins can cause a severe inflammation of equine large intestine characterized by substantial ventral edema and pronounced protein loss. Anthelmintic treatment of horses can result in a localized inflammatory response in the colonic mucosa of clinically normal horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response ...
Sarmiento J - - 2013
A reduction in inflammatory cell apoptosis is an important concept in the maintenance of inflammation and a potential target for the resolution of inflammation in many inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases, including tumors, neurodegenerative disorders and autoimmunity, and may also be implicated ...
Krista Kathryn M - - 2013
Objective-To quantify peripheral blood neutrophil apoptosis in equine patients with acute abdominal disease (ie, colic) caused by strangulating or nonstrangulating intestinal lesions and compare these values with values for horses undergoing elective arthroscopic surgery. Animals-20 client-owned adult horses. Procedures-Peripheral blood was collected from horses immediately prior to and 24 hours ...
Waldschmidt Ingrid - - 2013
Pulmonary diseases are common in horses and have a major economic impact on the equine industry. Some of them could be associated with an inadequate immune response in the lung, but methods to evaluate this response in horses are lacking. The aim of this study was to develop and validate ...
Steelman Samantha M - - 2013
Chronic equine laminitis causes persistent pain and lameness in affected animals and often necessitates euthanasia when pain management strategies become ineffective. Published studies as well as anecdotal reports suggest that this chronic inflammatory disease is associated with systemic alterations in immune responsiveness, perhaps involving an autoimmune component. We investigated this ...
Paillot R - - 2013
Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) are currently used in equine medicine as immune-modulators for prophylactic treatment or adjunct to conventional therapy in order to improve immune defences, to prevent or treat infectious diseases. Their mode of action relies on a non-antigen specific interaction with the innate ...
Vendrig Johannes Cornelis - - 2013
Deficient innate and adaptive immune responses cause newborn mammals to be more susceptible to bacterial infections than adult individuals. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play a pivotal role in bacterial recognition and subsequent immune responses. Several studies have indicated that activation of certain TLRs, in particular TLR-2, can result ...
Adams Amanda A - - 2012
The weaning process of foals involves a period of considerable stress which likely contributes to an increased risk of infectious disease in these young horses. Mechanisms responsible for this heightened risk of infection remain unknown, although likely due to compromised cell-mediated immunity. Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO), an immmunomodulator, has been shown ...
Hinden Sandro - - 2012
Background -  Recurrent urticaria (RU) is a common skin disease of horses, but little is known about its pathogenesis. Hypothesis/Objective -  The aim of this study was to characterize the inflammatory cell infiltrate and cytokine expression pattern in the skin of horses with RU. Animals -  Biopsies of lesional and ...
Crescenzi Elvira - - 2012
The induction of senescence in tumor cells impairs transformation and promotes an anticancer immune response resulting from the production by senescent cells of cytokines and chemokines, an aspect known as "senescence-associated secretory phenotype" (SASP). Here we discuss recent findings regarding the role of NFκB in the modulation of the SASP ...
Sánchez-Matamoros A - - 2012
Cytokine secretion is one of the main mechanisms by which the immune system is regulated in response to pathogens. Therefore, the measurement of cytokine expression is fundamental to characterizing the immune response to infections. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used to measure cytokine mRNA levels, but ...
Montgomery Julia B - - 2012
The effects of selenium (Se) supplementation and source on equine immune function have not been extensively studied. This study examined the effects of oral Se supplementation and Se source on aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in horses. Fifteen horses were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (5 horses/group): control, ...
Tadros Elizabeth M - - 2012
The role of endotoxemia in the development of laminitis remains unclear. Although systemic inflammation is a risk factor for laminitis in hospitalized horses, experimental endotoxin administration fails to induce the disease. While not sufficient to cause laminitis by itself, endotoxemia might predispose laminar tissue to damage from other mediators during ...
Katila T - - 2012
This review attempts to summarize the current knowledge on uterine inflammatory response after mating in horses, pigs and cattle. Post-mating endometritis has been extensively studied in horses as it has been considered to cause infertility. The inflammation is known to occur also in cattle, but it has not been investigated ...
Sharma Salil S Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, - - 2012
An increase in cardiac workload, ultimately resulting in hypertrophy, generates oxidative stress and therefore requires the activation of both survival and growth signal pathways. Here, we wanted to characterize the regulators, targets and mechanistic roles of miR-142, a microRNA (miRNA) negatively regulated during hypertrophy. We show that both miRNA-142-3p and ...
Devine Patrick J - - 2012
Proper functioning of the ovary is critical to maintain fertility and overall health, and ovarian function depends on the maintenance and normal development of ovarian follicles. This review presents evidence about the potential impact of oxidative stress on the well-being of primordial, growing and preovulatory follicles, as well as oocytes ...
Kuang Sheng-Yao - - 2012
Immune response and antioxidant status of immune organs in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) fed graded levels of methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) (0, 5.1, 7.6, 10.2, 12.7, 15.3 g kg(-1) diet) for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that head kidney index, spleen index, red and white blood cell counts ...
Steelman Samantha M - - 2012
Equine laminitis is a devastating disease that causes severe pain in afflicted horses and places a major economic burden on the horse industry. In acute laminitis, the disintegration of the dermal-epidermal junction can cause the third phalanx to detach from the hoof wall, leaving the horse unable to bear weight ...
Sidler D - - 2011
Glutathione-S-transferase of the Pi class (GSTP1) is frequently overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors and has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for cancer therapy. GSTP1 is a phase II detoxification enzyme and conjugates the tripeptide glutathione to endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics, thereby limiting the efficacy of antitumor ...
Wilkins Heather M - - 2012
Despite making up only a minor fraction of the total cellular glutathione, recent studies indicate that the mitochondrial glutathione pool is essential for cell survival. Selective depletion of mitochondrial glutathione is sufficient to sensitize cells to mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) and intrinsic apoptosis. Glutathione is synthesized exclusively in the cytoplasm ...
Chakraborty Subhankari Prasad - - 2011
Staphylococcus aureus is most frequently isolated pathogen causing bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and pneumonia. The immune cells use reactive oxygen species (ROS) for carrying out their normal functions, while an excess amount of ROS can attack cellular components that lead to cell damage. The aim of the ...
Hedger Mark P - - 2011
Activin A provides a unique link between reproduction and immunity, which is especially significant in the adult testis. This cytokine, together with inhibin B and follistatin acting as regulators of activin A activity, is fundamentally involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis. However, activin A also has a ...
Holtz W - - 2011
The aim of this investigation was to compare the ovarian response to superovulatory treatments in does before and after inhibin immunization, with a view to optimizing the superovulatory potential of the caprine ovary. To avoid interference by the ovarian cycle, the experiment was conducted out-of-season. At the onset of the ...
Koldehoff Michael - - 2011
hCG hormone is a naturally occurring, immune-modulating agent, which is highly expressed during pregnancy and causes improvements of some autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. Little is known about its immune-modulating effects. This study in MNCs of women who received hCG as preconditioning prior to IVF demonstrates ...
Aggarwal Archana - - 2011
The present study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of NAC (150mg/kg bw twice/week) action in vivo under repeated hCG (100IU/rat/day) stimulation to adult rats. Leydig cell refractoriness led to a significant decline in serum testosterone and intracellular cAMP by day 30 of chronic hCG intervention which improved significantly ...
Birringer Marc - - 2011
A series of dietary ingredients and metabolites are able to induce an adaptive stress response either by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or via activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 stress response network. Most of the molecules belong to activated Michael acceptors, electrophiles capable to S-alkylate redox sensitive cysteine thiols. This ...
Xiao Guangfen - - 2011
The novel chrysin analog 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin (BrMC) has been reported to induce apoptosis of various cancer cell lines. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment induces clinical remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. The combination of ATO with other agents has been shown to improve therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo. In this ...
Thayyullathil Faisal - - 2011
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein antioxidant in mammalian cells. It has been implicated in playing an important role in different signal transduction pathways, and its depletion is an early hallmark in the progression of apoptosis in response to a number of proapoptotic stimuli. We have selectively investigated the ...
Kajihara T - - 2011
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest signals secreted by the implanting embryo. In addition to its well-known luteotropic function in early pregnancy, hCG also acts directly on decidualizing endometrium. Recently, we demonstrated that recombinant hCG (rhCG) prevented apoptosis in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) exposed to ...
Gould Neal S - - 2011
A number of inflammatory lung diseases have abnormally low glutathione (GSH) levels in the airway fluids. Lung macrophages are common mediators of inflammation, make up the majority of cells that are found in the airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and are commonly elevated in many lung diseases. Several animal models ...
Zhu Jingsong J Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2011
Farnesol is a key derivative in the sterol biosynthesis pathway in eukaryotic cells previously identified as a quorum sensing molecule in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Recently, we demonstrated that above threshold concentrations, farnesol is capable of triggering apoptosis in C. albicans. However, the exact mechanism of farnesol cytotoxicity ...
deFoneska Arushi - - 2010
We have summarized recent findings related to gastroduodenal mucosal defense as well as factors contributing to defensive failure, highlighting findings that illuminate new pathophysiological mechanisms. Gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion is mediated by prostaglandin E receptors and stimulated by the prostone lubiprostone. Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling is protective against gastric injury. Intestinal ...
Hur Keun - - 2011
Chronic inflammation is deeply involved in induction of aberrant DNA methylation, but it is unclear whether any type of persistent inflammation can induce methylation and how induction of cell proliferation is involved. In this study, Mongolian gerbils were treated with five kinds of inflammation inducers [Helicobacter pylori with cytotoxin-associated gene ...
Chu Sang Hui - - 2011
Abstract Objective. Bcl-2 family is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. NF-κB activation is associated with either the expression of Bcl-2 or down-regulation of Bcl-2 depending on cell types and stimuli. Previously, we showed NF-κB activation, decrease in the level of Bcl-2, and apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected gastric ...
Larussa Tiziana - - 2010
Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors may exert immune-mediated effects in human gastric mucosa. T-cell immune response plays a role in Helicobacter pylori-induced pathogenesis. This study evaluated effects of celecoxib and lansoprazole on T-helper (Th) 1 and Th2 immune response in human gastric mucosa. Dyspeptic patients with or ...
Backert Steffen - - 2010
Infection of gastric epithelial cells with Helicobacter pylori induces strong proinflammatory responses by activating nuclear transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Several reports indicate that multiple bacterial factors and cellular molecules are involved in this signaling. Injected peptidoglycan, CagA or OipA and urease, and at least 16 different signaling cascades have ...
Handa Osamu - - 2010
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been reported to impact gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis. However, the precise mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori induces gastric carcinogenesis is presently unclear. This review focuses on H. pylori-induced ROS/RNS production in the host stomach, and its relationship with gastric carcinogenesis. ...
Bernhardt Anja - - 2010
Our previous studies have shown an association between Helicobacter pylori infection, the strong up-regulation of cathepsin X (CTSX, also called cathepsin Z/P), and the development of gastric cancer. In the present study, we analyzed primary and conventional gastric epithelial cell lines to establish an optimal in vitro mouse model system ...
Zheng Yunquan - - 2010
The Monascus pigment, rubropunctatin, was extracted and purified from red mold rice (RMR) and its cytotoxic activities against human gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 cells were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Rubropunctatin inhibited the proliferation of BGC-823 cells with an inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 12.57 μM, while it exhibited no ...
Patel Oneel - - 2010
Progastrin is processed to a number of peptides including glycine-extended gastrin, amidated gastrin and the C-terminal flanking peptide (CTFP). Progastrin and gastrin-gly are pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic in gastric and colorectal cancer cell lines. The CTFP is a major form of progastrin in the stomach and colon and stimulates proliferation. However ...
Hutton Melanie L - - 2010
Infection with Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-positive strains is associated with more destructive tissue damage and an increased risk of severe disease. The cagPAI encodes a type IV secretion system (TFSS) that delivers the bacterial effector molecules CagA and peptidoglycan into the host cell cytoplasm, thereby inducing responses in ...
Raghavan Sukanya - - 2010
Sublingual (SL) immunization has been described as an effective novel way to induce mucosal immune responses in the respiratory and genital tracts. We examined the potential of SL immunization against Helicobacter pylori to stimulate immune responses in the gastrointestinal mucosa and protect against H. pylori infection. Mice received two SL ...
Grebowska A - - 2010
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been recognized as a major cause of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Macrophages are the targets of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative rods. In this study we focused on a potential role of macrophages ...
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