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Zhang Ming - - 2013
Apoptosis of the vertebral growth plate chondrocytes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disk degeneration. In this paper, we have successfully established an experimental model induced by static stress and provided a useful method to study the mechanisms of chondrocyte apoptosis. A sustained static load of ≥0.2 MPa ...
Hart Francis X - - 2012
Sedentary keratinocytes at the edge of a skin wound migrate into the wound, guided by the generation of an endogenous electric field (EF) generated by the collapse of the transepithelial potential. The center of the wound quickly becomes more negative than the surrounding tissue and remains the cathode of the ...
Vojtech Lucia N - - 2012
The interleukin-1 family of cytokines are essential for the control of pathogenic microbes but are also responsible for devastating autoimmune pathologies. Consequently, tight regulation of inflammatory processes is essential for maintaining homeostasis. In mammals, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is primarily regulated at two levels, transcription and processing. The main pathway for ...
Petersen Thor - - 2012
Effects of treatment of multiple sclerosis patients with IFN-β on elements of the antiviral immune response to herpesviruses were analysed in a longitudinal study. We found significantly increased seroreactivity to EBV EBNA-1, and to VZV, in patients who did not respond to IFN-β therapy. We found no significant changes in ...
Feldman Mark - - 2012
Aims:  Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of polymicrobial origin that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. With the spread of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria, alternative strategies are required to better control infectious diseases such as periodontitis. The aim of our study was to investigate whether two natural compounds, A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins ...
Uderhardt Stefan - - 2012
Noninflammatory clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs) is crucial to maintain self-tolerance. Here, we have reported a role for the enzyme 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) as a central factor governing the sorting of ACs into differentially activated monocyte subpopulations. During inflammation, uptake of ACs was confined to a population of 12/15-LO-expressing, alternatively activated ...
Martín-Pérez Rosa - - 2012
Despite recent evidences suggesting that agents inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress could be exploited as potential antitumor drugs in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), the mechanisms of this anticancer action are not fully understood. Moreover, the effects of ER stress and TRAIL in nontransformed cells remain to ...
Zhu H - - 2012
Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins share the BAG domain, which is characterized by their interaction with a variety of partners (heat shock proteins, steroid hormone receptors, Raf-1 and others) and is involved in regulating a number of cellular processes. BAG3, also known as CAIR-1 or Bis, mediates protein delivery to ...
Williams Jamie J L - - 2012
The anti-inflammatory effects of the prototypical second messenger cAMP have been extensively documented in multiple cell types. One mechanism by which these effects are achieved is via Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1)-dependent induction of SOCS-3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3), which binds and inhibits specific class I ...
Jeon Won - - 2012
Natural flavonoids are associated with anti-proliferation of cancer growth. However, the antioxidant and anti-proliferation effects of AE (aloe-emodin) have not been well studied. We have investigated how AE affects the proliferation of hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exerts an anti-cancer effect. The cytotoxic effect of AE was demonstrated using an ...
Di Raimondo D - - 2012
Assumed that atherosclerosis and inflammation are extremely linked one-another [1], as it is showed in other reviews of this special issue, increasing evidence has been collected in the latest years about the inflammatory process acting in essential hypertension. Chronic Systemic Low-level Inflammation, defined as modest (2-4-fold) elevations in circulating levels ...
He Zhixiong - - 2012
Twelve pregnant goats were assigned to three dietary treatments during late gestation, namely control (C; metabolisable energy, 5.75 MJ/kg; crude protein, 12.6%; dry matter basis), 40% protein restricted (PR) and 40% energy restricted (ER), to examine the effects of nutrient restriction on the immune status of pregnant goats. Plasma was ...
Hasnain Sumaira Z - - 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be both a trigger and consequence of chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is often associated with diseases that arise because of primary misfolding mutations and ER stress. Similarly, ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a feature of many chronic inflammatory and ...
Rojas-Rivera D - - 2012
Transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing (TMBIM)-6, also known as BAX-inhibitor 1 (BI-1), is an anti-apoptotic protein that belongs to a putative family of highly conserved and poorly characterized genes. Here we report the function of TMBIM3/GRINA in the control of cell death by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Tmbim3 mRNA levels are ...
Schwarzer Christian - - 2012
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) forms biofilms in lungs of cystic fibrosis CF) patients, a process regulated by quorum sensing molecules including N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, C12. C12 (10-100 µM) rapidly triggered events commonly associated with the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in JME (CF ?F508CFTR, nasal surface) epithelial cells: depolarization of mitochondrial (mito) membrane potential ...
Reuter Simone - - 2012
Although proteasome inhibitors, such as Bortezomib, have been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, the mechanism by which they induce apoptosis is still incompletely understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of the NF-κB p65 subunit abolished the ability of Bortezomib to ...
Tan Bobby - - 2012
The review aims to elucidate the potential of microglia as a therapeutic target in alleviating Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain which respond to the presence of the hallmarks of AD, amyloid-beta (A beta) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Activated microglia are able to ...
Gursoy Ulvi Kahraman - - 2012
Gingival epithelium produces β-defensins, small cationic peptides, as part of its contribution to the innate host defense against the bacterial challenge that is constantly present in the oral cavity. Besides their functions in healthy gingival tissues, β-defensins are involved in the initiation and progression, as well as restriction of periodontal ...
Han X-J - - 2012
The ubiquitin hybrid genes Uba80 and Uba52 encode ubiquitin (Ub), which is fused to the ribosomal proteins S27a (RPS27a) and L40 (RPL40), respectively. Here, we show that these genes are preferentially over-expressed during hepatoma cell apoptosis. Experiments using the tet-inducible transgenic system revealed that over-expression of the ubiquitin hybrid genes ...
Angeles Arkhjamil - - 2012
The biological importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the control of myriad cellular processes has been well-recognized; however, the pathophysiological significance of the immunoproteasome, the inducible form of the proteasome, has not been well-comprehended until lately. The primary function of the immunoproteasome was originally believed to improve MHC-I antigen presentation. ...
Nishitoh Hideki - - 2011
The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces ER stress. To restore ER homeostasis, cells possess a highly specific ER quality-control system called the unfold protein response (UPR). In the case of prolonged ER stress or UPR malfunction, apoptosis signaling is activated. This ER stress-induced apoptosis has ...
Gao Xiang - - 2011
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is very high, and multiple physiopathological processes are involved, including endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an endogenous bile acid derivative that has been reported to inhibit ERS. To determine whether TUDCA had a nephroprotective effect in AKI and to explore ...
Kim Ju-Young - - 2011
Sulfonylurea is one of the commonly used anti-diabetic drugs that stimulate insulin secretion from β-cells. Despite their glucose lowering effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus, long-term treatment brought on secondary failure characterized by β-cell exhaustion and apoptosis. ER stress induced by Ca(2+) depletion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is speculated be ...
Mahul-Mellier A-L - - 2012
Components of the TNFR1 complex are subject to dynamic ubiquitination that impacts on their effects as signalling factors. We have found that the ubiquitin-specific protease USP2a has a pivotal role in the decision for cell death or survival by the TNFR1 complex. This enzyme is a novel component of the ...
Bornstein Bavat - - 2011
ARTS (Sept4_i2) is a mitochondrial pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor protein. In response to apoptotic signals, ARTS translocates to the cytosol where it promotes caspase activation through caspase de-repression and proteasome mediated degradation of X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP). Here we show that XIAP regulates the levels of ARTS by serving ...
Jing Guangjun - - 2012
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary subcellular organelle where proteins are synthesized and folded. When the homeostasis of the ER is disturbed, unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in ER stress. In response to ER stress, cells activate a set of tightly controlled regulatory programs, ...
Kim J-S - - 2011
Apoptosis is an important determinant of the normal development of pre-implantation embryos in vitro. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been extensively investigated in a wide variety of diseases. Efficient functioning of the ER is essential for most cellular activities and survival. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, ...
Lee Jongdae - - 2012
ATG16L1 is an essential component of the autophagasome. The T300A allele of ATG16L1 is associated with the increased susceptibility to Crohn disease. In this study, we identified a novel function of ATG16L1, which suppresses signaling of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Deletion of ATG16L1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts significantly amplifies IL-1β ...
Zhang Xie - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 and CP70, induced by a novel curcumin analogue, B19. The proliferation of cells was detected with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) ...
Zha Lixia - - 2011
  Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cell apoptosis is implicated in the development of cancer. Melatonin induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in experimental studies, but the effects of melatonin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis in HCC have not been tested. Differences in ER stress-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells and ...
Dong Xiaonan - - 2012
Cytokines play crucial roles in curtailing the propagation and spread of pathogens within the host. As obligate pathogens, gammaherpesviruses have evolved a plethora of mechanisms to evade host immune responses. We have previously shown that murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (γHV68) induces the degradation of RelA, an essential subunit of the transcriptionally ...
Altun Mikael - - 2012
A proper cellular adaptation to low oxygen levels is essential for processes such as development, growth, metabolism, and angiogenesis. The response to decrease in oxygen supply, referred to as hypoxia, is also involved in numerous human diseases including cancer, inflammatory conditions, and vascular disease. The hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), a ...
Rovetta Francesca - - 2011
Cisplatin (cisPt) use in chemotherapy is limited by the occurrence of a severe nephrotoxicity. Both autophagy and apoptosis seem to contribute in kidney response to cisPt, however their cross-talk is still controversial, since the role played by autophagy (cytoprotective or harmful) and the cellular site driving their switch, are still ...
Park In-Ja - - 2011
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central organelle in eukaryotic cells that functions in protein synthesis and maturation, and also functions as a calcium storage organelle. Perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress, which has been previously associated with a broad variety of diseases. ER stress is generally regarded ...
Ketscher Lars - - 2011
Posttranslational protein modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) is mediated by a hierarchical cascade of conjugating enzymes and affects multiple biological processes within the cell. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an UBL, which is strongly induced by type I Interferon and ISG15 modification was shown to play an essential ...
Wang Yanjun - - 2011
Abstract Cytomegalovirus(CMV) reactivation causes immunopathy, graft malfunction, and even rejection. The traditional anti-CMV drug ganciclovir is not able to prevent reactivation of endogenous virus. Recent studies have found that proteasome inhibitor (PI) is able to suppress CMV replication. In this study we investigated the influence of proteasome inhibitor MG132 and ...
Verhelst Kelly - - 2011
TNF is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a key role in innate immunity by inducing the expression of a variety of genes that are involved in an inflammatory response. TNF-induced NF-κB activation is one of the best studied signaling pathways in mammalian cells and has recently led to a revival ...
Lewis Eric M - - 2011
Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a mediator of caspase-independent cell death that is also necessary for mitochondrial energy production. How these seemingly opposite cellular functions of AIF are controlled is poorly understood. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is an endogenous inhibitor of caspases that also regulates several caspase-independent signaling pathways. ...
Premkumar Daniel R - - 2011
Glioblastomas are invasive tumors with poor prognosis despite current therapies. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) represent a class of agents that can modulate gene expression to reduce tumor growth, and we and others have noted some antiglioma activity from HDACIs, such as vorinostat, although insufficient to warrant use as monotherapy. We ...
Nakhaei Peyman - - 2012
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is a potent antagonist of caspase 3-, 7-, and 9-dependent apoptotic activities that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and it targets caspases for degradation. In this study, we demonstrate that Sendai virus (SeV) infection results in the IKKε- or TBK1-mediated phosphorylation of XIAP in ...
Bravo Roberto - - 2011
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking ...
Dong Xiaonan X Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, - - 2011
Upon viral infection, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein serves as a key adaptor to promote cytokine production. We report here that murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV68), a model virus for oncogenic human gamma herpesviruses, subverts cytokine production via the MAVS adaptor. During early infection, γHV68 hijacks MAVS and IKKβ to ...
Lee Jisun - - 2011
Immunoglubulin G (IgG) is a major isotype of antibody, which is predominantly involved in immune response. The complete tetramer is needed to fold and assemble in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) prior to secretion from cells. Protein quality control guided by ER chaperons is most essential for full biological activity. Cyclophilin B ...
Zhang Jing - - 2011
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are major epigenetic modulators involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases including cancers. Administration of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) leads to growth inhibition, differentiation, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Understanding the regulatory mechanism of HDACs is imperative to harness the therapeutic potentials of HDACis. Here we show ...
Bendotti Caterina C Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Via La Masa, 19, 20156 Milano, Italy. - - 2012
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major intracellular proteolytic mechanism controlling the degradation of misfolded/abnormal proteins. A common hallmark in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in other neurodegenerative disorders is the accumulation of misfolded/abnormal proteins into the damaged neurons, leading to the formation of cellular inclusions that are mostly ubiquitin-positive. ...
Senkal Can E CE Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, - - 2011
Mechanisms that regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis in cancer cells remain enigmatic. Recent data suggest that ceramide synthase1-6 (CerS1-6)-generated ceramides, containing different fatty acid chain lengths, might exhibit distinct and opposing functions, such as apoptosis versus survival in a context-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the ...
Kelly K R - - 2011
Oncolytic virotherapy with reovirus has demonstrated anti-cancer activity and minimal toxicity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. Reolysin, a proprietary formulation of reovirus for cancer therapy, stimulated selective viral replication and apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Reolysin-mediated apoptosis was associated with ...
Zhang Ling - - 2011
The 26S proteasome, a multicatalytic enzyme complex, is the main intracellular proteolytic system involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The ability of proteasome inhibitors to induce apoptosis has been exploited in the recent development of chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we show that inhibition of proteasome by MG132 blocks DNA damage-induced ...
Maguire Jean Ann - - 2012
Epithelial cell dysfunction is now recognized as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Surfactant Protein C (SP-C), an alveolar type II cell specific protein, has contributed to this concept with the observation that heterozygous expression of SFTPC gene mutations are associated with chronic interstitial lung disease. ...
Sun Luhong - - 2011
The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) is known to be chemotherapeutic in relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Atiprimod (ATI), a novel cationic amphophilic compound, has been tested in clinical trials in multiple myeloma (MM). We sought to evaluate the effect of an ATI-BTZ combination on MCL and to elucidate ...
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