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Sripa Banchob B Tropical Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, - - 2014
Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a major public health in Thailand and neighboring Mekong countries. The infection is associated with cholangitis, cholecystitis, gallstones, hepatomegaly, periductal fibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The rates of CCA in regions where the parasite is endemic are unprecedented. The liver fluke induces severe inflammation ...
Wenfeng Zhang Z Chongqing Key Laboratory of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, - - 2014
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a manifestation of liver metabolic damage and is related to insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. Inflammation mediated by Kupffer cells (KCs) is of critical importance to the development of NAFLD. The primary role of KCs in NAFLD is considered to be ...
Lanaya Hanane H Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a A-1090 Vienna, - - 2014
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent cancer with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Tumorigenesis has been linked with macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation and diverse signalling pathways, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. The precise role of EGFR in HCC is unknown, and EGFR inhibitors have shown disappointing clinical ...
Huang Jing J 1 Currently, Department of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, China; formerly, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Los Angeles, CA. 2 Department of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, China. 3 Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Los Angeles, CA. 4 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan. 5 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. 6 Address correspondence to: Jerzy W. Kupiec-Weglinski, M.D., Ph.D., Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center 77-120 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant host defense, maintains the cellular redox homeostasis. This study was designed to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms by which Nrf2 regulates toll-like receptor (TLR)4-driven inflammation response in a mouse model of hepatic warm ischemia (90 min) ...
Lozano-Ruiz Beatriz B Networked Biomedical Research Center for Hepatic and Digestive Diseases (CIBERehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, - - 2014
Inflammation is a common event in the pathogenesis and complications of liver cirrhosis. The inflammasome pathway has acquired significant relevance in the pathogenesis of inflammation, but its role in the inflammatory response in patients with decompensated cirrhosis remains unexplored. We performed a prospective study in which 44 patients with decompensated ...
Li Jingjing - - 2014
Numerous pathological processes that affect liver function in patients with liver failure have been identified. Among them, hyperammonia is one of the most common phenomena.The purpose of this study was to determine whether hyperammonia could induced specific liver injury. Hyperammonemic cells were established using NH4Cl. The cells were assessed by ...
Wilson Garrick K GK Viral Hepatitis Research Group, Centre for Human Virology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, - - 2014
Hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) activate diverse pathways that regulate cellular metabolism, angiogenesis, proliferation and migration, enabling a cell to respond to a low oxygen or hypoxic environment. HIFs are regulated by oxygen-dependent and independent signals including: mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticular stress and viral infection. HIFs have ...
Zhang Xue-Qing XQ Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, - - 2014
Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathways regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, which has generated widespread interest in developing synthetic LXR agonists as potential therapeutics for the management of atherosclerosis. In this study, it is demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs) containing the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 (NP-LXR) exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit ...
Nascimento Marcia M Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of - - 2014
Accumulation of M2 macrophages in the liver, within the context of a strong Th2 response, is a hallmark of infection with the parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, but the origin of these cells is unclear. To explore this, we examined the relatedness of macrophages to monocytes in this setting. Our data ...
Nieh Shin S Department and Graduate School of Pathology, National Defense Medical Center & Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, - - 2014
Background: Recent studies suggest that long-term exposure of the carcinogen 4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK) found in tobacco smoke is involved in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The underlying nicotine-mediated mechanism remains unclear. Methods: An analysis of SCC-25 and Fadu cells with or without NNK exposure focusing on ...
Liu Peng P a Department of Cardiovascular Surgery , The Second Affiliated Hospital of the Third Military Medical University , Chongqing , - - 2014
Liver X receptors (LXRs) has been emerged as negative regulators of cardiomyocytic inflammation. The cellular process of autophagy is believed to play a protective role in myocardium during the inflammatory status. In this study, we investigated the role of LXRs agonist TO901317 (TO) on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced myocardial inflammation and autophagy. ...
Bauman Julie E - - 2014
Cetuximab is a murine-human chimeric IgG1 mAb directed against the EGFR that is approved for use in patients with colorectal and head and neck carcinomas. While some patients benefit greatly from cetuximab, many do not; therefore, strategies to increase the efficacy of this drug are of great clinical interest. In ...
Kumar Nitesh N Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, - - 2014
Silymarin, a hepatoprotective agent, has poor oral bioavailability. However, the current dosage form of the drug does not target the liver and inflammatory cells selectively. The aim of the present study was to develop lecithin-based carrier system of silymarin by incorporating phytosomal-liposomal approach to increase its oral bioavailability and to ...
Dutta-Moscato Joyeeta J Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, PA , USA ; Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, PA , USA ; Center for Inflammation and Regenerative Modeling, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, PA , - - 2014
Chronic hepatic inflammation involves a complex interplay of inflammatory and mechanical influences, ultimately manifesting in a characteristic histopathology of liver fibrosis. We created an agent-based model (ABM) of liver tissue in order to computationally examine the consequence of liver inflammation. Our liver fibrosis ABM (LFABM) is comprised of literature-derived rules ...
Jiao M M 1] Department of Infectious Diseases, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China [2] Beijing Artificial Liver Treatment and Training Center, Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, - - 2014
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) has been reported to induce a potent anti-inflammatory response. Autophagy is a recently recognized rudimentary cellular response to inflammation and injury. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PPARα activation mediates autophagy to inhibit liver inflammation and protect against acute ...
Hammerich Linda L Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, - - 2014
Interleukins represent a class of immunomodulatory cytokines, small intercellular signaling proteins, that are critically involved in the regulation of immune responses. They are produced in large amounts by various cell types during inflammatory reactions, and the balance of cytokines determines the outcome of an immune response. Therefore, cytokines are regarded ...
Freiser Monika E - - 2013
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) exhibit complex interactions with the host immune system that may simultaneously explain resistance to various therapeutic modalities and that may also provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Discoveries in immunologic research over the last decade have led to an increased understanding of these interactions ...
Pai Sara I - - 2013
Human papillomavirus (HPV) types associated with head and neck cancer generally induce a robust immune response. Despite the establishment of such an inflammatory microenvironment, HPV is able to persist and promote malignant transformation. The PD-1:PD-L1 immune checkpoint may play a critical role in the creation of an immunoprivileged site for ...
Bernstein Jonathan M - - 2012
The hallmarks of cancer were updated by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011. Here we discuss the updated hallmarks in relation to what is known of the molecular and cellular processes underlying the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Several mechanisms are described, and recent surveys of HNSCC ...
Lizak Miroslaw - - 2012
The opportunistic gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of pneumonia and sepsis. Staphylococcal α-toxin, a prototypical pore-forming toxin, is a major virulence factor of S. aureus clinical isolates, and lung epithelial cells are highly sensitive to α-toxin's cytolytic activity. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling activated in response to S. aureus increases ...
Dhakal Bijaya K BK Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Pathology Department, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0565, - - 2012
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which are the leading cause of both acute and chronic urinary tract infections, often secrete a labile pore-forming toxin known as α-hemolysin (HlyA). We show that stable insertion of HlyA into epithelial cell and macrophage membranes triggers degradation of the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein paxillin and other ...
Bielek Heike - - 2012
Bacterial pathogens developed several strategies to overcome defense systems of eukaryotic hosts. Within the infection process, they need to attach to and cross through epithelial layers, escape from the innate and adaptive immune response, and find a physiological niche to survive. One target to modulate the host-pathogen interaction in order ...
Raouraoua-Boukari Ryma - - 2012
Objective:Androctonus australis hector (Aah) is the most dangerous scorpion in the Maghreb countries. Its venom contains three major neurotoxins (Aah I, Aah II and Aah III), which are responsible for almost all the lethal effects caused in mammals. These toxins act on the voltage-gated sodium channels of excitable cells. The ...
Moayeri Mahtab - - 2012
Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), a major virulence determinant of anthrax disease, induces vascular collapse in mice and rats. LT activates the Nlrp1 inflammasome in macrophages and dendritic cells, resulting in caspase-1 activation, IL-1β and IL-18 maturation and a rapid cell death (pyroptosis). This review presents the current understanding of LT-induced ...
Kumar Raj - - 2011
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by Clostridium botulinum are the most toxic substances known to the mankind. BoNTs (seven serotypes, A-G) are produced along with a group of neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs) in a physiologically coordinated manner, regulated by a common transcription factor for the gene cluster that encodes for the ...
Ip Siu-Wan - - 2011
Objectives:  To focus on bee venom-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer TSGH-8301 cells and to investigate its signaling pathway to ascertain whether intracellular calcium iron (Ca(2+) ) is involved in this effect. Methods:  Bee venom-induced cytotoxic effects, productions of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) and the level of mitochondrial membrane ...
Trécherel Eric - - 2011
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has recently emerged as a major risk factor for cardiovascular pathology. CKD patients display accelerated atherosclerotic process, leading to circulatory complications. However, it is currently not clear how uremic conditions accelerate atherosclerosis. Apoptosis is an important homeostatic regulator of vascular smooth cells under pathological conditions. In ...
Tarasenko Olga - - 2011
Bacillus anthracis toxins may be attenuated if macrophages could neutralize toxins upon contact or exposure. Glycoconjugate-bearing polymers, which have been shown to bind to Bacillus spores, were tested for recognition and binding of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF) toxins. We have demonstrated modulation of macrophage ...
Brummelhuis Walter J - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Severe sepsis is characterized by rapid development of multiple organ failure associated with high mortality. Bacterial toxin release triggers a sequence of events that activates intracellular pathways to produce inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide. There have been numerous attempts to interrupt this devastating cascade by removing toxins, removing or ...
Du Rong Hui - - 2011
Trichothecin, one of fungal toxins which were encountered in food and in the environment, seriously threatens human and animal health. It has been shown that trichothecin changed the morphology of cellular mitochondria. However, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we found that cell viability was attenuated by trichothecin. Features of ...
Oanh Thi Kim Nguyen - - 2012
Edema disease (ED) in piglets is caused by Shiga toxin Stx2e-producing Escherichia coli. We show that a genetically disarmed Stx2e toxoid is a safe antigen that generates antiserum protecting piglets against the Stx2e toxin. Immunization of suckling piglets with the Stx2e toxoid was safe, had no adverse effects on growth ...
Rameshwar Pranela - - 2011
An understanding of anthrax toxins on the emerging immune system and blood production are significant to medicine. This study examined the effects of anthrax toxin on hematopoiesis and determined roles for cytokines. Anthrax holotoxin toxin is three components: protective antigen (PA) binds to the target cell and mediates the entry ...
Yeh Felix L - - 2011
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) A and B are used to treat neuropathic disorders; if retargeted, these agents could be used to treat medical conditions that involve secretion from nonneuronal cells. Here, we report novel strategies for successfully retargeting BoNTs, and also tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), to primary human blood monocyte-derived macrophages where ...
Rose Kira - - 2012
Lethal toxin, a key virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis, induces cell death, in part by disrupting numerous signaling pathways, in mouse macrophages. However, exposure to sublethal doses of lethal toxin allows some cells to survive. Because these pro-survival signaling events occur within a few hours after exposure to sublethal ...
Doo Ah-Reum - - 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recently, bee venom was reported to protect dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced mice PD model, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The objective of the present study ...
Pichereau Solen - - 2011
BackgroundToxins contribute to the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus infections by inducing a dysregulated inflammatory response. This study evaluated the impact of anti-staphylococcal antibiotic exposures over an increasing concentration range on cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after S. aureus toxin exposures.MethodsHuman PBMCs were suspended in complete Roswell Park ...
Jung Hyun-Joo - - 2011
The present study aimed to assess anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanism of n-propyl gallate, the n-propyl ester of gallic acid. n-Propyl gallate was shown to contain anti-inflammatory activity using two experimental animal models, acetic acid-induced permeability model in mice, and air pouch model in rats. It suppressed production of nitric ...
Suput Dusan - - 2011
Cnidarians comprise four classes of toxic marine animals: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. They are the largest and probably the oldest phylum of toxic marine animals. Any contact with a cnidarian, especially the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), can be fatal, but most cnidarians do not possess sufficiently strong venomous apparatus ...
Tibballs James - - 2011
Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, ...
Fromageau Angélina - - 2011
An early recruitment of neutrophils in mammary tissue and milk is considered an important component of the defense of the mammary gland against Staphylococcus aureus. We investigated whether the leukotoxin LukM/F', which is produced by a proportion of mastitis-causing strains of S. aureus, would be able to trigger inflammation in the ...
Colinet Dominique - - 2011
Endoparasitoid wasps inject venom proteins with their eggs to protect them from the host immune response and ensure successful parasitism. Here we report identification of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) transcripts for both intracellular SOD1 and extracellular SOD3 in the venom apparatus of two Leptopilina species, parasitoids of Drosophila. Leptopilina SODs ...
Gao Nan - - 2011
The functions of intraepithelial dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for mucosal innate and adaptive immunity, but little is known about the role of tissue-specific DCs in epithelial homeostasis and tissue repair. By using the epithelial debridement wound model and CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor mice that express a CD11c promoter-driven diphtheria toxin ...
Kasraie S - - 2011
To cite this article: Kasraie S, Niebuhr M, Kopfnagel V, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Kracht M, Werfel T. Macrophages from patients with atopic dermatitis show a reduced CXCL10 expression in response to staphylococcal α-toxin. Allergy 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02710.x. ABSTRACT: Background:  Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are frequently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), ...
Guichard Annabel A Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0349, - - 2012
The anthrax toxins lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) are essential virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis. These toxins act during two distinct phases of anthrax infection. During the first, prodromal phase, which is often asymptomatic, anthrax toxins act on cells of the immune system to help the pathogen ...
Shahnazari Shahab - - 2011
Autophagy plays a significant role in innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial infection. Some pathogenic bacteria have developed strategies to evade killing by host autophagy. These include the use of 'camouflage' proteins to block targeting to the autophagy pathway and the use of pore-forming toxins to block autophagosome maturation. ...
Opota Onya - - 2011
Pseudomonas entomophila is an entomopathogenic bacterium that infects and kills Drosophila. P. entomophila pathogenicity is linked to its ability to cause irreversible damages to the Drosophila gut, preventing epithelium renewal and repair. Here we report the identification of a novel pore-forming toxin (PFT), Monalysin, which contributes to the virulence of ...
Peichoto María Elisa - - 2011
Patagonfibrase is a P-III class metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of Philodryas patagoniensis, a South-American, rear-fanged 'colubrid' snake responsible for accidents with clinical significance. Since local inflammatory reactions are conspicuous signs of snakebites inflicted by this species and taking into consideration that most snake venom metalloproteinases exhibit inflammatory activity, this ...
Savidge Tor C - - 2011
The global prevalence of severe Clostridium difficile infection highlights the profound clinical significance of clostridial glucosylating toxins. Virulence is dependent on the autoactivation of a toxin cysteine protease, which is promoted by the allosteric cofactor inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)). Host mechanisms that protect against such exotoxins are poorly understood. It is ...
Li Haihua - - 2011
Staphylococcus sciuri causes multiple infections in humans. Recently, a strain of S. sciuri (HBXX06) carrying exfoliative toxin C (ExhC) was reported to cause fatal exudative epidermal skin pathology in piglets and might be considered as a potential zoonotic agent. However, little is known about the pathogenicity of this bacterium. In ...
Chi Victor - - 2012
Electrophysiological and pharmacological studies coupled with molecular identification have revealed a unique network of ion channels--Kv1.3, KCa3.1, CRAC (Orai1 + Stim1), TRPM7, Cl(swell)--in lymphocytes that initiates and maintains the calcium signaling cascade required for activation. The expression pattern of these channels changes during lymphocyte activation and differentiation, allowing the functional ...
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