Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1507
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Nieh Shin S Department and Graduate School of Pathology, National Defense Medical Center & Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, - - 2014
Background: Recent studies suggest that long-term exposure of the carcinogen 4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK) found in tobacco smoke is involved in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The underlying nicotine-mediated mechanism remains unclear. Methods: An analysis of SCC-25 and Fadu cells with or without NNK exposure focusing on ...
Bauman Julie E - - 2014
Cetuximab is a murine-human chimeric IgG1 mAb directed against the EGFR that is approved for use in patients with colorectal and head and neck carcinomas. While some patients benefit greatly from cetuximab, many do not; therefore, strategies to increase the efficacy of this drug are of great clinical interest. In ...
Freiser Monika E - - 2013
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) exhibit complex interactions with the host immune system that may simultaneously explain resistance to various therapeutic modalities and that may also provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Discoveries in immunologic research over the last decade have led to an increased understanding of these interactions ...
Pai Sara I - - 2013
Human papillomavirus (HPV) types associated with head and neck cancer generally induce a robust immune response. Despite the establishment of such an inflammatory microenvironment, HPV is able to persist and promote malignant transformation. The PD-1:PD-L1 immune checkpoint may play a critical role in the creation of an immunoprivileged site for ...
Bernstein Jonathan M - - 2012
The hallmarks of cancer were updated by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011. Here we discuss the updated hallmarks in relation to what is known of the molecular and cellular processes underlying the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Several mechanisms are described, and recent surveys of HNSCC ...
Lizak Miroslaw - - 2012
The opportunistic gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of pneumonia and sepsis. Staphylococcal α-toxin, a prototypical pore-forming toxin, is a major virulence factor of S. aureus clinical isolates, and lung epithelial cells are highly sensitive to α-toxin's cytolytic activity. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling activated in response to S. aureus increases ...
Dhakal Bijaya K - - 2012
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which are the leading cause of both acute and chronic urinary tract infections, often secrete a labile pore-forming toxin known as α-hemolysin (HlyA). We show that stable insertion of HlyA into epithelial cell and macrophage membranes triggers degradation of the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein paxillin and other ...
Bielek Heike - - 2012
Bacterial pathogens developed several strategies to overcome defense systems of eukaryotic hosts. Within the infection process, they need to attach to and cross through epithelial layers, escape from the innate and adaptive immune response, and find a physiological niche to survive. One target to modulate the host-pathogen interaction in order ...
Raouraoua-Boukari Ryma - - 2012
Objective:Androctonus australis hector (Aah) is the most dangerous scorpion in the Maghreb countries. Its venom contains three major neurotoxins (Aah I, Aah II and Aah III), which are responsible for almost all the lethal effects caused in mammals. These toxins act on the voltage-gated sodium channels of excitable cells. The ...
Moayeri Mahtab - - 2012
Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), a major virulence determinant of anthrax disease, induces vascular collapse in mice and rats. LT activates the Nlrp1 inflammasome in macrophages and dendritic cells, resulting in caspase-1 activation, IL-1β and IL-18 maturation and a rapid cell death (pyroptosis). This review presents the current understanding of LT-induced ...
Kumar Raj - - 2011
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by Clostridium botulinum are the most toxic substances known to the mankind. BoNTs (seven serotypes, A-G) are produced along with a group of neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs) in a physiologically coordinated manner, regulated by a common transcription factor for the gene cluster that encodes for the ...
Ip Siu-Wan - - 2011
Objectives:  To focus on bee venom-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer TSGH-8301 cells and to investigate its signaling pathway to ascertain whether intracellular calcium iron (Ca(2+) ) is involved in this effect. Methods:  Bee venom-induced cytotoxic effects, productions of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) and the level of mitochondrial membrane ...
Trécherel Eric - - 2011
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has recently emerged as a major risk factor for cardiovascular pathology. CKD patients display accelerated atherosclerotic process, leading to circulatory complications. However, it is currently not clear how uremic conditions accelerate atherosclerosis. Apoptosis is an important homeostatic regulator of vascular smooth cells under pathological conditions. In ...
Tarasenko Olga - - 2011
Bacillus anthracis toxins may be attenuated if macrophages could neutralize toxins upon contact or exposure. Glycoconjugate-bearing polymers, which have been shown to bind to Bacillus spores, were tested for recognition and binding of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF) toxins. We have demonstrated modulation of macrophage ...
Brummelhuis Walter J - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Severe sepsis is characterized by rapid development of multiple organ failure associated with high mortality. Bacterial toxin release triggers a sequence of events that activates intracellular pathways to produce inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide. There have been numerous attempts to interrupt this devastating cascade by removing toxins, removing or ...
Du Rong Hui - - 2011
Trichothecin, one of fungal toxins which were encountered in food and in the environment, seriously threatens human and animal health. It has been shown that trichothecin changed the morphology of cellular mitochondria. However, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we found that cell viability was attenuated by trichothecin. Features of ...
Oanh Thi Kim Nguyen - - 2012
Edema disease (ED) in piglets is caused by Shiga toxin Stx2e-producing Escherichia coli. We show that a genetically disarmed Stx2e toxoid is a safe antigen that generates antiserum protecting piglets against the Stx2e toxin. Immunization of suckling piglets with the Stx2e toxoid was safe, had no adverse effects on growth ...
Rameshwar Pranela - - 2011
An understanding of anthrax toxins on the emerging immune system and blood production are significant to medicine. This study examined the effects of anthrax toxin on hematopoiesis and determined roles for cytokines. Anthrax holotoxin toxin is three components: protective antigen (PA) binds to the target cell and mediates the entry ...
Yeh Felix L - - 2011
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) A and B are used to treat neuropathic disorders; if retargeted, these agents could be used to treat medical conditions that involve secretion from nonneuronal cells. Here, we report novel strategies for successfully retargeting BoNTs, and also tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), to primary human blood monocyte-derived macrophages where ...
Rose Kira - - 2012
Lethal toxin, a key virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis, induces cell death, in part by disrupting numerous signaling pathways, in mouse macrophages. However, exposure to sublethal doses of lethal toxin allows some cells to survive. Because these pro-survival signaling events occur within a few hours after exposure to sublethal ...
Doo Ah-Reum - - 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recently, bee venom was reported to protect dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced mice PD model, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The objective of the present study ...
Pichereau Solen - - 2011
BackgroundToxins contribute to the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus infections by inducing a dysregulated inflammatory response. This study evaluated the impact of anti-staphylococcal antibiotic exposures over an increasing concentration range on cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after S. aureus toxin exposures.MethodsHuman PBMCs were suspended in complete Roswell Park ...
Jung Hyun-Joo - - 2011
The present study aimed to assess anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanism of n-propyl gallate, the n-propyl ester of gallic acid. n-Propyl gallate was shown to contain anti-inflammatory activity using two experimental animal models, acetic acid-induced permeability model in mice, and air pouch model in rats. It suppressed production of nitric ...
Suput Dusan - - 2011
Cnidarians comprise four classes of toxic marine animals: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. They are the largest and probably the oldest phylum of toxic marine animals. Any contact with a cnidarian, especially the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), can be fatal, but most cnidarians do not possess sufficiently strong venomous apparatus ...
Tibballs James - - 2011
Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, ...
Fromageau Angélina - - 2011
An early recruitment of neutrophils in mammary tissue and milk is considered an important component of the defense of the mammary gland against Staphylococcus aureus. We investigated whether the leukotoxin LukM/F', which is produced by a proportion of mastitis-causing strains of S. aureus, would be able to trigger inflammation in the ...
Colinet Dominique - - 2011
Endoparasitoid wasps inject venom proteins with their eggs to protect them from the host immune response and ensure successful parasitism. Here we report identification of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) transcripts for both intracellular SOD1 and extracellular SOD3 in the venom apparatus of two Leptopilina species, parasitoids of Drosophila. Leptopilina SODs ...
Gao Nan - - 2011
The functions of intraepithelial dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for mucosal innate and adaptive immunity, but little is known about the role of tissue-specific DCs in epithelial homeostasis and tissue repair. By using the epithelial debridement wound model and CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor mice that express a CD11c promoter-driven diphtheria toxin ...
Kasraie S - - 2011
To cite this article: Kasraie S, Niebuhr M, Kopfnagel V, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Kracht M, Werfel T. Macrophages from patients with atopic dermatitis show a reduced CXCL10 expression in response to staphylococcal α-toxin. Allergy 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02710.x. ABSTRACT: Background:  Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are frequently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), ...
Guichard Annabel A Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0349, - - 2012
The anthrax toxins lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) are essential virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis. These toxins act during two distinct phases of anthrax infection. During the first, prodromal phase, which is often asymptomatic, anthrax toxins act on cells of the immune system to help the pathogen ...
Shahnazari Shahab - - 2011
Autophagy plays a significant role in innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial infection. Some pathogenic bacteria have developed strategies to evade killing by host autophagy. These include the use of 'camouflage' proteins to block targeting to the autophagy pathway and the use of pore-forming toxins to block autophagosome maturation. ...
Opota Onya - - 2011
Pseudomonas entomophila is an entomopathogenic bacterium that infects and kills Drosophila. P. entomophila pathogenicity is linked to its ability to cause irreversible damages to the Drosophila gut, preventing epithelium renewal and repair. Here we report the identification of a novel pore-forming toxin (PFT), Monalysin, which contributes to the virulence of ...
Peichoto María Elisa - - 2011
Patagonfibrase is a P-III class metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of Philodryas patagoniensis, a South-American, rear-fanged 'colubrid' snake responsible for accidents with clinical significance. Since local inflammatory reactions are conspicuous signs of snakebites inflicted by this species and taking into consideration that most snake venom metalloproteinases exhibit inflammatory activity, this ...
Savidge Tor C - - 2011
The global prevalence of severe Clostridium difficile infection highlights the profound clinical significance of clostridial glucosylating toxins. Virulence is dependent on the autoactivation of a toxin cysteine protease, which is promoted by the allosteric cofactor inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)). Host mechanisms that protect against such exotoxins are poorly understood. It is ...
Li Haihua - - 2011
Staphylococcus sciuri causes multiple infections in humans. Recently, a strain of S. sciuri (HBXX06) carrying exfoliative toxin C (ExhC) was reported to cause fatal exudative epidermal skin pathology in piglets and might be considered as a potential zoonotic agent. However, little is known about the pathogenicity of this bacterium. In ...
Chi Victor - - 2012
Electrophysiological and pharmacological studies coupled with molecular identification have revealed a unique network of ion channels--Kv1.3, KCa3.1, CRAC (Orai1 + Stim1), TRPM7, Cl(swell)--in lymphocytes that initiates and maintains the calcium signaling cascade required for activation. The expression pattern of these channels changes during lymphocyte activation and differentiation, allowing the functional ...
Mutschler Hannes - - 2011
Cell death in bacteria can be triggered by activation of self-inflicted molecular mechanisms. Pathogenic bacteria often make use of suicide mechanisms in which the death of individual cells benefits survival of the population. Important elements for programmed cell death in bacteria are proteinaceous toxin-antitoxin systems. While the toxin generally resides ...
Keyel Peter A PA Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2011
Toxins secreted by bacteria can impact the host in a number of different ways. In some infections, toxins play a crucial and central role in pathogenesis (i.e., anthrax), while in other bacterial infections, the role of toxins is less understood. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), of which streptolysin O is a ...
Calzia Daniela - - 2011
The hemotoxic venoms of Viperidae and Crotalidae are responsible for most of the evenomations in the United States, West Africa, India, South-East Asia, New Guinea, and Latin America. We previously reported that a short exposure of Crotalus atrox venom to direct electric current (dc) from a low-voltage generator, in solution, ...
Tesh Vernon L - - 2011
Shiga toxins and ricin are ribosome-inactivating proteins which share the property of inhibiting protein synthesis by catalytic inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes. There is now abundant evidence that Shiga toxins and ricin induce apoptosis in epithelial, endothelial, lymphoid and myeloid cells in vitro, and in multiple organs in animals when administered ...
Froelich Christopher - - 2011
How do killer cells restrain perforin, the most potent toxin known to biologists, at its point of synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum, where conditions are ideal for its activation? In this issue of Immunity, Brennan et al. (2011) study its trafficking, offering insights into protective mechanisms.
Ali Syed Raza SR Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, - - 2011
Detection of microbial constituents by membrane associated and cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors is the essence of innate immunity, leading to activation of protective host responses. However, it is still unclear how immune cells specifically respond to pathogenic bacteria. Using virulent and nonvirulent strains of Bacillus anthracis, we have shown that ...
Paccani Silvia Rossi - - 2011
Bacillus anthracis, similar to other bacterial pathogens, has evolved effective immune evasion strategies to prolong its survival in the host, thus ensuring the unchecked spread of the infection. This function is subserved by lethal (LT) and edema (ET) toxins, two exotoxins produced by vegetative anthrax bacilli following germination of the ...
Frey Joachim - - 2011
RTX toxins are bacterial pore-forming toxins that are particularly abundant among pathogenic species of Pasteurellaceae, in which they play a major role in virulence. RTX toxins of several primary pathogens of the family of Pasteurellaceae are directly involved in causing necrotic lesions in the target organs. Many RTX toxins are ...
Paccani Silvia Rossi - - 2011
The Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) assists infection by potently suppressing the host immune response. Although CyaA effectively targets T lymphocytes, its putative receptor on these cells is unknown. Here, we show that CyaA binds to T cells via the β₂ integrin LFA-1 in its active conformation. CyaA clusters ...
Larabee Jason L JL Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, - - 2011
Anthrax edema toxin (ET) is one of two binary toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis that contributes to the virulence of this pathogen. ET is an adenylate cyclase that generates high levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP), causing alterations in multiple host cell signaling pathways. We previously demonstrated that ET increases cell ...
Tang Shu - - 2011
Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a major constituent extracted from the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has well-documented antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the pharmacological effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of CTS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses were investigated. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we observed that CTS reduced significantly the ...
Johansson Anders - - 2011
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been described as a member of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans, and is involved in the pathology of periodontitis and various non-oral infections. This bacterium selectively kills human leukocytes through expression of leukotoxin, a large pore-forming protein that belongs to the Repeat in Toxin (RTX) family. ...
Papia Guiseppe - - 2011
Patients resuscitated from hemorrhagic shock are at increased risk for the development of organ dysfunction, particularly acute respiratory distress syndrome. The "two-hit hypothesis" wherein shock/resuscitation (S/R) renders the immune system more responsive to subsequent inflammatory stimuli has been suggested as a major mechanism contributing to organ injury. Previous work has ...
Ma Yong - - 2011
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly lethal malignancy mostly because of de novo and acquired resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Constitutive activation of Akt and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) represent major cellular abnormalities associated with both the pathogenesis and therapeutic resistance of HCC. The aim of the present study was to determine ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >