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Hefetz-Sela Simona S Department of Immunology and Cancer Research, Institute for Medical Research Israel Canada (IMRIC), Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel; Department of Pathology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91120, - - 2014
The inflamed tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms through which immune cells, particularly macrophages, promote tumorigenesis have only been partially elucidated, and the full scope of signaling pathways supplying macrophages with protumorigenic phenotypes still remain largely unknown. Here we report that germ-line absence of c-Jun ...
Volarevic Vladislav - - 2014
We investigated the effect of large (40 nm) graphene quantum dots (GQD) in Concanavalin A (Con A; 12 mg/kg i.v.)-induced mouse hepatitis, a T cell-mediated liver injury resembling fulminant hepatitis in humans. Intravenously injected GQD (50 mg/kg) accumulated in liver and reduced Con A-mediated liver damage, as demonstrated by histopathological ...
Michurina S V SV Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Lymphology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, - - 2014
We studied the effect of benzo(a)pyrene on activity of nuclear endonucleases and expression of molecular regulator of apoptosis Bcl-2 in liver cells in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of benzo(a)pyrene (in a total dose of 60 mg/kg body weight) reduced activity of nuclear endonucleases in the liver cells, which attests to inhibition ...
Fan Xiaoyu X International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical - - 2014
Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated widely in tumor growth and metastasis but the range of its contributions are not yet fully understood. In this study, we show that genetic ablation of OPN in the mouse sensitizes them to diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Opn deficient mice (Opn-/- mice) exhibited enhanced production of ...
Rao Jianhua - - 2014
C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) has been shown to be a key molecule in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. ERO1α, a target of CHOP, is an important oxidizing enzyme to regulate ROS, which play a prominent role in hepatocellular death during acute liver failure (ALF). However, little is known how CHOP ...
Weidinger Adelheid A L. Boltzman Institute for Traumatology, Vienna, Austria ; - - 2014
Aims. Increasing evidence suggest that, apart from activation of guanylyl cyclase, intracellular nitric oxide (NO) signaling is associated with interaction between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to modulate physiological or pathophysiological processes. The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) to NO-mediated signaling ...
Boltjes Arjan A Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The - - 2014
 Based on their localization, Kupffer cells (KC) likely interact with hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, the role of KC in inducing immunity towards HBV is poorly understood. Therefore, the interaction of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and KC, and possible functional consequences, were assessed.  KC in liver tissue from chronic ...
Volarevic Vladislav V Centre for Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, - - 2014
Galectin-3, an endogenous lectin, exhibits pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in various disease conditions. In order to explore the role of galectin-3 in NKT cell-dependent pathology, we induced hepatitis in C57BL/6 wild type and galectin-3 deficient mice by using specific ligand for NKT cells: α-galactosylceramide, glycolipid antigen presented by CD1d. The ...
Mcdonald Kerry-Ann KA Department Of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, - - 2014
Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is ubiquitously expressed on parenchymal and immune cells of the liver and is the most studied TLR responsible for the activation of pro-inflammatory signaling cascades in liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Since pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 during the sterile inflammatory response of I/R has not ...
Rao J J Liver Transplantation Center of First Affiliated Hospital and Translational Medicine Research Center of Jiangning Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, P. R. China; Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation of Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, P. R. China; Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-induced transcription factor that has been shown to repress inflammatory gene expression in multiple cell types and diseases. However, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of ATF3 in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In warm and cold liver IRI models, we showed ...
Schauer Dominic - - 2014
BackgroundMonocytes reportedly contribute to liver regeneration. Three subsets have been identified to date: classical, intermediate, non-classical monocytes. The intermediate population and a subtype expressing TIE2 (TEMs) were suggested to promote angiogenesis. In a clinical setting, we investigated which monocyte subsets are regulated after liver resection and correlate with postoperative liver ...
Ka Sun-O SO S Ka, Biochemistry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea, Republic - - 2014
Inflammation is an important factor in the development of insulin resistance. Sirt1, a class 3 histone/protein deacetylase, has anti-inflammatory functions. Myeloid-specific Sirt1 deletion promotes macrophage infiltration into insulin-sensitive organs and aggravates tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigated how macrophage Sirt1 alters tissue inflammation in the pancreas as well as ...
Yu Tianzheng T Georgia Regents University, United - - 2014
Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease. However, the role of mitochondrial shape change in cholestasis is not defined. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo ...
Wang Jia J Institute of Digestive Disease and The Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Gastrointestinal Cancer Biology and Therapeutics Laboratory, CUHK-Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, - - 2014
microRNA-29b (miR-29b) is known to be associated with TGF-β-mediated fibrosis, but the mechanistic action of miR-29b in liver fibrosis remains unclear and is warranted for investigation. We found that miR-29b was significantly downregulated in human and mice fibrotic liver tissues and in primary activated HSCs. miR-29b downregulation was directly mediated ...
Zhu Jianjun J 1 Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. 2 Department of Liver Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China. 3 Address correspondence to: Yuan Zhai, M.D., Ph.D., Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center 77-120 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA - - 2014
Although rapamycin (RPM) have been studied extensively in ischemia models, its functional mechanisms remains to be defined. We determined how RPM impacted the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, with emphasis on its regulation of hepatocyte death. Rapamycin protected livers from IRI in ...
Walley Keith R KR Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6Z 1Y6, Canada. - - 2014
A decrease in the activity of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) increases the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on liver cells and, therefore, LDL clearance. The clearance of lipids from pathogens is related to endogenous lipid clearance; thus, PCSK9 may also regulate removal of pathogen lipids such as ...
Yang Jeong-A JA Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, - - 2014
Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease caused by viral infection and/or metabolic, genetic, and cholestatic disorders. The inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and the selective apoptosis of activated HSCs can be a good strategy to treat liver fibrosis. The activated HSCs are known to be more susceptible ...
Li Xiaohui X Department of Pharmacy, The People's Hospital of Bozhou, Bozhou, 236800, - - 2014
The objective of the review is to examine the crossroads of autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis signaling pathways and their participation in liver fibrosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was emerged as a common feature relevant to the pathogenesis of diseases associated with organ fibrosis. However, the functional consequences of these alterations ...
Sripa Banchob B Tropical Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, - - 2014
Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a major public health in Thailand and neighboring Mekong countries. The infection is associated with cholangitis, cholecystitis, gallstones, hepatomegaly, periductal fibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The rates of CCA in regions where the parasite is endemic are unprecedented. The liver fluke induces severe inflammation ...
Wang Yilin Y Center for Organ Transplantation and Department of Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 7W Surgical Building, 197 2nd Ruijin Road, Shanghai,  200025, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to understand the role of liver in modulating remote organ dysfunction during severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We used sodium taurocholate and endotoxin to induce SAP in the rats and confirmed the development of this condition by measuring serum and ascite levels of the biomarkers ...
Suhail Mohd M Mohd Suhail, Ashraf Ali, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Adeel GA Chaudhary, Ishtiaq Qadri, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi - - 2014
Chronic active hepatitis (CAH) is acknowledged as an imperative risk factor for the development of liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma. The histological end points of CAH are chronic inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis which are coupled with increased DNA synthesis in cirrhotic vs healthy normal livers. The potential mechanism involved in ...
Zhang Zi-Feng ZF School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province, PR China; Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Jiangsu Normal University, 101 Shanghai Road, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province, PR - - 2014
Emerging evidence indicates that 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) induces liver injury through enhanced ROS production and lymphocytic infiltration, which may promote a liver inflammatory response. Antioxidants have been reported to attenuate the cellular toxicity associated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated ...
Chen Qingqing Q Shanghai Biomaterials Research & Testing Center,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200023, - - 2014
As hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA NPs) are increasingly used in biomedical and biotechnological fields, risk assessment of HA NPs has attracted extensive attention. Nevertheless, little is known about the potential adverse effects of HA NPs on normal hepatocytes and the liver. In the present study, we conducted an in vitro study ...
Wenfeng Zhang Z Chongqing Key Laboratory of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, - - 2014
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a manifestation of liver metabolic damage and is related to insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. Inflammation mediated by Kupffer cells (KCs) is of critical importance to the development of NAFLD. The primary role of KCs in NAFLD is considered to be ...
Stijlemans Benoît B Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium; Myeloid Cell Immunology Laboratory, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Brussels, - - 2014
African trypanosomiasis is a chronic debilitating disease affecting the health and economic well-being of many people in developing countries. The pathogenicity associated with this disease involves a persistent inflammatory response, whereby M1-type myeloid cells, including Ly6Chigh inflammatory monocytes, are centrally implicated. A comparative gene analysis between trypanosusceptible and trypanotolerant animals ...
Lanaya Hanane H Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a A-1090 Vienna, - - 2014
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent cancer with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Tumorigenesis has been linked with macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation and diverse signalling pathways, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. The precise role of EGFR in HCC is unknown, and EGFR inhibitors have shown disappointing clinical ...
Huang Jing J 1 Currently, Department of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, China; formerly, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Los Angeles, CA. 2 Department of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, China. 3 Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Los Angeles, CA. 4 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan. 5 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. 6 Address correspondence to: Jerzy W. Kupiec-Weglinski, M.D., Ph.D., Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center 77-120 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant host defense, maintains the cellular redox homeostasis. This study was designed to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms by which Nrf2 regulates toll-like receptor (TLR)4-driven inflammation response in a mouse model of hepatic warm ischemia (90 min) ...
Lozano-Ruiz Beatriz B Networked Biomedical Research Center for Hepatic and Digestive Diseases (CIBERehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, - - 2014
Inflammation is a common event in the pathogenesis and complications of liver cirrhosis. The inflammasome pathway has acquired significant relevance in the pathogenesis of inflammation, but its role in the inflammatory response in patients with decompensated cirrhosis remains unexplored. We performed a prospective study in which 44 patients with decompensated ...
Li Jingjing - - 2014
Numerous pathological processes that affect liver function in patients with liver failure have been identified. Among them, hyperammonia is one of the most common phenomena.The purpose of this study was to determine whether hyperammonia could induced specific liver injury. Hyperammonemic cells were established using NH4Cl. The cells were assessed by ...
Wilson Garrick K GK Viral Hepatitis Research Group, Centre for Human Virology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, - - 2014
Hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) activate diverse pathways that regulate cellular metabolism, angiogenesis, proliferation and migration, enabling a cell to respond to a low oxygen or hypoxic environment. HIFs are regulated by oxygen-dependent and independent signals including: mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticular stress and viral infection. HIFs have ...
Zhang Xue-Qing XQ Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, - - 2014
Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathways regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, which has generated widespread interest in developing synthetic LXR agonists as potential therapeutics for the management of atherosclerosis. In this study, it is demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs) containing the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 (NP-LXR) exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit ...
Nascimento Marcia M Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of - - 2014
Accumulation of M2 macrophages in the liver, within the context of a strong Th2 response, is a hallmark of infection with the parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, but the origin of these cells is unclear. To explore this, we examined the relatedness of macrophages to monocytes in this setting. Our data ...
Nieh Shin S Department and Graduate School of Pathology, National Defense Medical Center & Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, - - 2014
Background: Recent studies suggest that long-term exposure of the carcinogen 4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK) found in tobacco smoke is involved in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The underlying nicotine-mediated mechanism remains unclear. Methods: An analysis of SCC-25 and Fadu cells with or without NNK exposure focusing on ...
Liu Peng P a Department of Cardiovascular Surgery , The Second Affiliated Hospital of the Third Military Medical University , Chongqing , - - 2014
Liver X receptors (LXRs) has been emerged as negative regulators of cardiomyocytic inflammation. The cellular process of autophagy is believed to play a protective role in myocardium during the inflammatory status. In this study, we investigated the role of LXRs agonist TO901317 (TO) on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced myocardial inflammation and autophagy. ...
Bauman Julie E - - 2014
Cetuximab is a murine-human chimeric IgG1 mAb directed against the EGFR that is approved for use in patients with colorectal and head and neck carcinomas. While some patients benefit greatly from cetuximab, many do not; therefore, strategies to increase the efficacy of this drug are of great clinical interest. In ...
Kumar Nitesh N Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, - - 2014
Silymarin, a hepatoprotective agent, has poor oral bioavailability. However, the current dosage form of the drug does not target the liver and inflammatory cells selectively. The aim of the present study was to develop lecithin-based carrier system of silymarin by incorporating phytosomal-liposomal approach to increase its oral bioavailability and to ...
Jiao M M 1] Department of Infectious Diseases, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China [2] Beijing Artificial Liver Treatment and Training Center, Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, - - 2014
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) has been reported to induce a potent anti-inflammatory response. Autophagy is a recently recognized rudimentary cellular response to inflammation and injury. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PPARα activation mediates autophagy to inhibit liver inflammation and protect against acute ...
Hammerich Linda L Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, - - 2014
Interleukins represent a class of immunomodulatory cytokines, small intercellular signaling proteins, that are critically involved in the regulation of immune responses. They are produced in large amounts by various cell types during inflammatory reactions, and the balance of cytokines determines the outcome of an immune response. Therefore, cytokines are regarded ...
Dutta-Moscato Joyeeta J Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, PA , USA ; Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, PA , USA ; Center for Inflammation and Regenerative Modeling, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, PA , - - 2014
Chronic hepatic inflammation involves a complex interplay of inflammatory and mechanical influences, ultimately manifesting in a characteristic histopathology of liver fibrosis. We created an agent-based model (ABM) of liver tissue in order to computationally examine the consequence of liver inflammation. Our liver fibrosis ABM (LFABM) is comprised of literature-derived rules ...
Wang Haibin H Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, - - 2014
Activated T cells selectively induced by concanavalin A (Con A) in liver are subsequent efficient resolution of inflammation. Activated T cells infiltrating in liver combined with pro-inflammatory cytokines are the major causes in Con A-induced liver injury. In our study, C57/BL mice were injected with Con A combined with dexmedetomidine ...
Heine Markus M Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf; Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, - - 2014
Semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIO) have exceptional physical properties that are well suited for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. For future applications, the direct injection of nanocrystals for imaging and therapy represents an important entry route into the human body. Therefore, it is ...
Mallat Ariane A INSERM U955, 94000 Créteil, France ; Université Paris-Est, Faculté de Médecine, UMR-S955, 94000 Créteil, - - 2014
Liver fibrosis is a common wound healing response to chronic liver injury of all causes, and its end-stage cirrhosis is responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Fibrosis results from prolonged parenchymal cell apoptosis and necrosis associated with an inflammatory reaction that leads to recruitment of immune cells, activation and ...
Beljaars Leonie L Department of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, University of Groningen , Groningen , - - 2014
Macrophages have been found to both promote liver fibrosis and contribute to its resolution by acquiring different phenotypes based on signals from the micro-environment. The best-characterized phenotypes in the macrophage spectrum are labeled M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Until now the in situ localization of these phenotypes in ...
Castro Rosario R Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos (Madrid), - - 2014
Among the essential metabolic functions of the liver, in mammals, a role as mediator of systemic and local innate immunity has also been reported. Although the presence of an important leukocyte population in mammalian liver is well documented, the characterization of leukocyte populations in the teleost liver has been only ...
Ye Zhan Z Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States of - - 2014
The virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis has different dominant effects in liver and spleen. Previous studies focused on spleen, where YopM inhibits accumulation of inflammatory dendritic cells. In the present study we focused on liver, where PMN function may be directly undermined by YopM without changes ...
Wehr Alexander A Department of Medicine III, RWTH University-Hospital, Aachen, - - 2014
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, resulting in steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. Modulating inflammatory mediators such as chemokines may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for NAFLD. We recently demonstrated that the chemokine receptor CXCR6 promotes hepatic NKT cell ...
Zhang Fang F Department of Burn Surgery, the Second Military Medical University affiliated Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China; Number 73901 Troop of PLA, Shanghai, - - 2014
Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are considered to play an important role in the development of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Esculentoside A (EsA), isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, has the effect of modulating immune response, cell proliferation and apoptosis as ...
Wunderlich Frank F Department of Biology, Heinrich-Heine-University , Düsseldorf, - - 2014
The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages ...
Xia Jihan J State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, P. R. - - 2014
Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose ...
Freiser Monika E - - 2013
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) exhibit complex interactions with the host immune system that may simultaneously explain resistance to various therapeutic modalities and that may also provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Discoveries in immunologic research over the last decade have led to an increased understanding of these interactions ...
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