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Goyal Manu M Department of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India; Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, - - 2014
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infections, resulting in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite its pathogenic potential, little is known regarding role of intracellular NTHi in pathogenesis of pulmonary infection. Kinetics of NTHi internalization was studied using gentamicin protection assays. NTHi strains isolated ...
Hou Hsin-Han - - 2014
BackgroundChronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) has become the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Cigarette smoking induces neutrophil elastase (NE) and contributes to COPD, but the detailed mechanisms involved are not fully established. In an animal model of pulmonary emphysema, there are increased expressions of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and ...
Heijink Irene H IH University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen, Netherlands, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Pulmonology, Groningen, Netherlands, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, GRIAC Research Institute, Groningen, Netherlands ; - - 2014
Rationale: Cigarette smoking, the major causative factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure can induce a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in airway epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that CS promotes neutrophil necrosis with subsequent release ...
Ravi Arjun K - - 2014
BackgroundCOPD patients have increased numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling via its soluble receptor sIL-6R, governs the influx of innate immune cells to inflammatory foci through regulation of the chemokine CCL3. We hypothesized that there would be enhanced levels of IL-6, sIL-6R and CCL3 in ...
Dan Xue-Ming - - 2013
The M-CSF/M-CSFR system plays a central role in the cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and maturation of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In present study, we cloned the sequence of the M-CSFR cDNA from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis reveals that ten cysteines in the extracellular immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domains of EcM-CSFR ...
Nicodemo D D Curso de Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Dracena, SP, Brasil - - 2013
Honey bees use propolis to defend against invaders and disease organisms. As some colonies produce much more propolis than others, we investigated whether propolis collecting is associated with disease resistance traits, including hygienic behavior and resistance to the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The three highest (HP) and three lowest ...
Wang Xinyan - - 2012
In mammals, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent anti-inflammatory factor, showing that it inhibits the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory factors. However, whether fish PACAP plays similar regulatory roles as seen in mammals remains unclear. In the present study, expression ...
Bahceciler Nerin N - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although allergen-specific sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have been demonstrated to be clinically effective with similar immunological responses, head-to-head studies comparing those two modes of allergen administration in terms of onset of clinical improvement along with simultaneous immunological responses and underlying mechanisms of preventive effect are ...
Gobert Michael - - 2012
How difficult is to go from egg to implanted embryo? The evolution of placentation in eutherian mammals created enormous challenges, in particular to the maternal immune system, as the fetus expresses paternal antigens that are capable of triggering immune rejection. Samstein et al. reveal a role for inducible regulatory T ...
Mandel Ilana - - 2012
Pathogenic T cells of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been suggested to be endowed with an increased resistance to apoptosis, contributing to their increased survival. We report herein increased levels of the anti-apoptotic MCL1 protein and its half-life in activated lymphocytes of MS patients, which were not associated with differences ...
Muls Nathalie - - 2012
The concomitant production of IL-17A and IL-9, both Th17 cytokines, has not been compared in MS patients. We show that IL-17A but not IL-9 expression by CD3(+) cells was increased during a MS relapse. Co-expression of IL-17A and IL-9 was marginal. In addition to Th1 and Th2 cytokines, IL-17A, IL-6 ...
Weber Martin S - - 2012
Recent years have broadened the spectrum of therapeutic strategies and specific agents for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). While immune-modulating drugs remain the first-line agents for MSpredominantly due to their benign safety profile, our growing understanding of key processes in initiation and progression of MS has pioneered development of new ...
Aristimuño Carol - - 2012
Cellular mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism in the immune response remain largely unknown. Concerning the interactions among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, we reported that during gestation, a period during which multiple sclerosis (MS) clearly ameliorates, there is a physiological expansion of regulatory T-lymphocytes (T(Reg)). Given that alterations in T(Reg) ...
Jongerius Ilse - - 2012
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen that causes a large variety of diseases. In vitro studies have shown that S. aureus secretes several small proteins that block specific elements of the host innate immune system, but their role in bacterial pathogenicity is unknown. For instance, the extracellular complement-binding protein ...
Lopez-Castejon Gloria G Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United - - 2012
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for the food borne infection listeriosis, affecting principally the immunocompromised, the old, neonates and pregnant women. Following invasion L. monocytogenes escapes the phagosome and replicates in the cytoplasm. Phagosome escape is central to L. monocytogenes virulence and is required for initiating ...
Mortaz Esmaeil E Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, - - 2012
Extracellular ATP is a signaling molecule which plays an important role in alerting the immune system in case of any tissue damage. Recent studies show that binding of ATP to the ionotropic P2X7 receptor of inflammatory cells (macrophages and monocytes) will induce caspase 1 activation. Stimulation of caspase 1 activity ...
Dwivedi Ashish - - 2011
Levofloxacin (LVFX) is a broad spectrum third generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic, used in the treatment of severe or life-threatening bacterial infections. Photosensitizing mechanism of LVFX was investigated under the ambient environmental intensities of UV-A, UV-B and sunlight exposure. Phototoxic effects of LVFX were assessed on NIH-3T3 and HaCaT cell lines. Results ...
Tzartos J S - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the activation of innate immune responses, which can be elicited by pathogenic and endogenous triggers, is associated with the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. METHODS:White matter postmortem MS (n = 10) and control tissue (n = 11) was analyzed for ...
Opdenakker Ghislain - - 2011
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with a spectrum of clinical evolutions. We here summarize recent insights into the neuroinflammatory processes of demyelination, vascular cuffing, destruction of the blood brain barrier (BBB), neuronal toxicity and the ensuing (re)activation of autoreactive lymphocytes. Translation of these processes in molecular terms indicates ...
Williams Rachel R Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, - - 2012
Iron, an essential element used for a multitude of biochemical reactions, abnormally accumulates in the CNS of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanisms of abnormal iron deposition in MS are not fully understood, nor do we know whether these deposits have adverse consequences, that is, contribute to pathogenesis. With ...
Kalinowska-Łyszczarz Alicja - - 2011
While neurotrophins mediate cell survival and proliferation in the nervous system, they are also expressed within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the immunological system. In multiple sclerosis (MS) neurotrophins released from PBMCs might play a neuroprotective role, delaying neurodegeneration within central nervous system. We aimed for identifying the link ...
Ferret-Bernard Stéphanie S Department of Biology, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, - - 2012
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in polarising Th lymphocyte subsets but it is unclear what molecular events occur when DCs generate Th2-type responses. Here, we analysed plasma membrane-enriched fractions from immature, pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 DCs and used a combination of iTRAQ labelling and LC-MS/MS to quantify changes in ...
Dai Lan - - 2011
Notch signaling has been demonstrated to have a central role in glioblastoma (GBM) cancer stem cells (CSCs) and we have demonstrated recently that Notch pathway blockade by γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) depletes GBM CSCs and prevents tumor propagation both in vitro and in vivo. In order to understand the proteome alterations ...
Dos Santos Daiane F - - 2011
Because of the potential protective role of leukotrienes (LTs) in histoplasmosis and the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of cell-free antigens from Histoplasmacapsulatum (CFAgs), the aim of this study was to develop and characterise biodegradable LTB(4)/CFAgs-loaded microspheres (MS) that could promote cellular activation for future immunisation purposes. LTB(4)/CFAgs-loaded MS that were ...
Amatngalim Gimano D - - 2011
Inflammatory diseases remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Cathelicidins are immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides with potent anti-endotoxic properties. Although the effects of the human cathelicidin LL-37 on cellular responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands have been investigated, its effects on responses to other pro-inflammatory stimuli have not been ...
Sriram Subramaniam - - 2011
The adaptive and innate arms of the immune system are the two pillars of host defense against environmental pathogens. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS which is considered to be autoimmune and is thought to result from breakdown in the usual checks and balances of ...
Barst Benjamin D - - 2011
Mercury (Hg) contamination is a global issue with implications for both ecosystem and human health. In this study, we use a new approach to link Hg exposure to health effects in spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) from Caddo Lake (TX/LA, USA). Previous field studies have reported elevated incidences of macrophage centers ...
Arnason Bgw - - 2011
At its final meeting, the MS Forum Executive Committee reviewed highlights of where things stood prior to the immunomodulatory era, and how things have evolved subsequently. What the future might hold was discussed in a second session. Prior to 1990: Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS), as determined by human ...
Gambuzza M - - 2011
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important innate immune proteins for the identification and clearance of invading pathogen. TLR signal through adaptor proteins, most commonly myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). Inappropriate response of specific TLR has been implicated in certain autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Activation of TLR2, ...
Mohajeri Maryam - - 2011
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which mainly affects young adults. Activated T lymphocytes promote the neuro-inflammatory cascade of MS by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines and play a significant role in its pathogenesis. T lymphocytes may trigger the inflammation, which in ...
Darlington Peter J - - 2011
Phase I clinical trials exploring the use of autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) have begun in a number of centers across the world. MS is a complex and chronic immune-mediated and neurodegenerative disease influenced by genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors. The ...
Urshansky Nataly - - 2011
One of the mechanisms known to play a key role in neuronal and oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells (NSCs) is restriction of bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) signaling by BMP antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that follistatin mRNA and protein secreted levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of relapsing-remitting ...
Smolders Joost - - 2011
High exposure to vitamin D may protect against development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS), possibly through the immunomodulatory properties of its biologically active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. So far, most studies on the possible mechanisms for vitamin D involvement in MS have focused on immune modulation outside the central nervous ...
Mori Ryoichi - - 2011
Activated macrophages at wound sites release many cytokines, which positively affect skin wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling cytokine secretion from macrophages have not been elucidated. In the present study, we performed an RT-PCR analysis and found that 19 small GTPase Rab isoforms were expressed at skin wound sites, ...
Kim Yoon Young - - 2011
  We investigated the effect of topical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on testosterone (T)-induced hair loss in mice. Marked hair loss was observed at the T-injected site, and topical EGCG significantly reduced the hair loss (P < 0.05). TUNEL staining showed apoptosis of follicular epithelial cells in the T-injected groups where topical EGCG was ...
Achiron Anat - - 2011
Low expression of NR4A gene family members (NR4A1, NR4A3) and 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) genes was demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of subjects evaluated during the pre-disease state of multiple sclerosis (MS-to-be, MS2b), in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) during the very early presentation of neurological ...
Zhang Zhiren - - 2011
Reactive macrophages/microglia exert both protective or damaging effects in multiple sclerosis (MS), which contribute to the relapsing-remitting nature of MS. CD163 is considered a marker of M2 (alternatively activated) macrophages. In the MS brain, CD163(+) perivascular macrophages express molecules for antigen recognition and presentation. Here we further investigated the accumulation ...
Hu Yinghui - - 2011
The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators have emerged as a new therapeutic opportunity paradigm for the treatment of immune-mediated demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The S1P analog fingolimod (FTY720) has been shown to alleviate disease burden in immune-mediated animal models of MS, and has been approved for treatment ...
Oh Sungwhan F SF Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2011
Control of the inflammatory response is of wide interest given its important role in many diseases. In recent years we identified novel mechanisms and lipid mediators that play an active role in stimulating the resolution of self-limited acute inflammation. These novel pro-resolving mediators include the essential fatty acid-derived lipoxins, resolvins, ...
Kieseier Bernd C - - 2011
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune inflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration. It is believed that early in the disease course, proinflammatory T cells that are activated in the periphery by antigen presentation cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the CNS directed by various chemotaxic agents. However, to date, there has ...
Li Guorong - - 2011
To evaluate the potential role that FoxO transcription factors play in modulating resveratrol's protective effects against oxidative stress in lens epithelial cells. Primary human or porcine lens epithelial cells (LECs) were treated with resveratrol (RES) 25 μM and incubated under either physiologic (5%) or chronic hyperoxic (40%) oxygen conditions. Acute ...
Reynolds Richard R Wolfson Neuroscience Laboratories, Division of Experimental Medicine, UK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank, Centre for Neuroscience, Imperial Faculty of Medicine College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, UK. - - 2011
Multiple sclerosis is the major inflammatory condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and is characterised by disseminated focal immune-mediated demyelination. Demyelination is accompanied by variable axonal damage and loss and reactive gliosis. It is this pathology that is thought to be responsible for the clinical relapses that often respond ...
Hirota Keiji - - 2011
Our previous results on the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (Mϕs) toward poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres (PLGA MS) loaded with the anti-tuberculosis agent rifampicin (R-PLGA MS) suggest that the phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS enhances the phagocytic activity of Mϕ cells [17]. To confirm this possibility, we examined the effect of phagocytosis ...
Schweingruber Nils - - 2011
Glucocorticoids (GC) are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). They predominantly act through the GC receptor (GR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that controls transcription by several different mechanisms. Owing to its ubiquitous expression there are a variety of cell types that could ...
Vercellino Marco - - 2011
Background: Progranulin (PGRN) is a fundamental neurotrophic factor, and is also involved in inflammation and wound repair. PGRN may have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties, depending upon proteolysis of the anti-inflammatory parent PGRN protein and the generation of pro-inflammatory granulin peptides. Objectives: Our objectives were as follows: (1) to evaluate the ...
Hossain Muhammad M - - 2011
Exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular pathways leading to deltamethrin-induced apoptosis have not been established. To identify these pathways, SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells were exposed to deltamethrin (100 nM-5 μM) for 24-48 h. Deltamethrin produced a ...
Noel Greg - - 2011
Burn induces myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), a heterogeneous population of immature PMN and monocytes, which protect against infection. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that inflammatory monocytes were the major MDSC source of TNFα in the post burn spleen, and we hypothesized that they were also the major source ...
Slack Cathy - - 2011
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling (IIS) pathway in metazoans has evolutionarily conserved roles in growth control, metabolic homeostasis, stress responses, reproduction, and lifespan. Genetic manipulations that reduce IIS in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the mouse have been shown not only to produce substantial ...
Ludwig-Galezowska Agnieszka H - - 2011
•  Introduction •  ARC identification and tissue-specific expression •  The molecular structure of ARC •  (Patho)physiology and ARC expression -  Physiological role and expression of ARC in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue -  Physiological role and expression of ARC in brain tissue -  ARC expression and localization in cancer •  ...
Yen Cheng Chien - - 2011
Arsenic pollution is a major public health problem worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is usually more harmful than organic ones. iAs pollution increases the risk of human diseases such as peripheral vascular disease and cancer. However, the toxicological effects of iAs in the brain are mostly unclear. Here, we investigated the ...
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