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Kiaii Bob - - 2012
The aim of this study was to compare the early systemic inflammatory response of the Resting Heart System (RHS; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN USA), a miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system, with two groups using a standard extracorporeal circulation system during on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. A total of 60 ...
Scholtes Vincent P W - - 2011
The innate immune response elicited by activation of TLRs (Toll-like receptors) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the activation status of the innate immune system. We therefore assessed the responsiveness of TLRs on circulating cells in two groups ...
Jian Jinlong - - 2011
Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is a ubiquitous type II membrane receptor with 61 amino acids in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. TfR1 is highly expressed in cancer cells, particularly under iron deficient conditions. Overexpression of TfR1 is thought to meet the increased requirement of iron uptake necessary for cell growth. In ...
Souza Laura L - - 2011
It has been previously shown that besides its classical role in blood pressure control the renin-angiotensin system, mainly by action of angiotensin II on the AT(1) receptor, exerts pro-inflammatory effects such as by inducing the production of cytokines. More recently, alternative pathways to this system were described, such as binding ...
Oh Chad K - - 2011
Asthma is a complex disease characterized by variable airflow limitation, hyperresponsiveness, and airways inflammation. Despite valuable therapeutic advances to control asthma symptoms in the last decade, a quantifiable proportion of patients with moderate to severe asthma continue to experience inadequate disease control, highlighting an important unmet need. In animal models ...
Bang Bo Ram - - 2011
The role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the pathogenesis of asthma is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AM in the murine model of asthma. AMs were selectively depleted by liposomes containing clodronate just before allergen challenges, and changes in inflammatory cells ...
Holt Patrick G - - 2011
Atopic asthma is the most common form of asthma, particularly during childhood, and in many cases it persists into adult life. Although atopy is clearly a risk factor for development of this disease, only a small subset of subjects sensitized to aeroallergens express persistent symptoms, suggesting that additional pathogenic mechanisms ...
Hansbro Philip M - - 2011
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and there are no preventions or cures. Inflammatory cells through the secretion of cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules are thought to play a critical role in pathogenesis. Type 2 CD4(+) lymphocytes (Th2 cells) and their cytokines predominate in mild to moderate allergic ...
Palmer Gaby - - 2011
Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. IL-33 is a nuclear protein that is also released into the extracellular space, and thus acts as a dual-function molecule, as does IL-1α. Extracellular IL-33 binds to the cell-surface receptor ST2, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways ...
Huerta-Yepez S - - 2011
New therapies are necessary to address inadequate asthma control in many patients. This study sets out to investigate whether hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is essential for development of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) and therefore a potential novel target for asthma treatment. Mice conditionally knocked out for HIF-1β were examined for their ...
Paula Vieira Rodolfo - - 2011
RATIONALE: Extracellular nucleotides have recently been identified as pro-inflammatory mediators involved in asthma pathogenesis by signaling via purinergic receptors, but the role of the P2Y6R has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of P2Y6R in asthma pathogenesis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We observed that the intratracheal application ...
Siegle J S - - 2011
Early-life respiratory viral infections are linked to subsequent development of allergic asthma in children. We assessed the underlying immunological mechanisms in a novel model of the induction phase of childhood asthma. BALB/c mice were infected neonatally with pneumonia virus of mice, then sensitized intranasally with ovalbumin following recovery. Animals were ...
Wang Pingli - - 2011
We identified a previously unrecognized component of airborne particulate matter (PM) formed in combustion and thermal processes, namely, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs). The pulmonary health effects of EPFRs are currently unknown. In the present study, we used a model EPFR-containing pollutant-particle system referred to as MCP230. We evaluated the ...
Wegmann Michael - - 2011
Due to their role as main effector cells in immune reactions against invading parasites, eosinophils have a plethora of molecules available to destroy these complex pathogens. Their role in allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, where these do not have to controvert pathogens, is discussed controversially. However, ever since eosinophils ...
Hernández Antonio F - - 2011
Several clinical and epidemiological studies have reported an association between exposure to pesticides, bronchial hyper-reactivity and asthma symptoms. This article reviews the mechanistic evidence lending support to the concept that either acute or chronic low-level inhalation of pesticides may trigger asthma attacks, exacerbate asthma or increase the risk of developing ...
Saffar Arash S - - 2011
Neutrophil-dominated inflammation plays an important role in many airway diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. In cases of asthma where neutrophil-dominated inflammation is a major contributing factor to the disease, treatment with corticosteroids can be problematic as corticosteroids have been shown to promote neutrophil ...
Sly Peter D - - 2011
Asthma is essentially a developmental disease, in which the normal growth and development of the respiratory and immune systems are affected by environmental exposures acting on underlying genetic predispositions. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of innate immunity in the lungs in the development of allergy ...
Zhou Dan-Yang - - 2011
Allergic asthma is characterized by hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of the airway with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been proved to have antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to ...
Ingram Jennifer L - - 2011
Invasive cell phenotypes have been demonstrated in malignant transformation, but not in other diseases, such as asthma. Cellular invasiveness is thought to be mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). IL-13 is a key T(H)2 cytokine that directs many features of airway remodeling through TGF-β1 and MMPs. ...
Finiasz M - - 2011
Atopic asthma results from airway inflammation triggered by an environmental allergen. Symptoms include wheezing, dyspnea and cough, airway narrowing and/or hyperresponsiveness to several inhaled stimuli. Inflammation develops in a two-phase fashion. The first phase after exposure to the allergen consists of degranulation and release of both histamine and other stored ...
Bakakos P - - 2011
During recent years there has been a growing interest in using non-invasive biomarkers to understand and monitor the airway inflammation in subjects with respiratory tract disorders and mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sputum induction is generally a well-tolerated and safe procedure and a European Respiratory Society Task ...
Jeong Young-Il - - 2011
Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly ...
Loukides S - - 2011
The need for non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is imperative, since inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD, are characterized by variation in their clinical presentation throughout their course. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection represents a rather appealing method that can be used to conveniently and noninvasively collect a ...
Botturi Karine - - 2011
Exacerbations of asthma are the main cause of asthma morbidity. They induce acute respiratory failure, and sometimes death. Two immunological signals acting in synergy are necessary for inducing asthma exacerbations. The first, triggered by allergens and / or unknown agents leads to the chronic Th2 inflammation characteristic of asthma. The ...
Kim Joo-Hee - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Toluene diisocyante-induced occupational asthma (TDI-OA) is an inflammatory disease of airway, composing inflammatory cells and cytokines associated with airway remodeling. Majority of the patients with TDI-OA presented persistent asthma. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential for the favorable prognosis. We investigated to identify serologic markers for early diagnosis of TDI-OA. ...
Ci Xinxin - - 2011
Tilmicosin, a semi-synthetic tylosin-derived macrolide antibiotic commonly used by veterinarians, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, possible use in asthma treatment has not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of tilmicosin using a murine asthma model. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by ...
Ly Ngoc P - - 2011
Current evidence supports a role for gut colonization in promoting and maintaining a balanced immune response in early life. An altered or less diverse gut microbiota composition has been associated with atopic diseases, obesity, or both. Moreover, certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses ...
Durham Andrew L AL National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK. - - 2011
Asthma is caused by both heritable and environmental factors. It has become clear that genetic studies do not adequately explain the heritability and susceptibility to asthma. The study of epigenetics, heritable non-coding changes to DNA may help to explain the heritable component of asthma. Additionally, epigenetic modifications can be influenced ...
van der Vliet Albert A Department of Pathology, Vermont Lung Cancer, College of Medicine, Universitu of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. - - 2011
Chronic airway diseases such as asthma are linked to oxidative environmental factors and are associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, it is commonly assumed that oxidative stress is an important contributing factor to asthma disease pathogenesis and that antioxidant strategies may be useful in the treatment ...
Anderson John T JT Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2011
The contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to the pathophysiology of asthma remains incompletely defined despite its established pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. Induction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and superoxide pathways is correlated with increased airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic subjects. To determine the contributions of these pathways in ...
Kim Seung-Jin - - 2011
Obesity is characterized by low-grade and chronic inflammation, a phenomenon explained with a new term, metaflammation. Recent studies suggest that adipocytes may play an important role in the physiological regulation of immune responses in fat deposits via toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling cascades. This study investigates the role of the visceral ...
Lee Chen-Chen - - 2011
IL-4 and IL-13 are two key cytokines released from activated T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and strongly associated with asthma and allergic disease. We applied silencing of the IL-4 and IL-13 gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) delivered by a lentiviral vector to evaluate the therapeutic effect of IL-4 ...
Cosmi L - - 2011
To cite this article: Cosmi L, Liotta F, Maggi E, Romagnani S, Annunziato F. Th17 cells: new players in asthma pathogenesis. Allergy 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02576.x. ABSTRACT: CD4+ T effector lymphocytes are distinguished in different subsets on the basis of their patterns of cytokine secretion. Th1 cells, thank to IFN-γ production, ...
Kuo Po-Lin - - 2011
This study has two novel findings: it is not only the first to demonstrate inflammatory cytokines, which are produced by the bronchial epithelium after exposure to phthalate esters and contribute to airway remodeling by increasing human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) migration and proliferation, but it is also the first ...
Halwani Rabih R Prince Naif Center for Immunology Research, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11461, Saudi - - 2011
The increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is a major structural change in asthma. This increase has been attributed to ASM cell (ASMC) hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The distance between ASMC and the epithelium is reduced, suggesting migration of smooth muscle cells toward the epithelium. Recent studies have suggested a ...
Reddy P Hemachandra - - 2011
Asthma is a complex, inflammatory disorder characterized by airflow obstruction of variable degrees, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Asthma is caused by environmental factors and a combination of genetic and environmental stimuli. Genetic studies have revealed that multiple loci are involved in the etiology of asthma. Recent cellular, molecular, and ...
Nakagome Kazuyuki - - 2011
Bronchial asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by airway inflammation, reversible airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Eosinophils are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma through the release of inflammatory mediators. In refractory eosinophilic asthma, anti-IL-5 mAb reduces exacerbations and steroid dose, indicating roles of eosinophils and ...
Bogaert Pieter - - 2011
Contrarily to the Th-2-bias and eosinophil-dominated bronchial inflammation encountered in most asthmatics, other patients may exhibit neutrophil-predominant asthma sub-phenotypes along with Th-1 and Th-17 cells. However, the etiology of many neutrophil-dominated asthma sub-phenotypes remains ill-understood, in part due to a lack of appropriate experimental models. To better understand the distinct ...
Yadav Umesh C S - - 2011
Airway inflammation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors is the hallmark of asthma, a prevalent chronic respiratory disease. In various cellular and animal models, we have recently demonstrated that, in response to multiple stimuli, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) regulates the inflammatory signals via NF-kappa B activation. ...
Girodet Pierre-Olivier - - 2011
The chronic inflammatory response within the airways of asthmatics is associated with structural changes termed airway remodeling. This remodeling process is a key feature of severe asthma. The 5-10% of patients with a severe form of the disease account for the higher morbidity and health costs related to asthma. Among ...
Robker Rebecca L - - 2011
This review summarizes some of the recent advances in obesity research and describes how we and others have built upon these findings to better understand the impact of obesity on granulosa cells, cumulus cells and oocytes within the ovaries of obese females. Obesity is associated with lipid accumulation in non-adipose ...
- - 2011
Mepolizumab and Exacerbations of Refractory Eosinophilic Asthma Original Article, N Engl J Med 2009;360:973-984. In the Inflammatory Markers subsection of Results (page 980), the final P value given in the last sentence of the first paragraph should have been "0.22," rather than "0.68," and "Figure 3A" should have been "Figure ...
Dodig Slavica - - 2011
Abstract The major characteristic of asthma is persistent airway inflammation that fails to resolve spontaneously. Dysregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms is responsible for the development of chronic inflammation. The inflammatory reaction is mediated by numerous cells and their mediators. Detection and quantification of airway inflammation in children are subject ...
Aujla Shean J - - 2011
The chronic airway disease asthma causes significant burden to patients as well as the healthcare system with limited options for prevention or cure. Inadequate treatment strategies are most likely due to the complex heterogeneous nature of asthma. Furthermore, the severe asthma phenotype is characterized by the lack of a response ...
Wei Dajun - - 2011
Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside comprised of the flavanone hesperetin and the disaccharide rutinose, is a plentiful and inexpensive by-product of citrus cultivation. It has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we attempt to determine whether hesperidin ...
Sly Peter D - - 2011
Asthma is largely a developmental disease in which the normal development of the respiratory and immune systems is altered by the impacts of environmental exposures acting on underlying genetic predispositions. This review will comment on the latest evidence in this field. There is increasing evidence that several potentially overlapping genetic ...
Mathis Diane - - 2011
Immunometabolism is an emerging field of investigation at the interface between the historically distinct disciplines of immunology and metabolism. Accelerating interest in this area is being fuelled by the obesity epidemic and the relatively recent realization that obesity affects the immune system and promotes inflammation, and that obesity-induced inflammation potentially ...
Jung Ju-Young - - 2011
Chronic airway inflammation is a hallmark of asthma, which is an immune-based disease. We evaluated the ability of saucerneol D, a tetrahydrofuran-type sesquilignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, to regulate airway inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation model. Furthermore, we determined whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 was required for the protective ...
Sato Fumitaka F Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine in Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71130, - - 2011
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested to be an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), whose primary target is either myelin itself, or myelin-forming cells, the oligodendrocytes. Although axonal damage occurs in MS, it is regarded as a secondary event to the myelin damage. Here, the lesion ...
Ichioka Masayuki - - 2011
We have provided evidence that saturated fatty acids, which are released from adipocytes via macrophage-induced adipocyte lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 complex in macrophages, thereby aggravating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. The aim of this study was to identify the molecule(s) activated in ...
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