Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 712
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Sacco Rodolfo R Department of Gastroenterology-Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, - - 2014
Cytokines such as TNF-α have a validated role in the immunopathogensis of ulcerative colitis (UC), and intercepting inflammatory cytokines is currently the best option for maximizing treatment efficacy. One of the major sources of inflammatory cytokines are myeloid linage leucocytes (granulocytes, monocytes), which are present in great numbers in the ...
Steiner Stefanie S Medical Clinic 1, Kussmaul Research Campus, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Hartmannstr. 14, 91052, Erlangen, - - 2014
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are defined as relapsing inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potential rescue treatment to avoid colectomy in severe steroid-refractory UC patients. The molecular mechanism of action of CsA ...
Schneditz Georg G Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, - - 2014
Antibiotic therapy disrupts the human intestinal microbiota. In some patients rapid overgrowth of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca results in antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). We isolated and identified a toxin produced by K. oxytoca as the pyrrolobenzodiazepine tilivalline and demonstrated its causative action in the pathogenesis of colitis in an ...
Isidro Raymond A RA Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ponce, PR 00716, - - 2014
Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), most commonly Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), suffer from chronic intestinal inflammation of unknown etiology. Increased proinflammatory macrophages (M1) have been documented in tissue from patients with CD. Anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2) may play a role in UC given the preponderance of Th2 ...
Du Chao C 1] Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, PR China [2] Department of Gastroenterology, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, Shandong, 276000, PR - - 2014
Inflammatory macrophages in colonic mucosa are the leading drivers of the pathology associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we examined whether gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a macrophage selective inhibitor, would improve the course of 2,4,6-trinitro benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and the potential ...
Li Li L 1] College of Life Sciences, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Microbial Genetic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China - - 2014
Edible berries have a broad spectrum of biomedical functions, including improving immune responses and reducing risk for chronic diseases. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of crude extracts (CEs), anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs), and des-anthocyanin fractions (DAFs) from seven berries were evaluated based on their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) ...
Sinha Akhouri A - - 2013
Immune cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) provide the microenvironment for immune surveillance of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cells in pelvic lymph nodes. We have hypothesized that degeneration and/or apoptosis of metastatic PCa cells in pelvic lymph nodes can distinguish between aggressive and non-aggressive metastatic disease in patients. Our objective was to ...
Khan Khaleque Newaz - - 2013
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory condition associated with variable degrees of pelvic pain and infertility. Studies have showed that the growth and progression of endometriosis continue even in ovariectomized animals. This indicates that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system ...
Altuntas Cengiz Z CZ Department of Urology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, - - 2013
The pathophysiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is poorly understood. Inflammatory and autoimmune mechanisms may play a role. We developed a murine model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) that mimics the human phenotype of CP/CPPS. Eight-week-old mice were immunized subcutaneously with prostate-specific peptides in an emulsion of complete ...
Kim Eun Jae - - 2012
PURPOSE: Biomechanical weakness of the pelvic supportive structures has been proposed to be a cause of pelvic organ prolapse. However, the molecular mechanism involved in these changes is not completely understood. In this investigation we evaluated oxidative stress biomarkers in the uterosacral ligaments of women with pelvic organ prolapse and ...
Adhikari Anupam - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the antileishmanial activity of heat-killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (Mw) alone or in combination with a subtoxic dose of amphotericin B [AMB(st)]. METHODS: Mw- and Mw + AMB(st)-mediated antileishmanial activity was evaluated by microscopic counting of intracellular amastigotes in Giemsa-stained macrophages and real-time PCR ...
Smith Kumari A - - 2012
Endometriosis is one of the most frequently encountered gynecologic diseases and a common cause of chronic pelvic pain and infertility. The pathophysiology of this syndrome can best be described as the presence of ectopic endometrium and a pelvic inflammatory process with associated immune dysfunction and alteration in the peritoneal environment. ...
Fortes Guilherme B - - 2012
Diseases that cause hemolysis or myonecrosis lead to the leakage of large amounts of heme proteins. Free heme has proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Heme induces TLR4-dependent production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), whereas heme cytotoxicity has been attributed to its ability to intercalate into cell membranes and cause oxidative stress. ...
Ma Yanna - - 2012
Deoxynivalenol (DON), known colloquially as "vomitoxin", is a pathogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi. Human food poisoning outbreaks, with nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting as primary symptoms, have been associated with Fusarium-infected cereals. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the molecular aspects of DON in human colon cancer cells (HT-29). ...
Tan Wenzhi - - 2012
Apoptosis is a crucial process that regulates the homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Impaired apoptosis contributes to cancer development, while enhanced apoptosis is detrimental in neurodegenerative diseases. The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is initiated by cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Research published in the recent decade has suggested that cytochrome c release ...
de Pablo-Latorre Raquel R Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples 80131, - - 2012
Dysfunctional mitochondria are a well-known disease hallmark. The accumulation of aberrant mitochondria can alter cell homeostasis, thus resulting in tissue degeneration. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a group of inherited diseases characterized by the buildup of undegraded material inside the lysosomes that leads to autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction. In LSDs, autophagic stress ...
Sass G - - 2012
Heme oxygenases (HO) are essential enzymes which degrade heme into carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and free iron. Due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and, as recently described, anti-viral properties the inducible HO isoform HO-1 is an important molecule which could find its way into therapy of gastrointestinal diseases. Acute and chronic ...
Wu Xin-Hua - - 2012
To investigate whether apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) can be induced with the polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-mediated inhibition of bcl-2 (b-cell lymphoma 2) by small hairpin RNA (shRNA). HLECs (SRA01/04) were transfected with the fifth generation of PAMAM (PAMAM G5) by bcl-2 shRNA. At 24, 48, and 72 h after ...
Hwang In-Sok - - 2011
Amentoflavone was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the whole plant of Selaginella tamariscina. It is a traditional herb for the therapy of chronic trachitis and exhibits some anti-tumor activity. Previously, we confirmed the antifungal effects of amentoflavone. The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal mechanism(s) ...
Alamdary Shabnam Zeighamy - - 2011
Several studies have shown that neuronal cell death due to apoptosis is the major reason for cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we report the anti-apoptotic effects of three Salvia species from Iran-S. choloroleuca, S. mirzayanii and S. santolinifolia-against H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity in neuron-like PC12 cells. We showed that ...
Hwang Soon-Kyung - - 2012
Serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is involved in cell survival and growth. Carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), a novel Akt binding partner, prevents Akt activation at the plasma membrane in response to various stimuli, and thus possesses a tumor suppressor-like function. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that CTMP inhibits ...
Taoka Kazuki - - 2011
We investigated the mechanisms of hematopoietic disorders caused by iron overload and chelation, in particular, the inhibition of erythroblast differentiation. Murine c-kit(+) progenitor cells or human CD34(+) peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitors were differentiated in vitro to the erythroid lineage with free iron and/or an iron chelator. Under iron overload, formation ...
Carloni S - - 2011
Rapamycin, a lipophilic macrolide antibiotic, has been found to reduce injury in different models of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously shown that in neonatal rats subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) the neuroprotective effect of rapamycin was associated with increased autophagy and decreased caspase-3 activation. We show here that the strong reduction ...
Midwinter Robyn G - - 2011
Probucol inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and the drug reduces intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis in animals via induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Because the succinyl ester of probucol, succinobucol, recently failed as an antiatherogenic drug in humans, we investigated its effects on ...
Samhan-Arias Alejandro K - - 2011
The apoptosis of cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) induced by low potassium in the extracellular medium is a model of neuronal apoptosis where an overshot of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggers the neuronal death. In this work, using dihydroethidium and L-012 as specific dyes for superoxide anion detection we show that ...
Okada Masaya - - 2012
We performed label-free observation of molecular dynamics in apoptotic cells by Raman microscopy. Dynamic changes in cytochrome c distribution at the Raman band of 750 cm(-1) were observed after adding an apoptosis inducer to the cells. The comparison of mitochondria fluorescence images and Raman images of cytochrome c confirmed that changes ...
Kulikov A V - - 2011
Cytochrome c is a well-known mitochondrial protein that fulfills life-supporting functions by transferring electrons to the respiratory chain to maintain ATP production. However, during the activation of apoptotic machinery, it is released from mitochondria and, being in the cytosol, it either triggers the activation of the caspase cascade in intrinsic ...
García-Heredia José M - - 2011
Under nitroxidative stress, a minor fraction of cytochrome c can be modified by tyrosine nitration. Here we analyze the specific effect of nitration of tyrosines 46 and 48 on the dual role of cytochrome c in cell survival and cell death. Our findings reveal that nitration of these two solvent-exposed ...
Li Qing - - 2011
Ziram as a dithiocarbamate fungicide is widely used throughout the world in agriculture. We previously found that ziram significantly inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in a dose-dependent manner. To explore the mechanism of this inhibition, we investigated ziram-induced apoptosis in human T lymphocytes. Jurkat T cells were treated with ziram ...
Rubinstein Assaf D - - 2011
Autophagy and apoptosis constitute important determinants of cell fate and engage in a complex interplay in both physiological and pathological settings. The molecular basis of this crosstalk is poorly understood and relies, in part, on "dual-function" proteins that operate in both processes. Here, we identify the essential autophagy protein Atg12 ...
Xu Zhengli - - 2011
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAP) have been reported to cause inflammatory reactions. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of four types of nano-HAP with different nanocrystal morphologies (short rod-like, long rod-like, spherical or needle-shaped crystals) and sizes (10-20, 10-30 or 20-40 nm) on growth inhibition and apoptosis in primary cultured rat osteoblasts. ...
El-Sikhry H E - - 2011
Rationale Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EETs), cytochrome P450 derived metabolites of arachidonic acid, are vital in maintaining cardiac homeostasis. Previously, we demonstrated that EETs mediated cardiac protection involved preserving mitochondrial integrity and attenuating the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In this study, we aimed to further investigate EETs-mediated mitochondrial protection during ...
Gogada Raghu R Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, - - 2011
Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-induced cell death remains limited. In this study, we demonstrate that curcumin treatment of cancer cells caused dose- and time-dependent caspase-3 activation, which is required for apoptosis as confirmed using the pan caspase inhibitor, ...
Choi Sang-Ho - - 2012
Like macrophages, microglia are functionally polarized into different phenotypic activation states, referred as classical and alternative. The balance of the two phenotypes may be critical to ensure proper brain homeostasis, and may be altered in brain pathological states, such as Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in ...
Sivagami Gunasekaran - - 2012
Colon cancer is one of the serious health problems in most developed countries and its incidence rate is increasing in India. Hesperetin (HN) (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonone) and hesperetin analogue (HA) were tested for their apoptosis inducing ability. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay revealed a dose as well as duration-dependent reduction of HT-29 (colon ...
Schreck Ilona - - 2011
The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME) are potential carcinogens. As planar compounds, AOH and AME are preferentially metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2. The most prominent regulator of CYP1A1 is the dimeric transcription factor complex AhR/ARNT, which is activated by planar ligands. Therefore, we ...
Hayashi Yuta - - 2011
The lung is a primary target for oxygen toxicity because of its constant exposure to high oxygen levels and environmental oxidants. Quercetin is one of the most commonly found dietary flavonoids, and it provides cytoprotective actions via activation of specific transcriptional factors and upregulation of endogenous defensive pathways. In the ...
Appukuttan Avinash - - 2011
Aims Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes significantly contributes to the development of post-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although mitochondria have been suggested to play a crucial role in this process, the precise mechanisms controlling the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under ischemia/reperfusion are still poorly understood. Here we aimed to analyse the role of the soluble ...
Baek Jin Young - - 2012
Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of cysteine sulfinic acid of hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (Prxs). Having high affinity toward H2O2, 2-Cys Prxs can efficiently reduce H2O2 at low concentration. We previously showed that Prx I is hyperoxidized at a rate of 0.072% per turnover even in the presence ...
Leong Pou Kuan - - 2011
Schisandrin B (Sch B), the most abundant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan in Fructus Schisandrae, has been shown to induce glutathione antioxidant and heat shock responses, as well as protect against oxidant-induced injury in various tissues, including that of the liver, in rodents and in AML12 hepatocytes. (-)Sch B was found to be ...
Kawano Kenji - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with eosinophilic infiltration is a type of intractable rhinosinusitis often associated with asthma. The oxidants are well known to induce aggravate asthma. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme against oxidant, has been extensively studied in airway diseases. However, no study that observed HO-1 in both epithelial ...
Zhao Lixia L Joint Laboratory of Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, - - 2012
Overwhelming evidence indicates that Bax and Bak are indispensable for mediating cytochrome c release from mitochondria during apoptosis. Here we report a Bax/Bak-independent mechanism of cytochrome c release and apoptosis. We identified a natural diterpenoid compound that induced apoptosis in bax/bak double knock-out murine embryonic fibroblasts and substantially reduced the ...
Boyle Joseph J - - 2011
Rationale:Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) drives atherosclerosis through the dual metabolic stresses of cholesterol-enriched erythrocyte membranes and pro-oxidant heme/iron. When clearing tissue hemorrhage, macrophages are typically seen storing either iron or lipid. We have recently defined hemorrhage-associated macrophages (HA-mac) as a plaque macrophage population that responds adaptively to IPH.Objective:This study aimed to ...
Priyadarsini Ramamurthi Vidya - - 2011
Summary Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been recognized to play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Quercetin, a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid is known for its ROS scavenging properties. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of quercetin based on cytochrome P450 ...
Boyle Joseph J JJ Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2011
Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is an important progression event in advanced atherosclerosis, in large part because of the delivery of prooxidant hemoglobin in erythrocytes. We have previously defined a novel macrophage phenotype (hemorrhage-associated-mac) in human advanced plaques with IPH. These may be atheroprotective in view of raised heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), ...
Sun Lian-Qing - - 2011
AIMS: To investigate protective effects of Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on the intermittent high glucose (IHG)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial pathway activation and Schwann cell (SC) apoptosis in vitro. MAIN METHODS: SCs were primarily cultured and exposed to the different conditions. Apoptosis was confirmed by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP ...
Qiao Shanlou - - 2011
Growth-inhibitory effects of mimosine, a plant amino acid, on rat C6 glioma cells were analyzed. Mimosine markedly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of C6 glioma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Mimosine-mediated apoptosis was accompanied by promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria, and by decreased mitochondrial membrane ...
Guaragnella Nicoletta - - 2011
The use of non-mammalian model organisms, including yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can provide new insights into eukaryotic PCD (programmed cell death) pathways. In the present paper, we report recent achievements in the elucidation of the events leading to PCD that occur as a response to yeast treatment with AA (acetic acid). ...
Choi Soo Jin Na - - 2011
This study demonstrated that apoptosis induced by mycophenolic acid (MPA) is mediated by mitochondrial membrane potential transition (MPT) changes in Jurkat cells. Cell viability and MPT changes were measured by flow cytometry. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Bid, truncated Bid (tBid), cytochrome c, ...
Park Ga Bin - - 2011
Salubrinal is a specific eIF2α phosphatase inhibitor that inhibits ER stress-mediated apoptosis. However, maintaining hyper-phosphorylated eIF2α state with high doses of salubrinal treatment promotes apoptosis in some cancer cells. In this report, we found that salubrinal induced apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells. Notably, salubrinal induced ROS generation and p38 MPAK ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >