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Van Linthout Sophie S Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin, - - 2014
Fibroblasts, which are traditionally recognized as a quiescent cell responsible for extracellular matrix production, are more and more appreciated as an active key player of the immune system. This review describes how fibroblasts and immune cells reciprocally influence the pathogenesis of fibrosis. An overview is given how fibroblasts are triggered ...
Cermakian Nicolas N Laboratory of Molecular Chronobiology, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, 6875 LaSalle blvd, Montreal, QC, H4H 1R3, Canada, - - 2014
The immune system is deeply interconnected with the endogenous 24-h oscillators of the circadian system. Indeed, the connection between these two physiological systems occurs at multiple levels and in both directions. On one hand, various aspects of the immune system show daily rhythms, which appear to be essential for healthy ...
Han Jun J State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases (Zhejiang University), National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, - - 2014
Cytokine profiles may impact the pathogenicity and severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus (HEV) 71. In 91 severe or mild HEV 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease children, serum was collected between days 2 and 10 or day >10. Serum cytokines including Type 1 T ...
Hennet T T Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, SWITZERLAND; - - 2014
Oligosaccharides represent a significant fraction of breast milk, reaching up to 20 g/l in early milk. Human milk oligosaccharides comprise close to 200 structures, which are not absorbed by the intestinal tissue and have no nutritional value for the breastfed infant. Early studies conducted around 1930 already attributed a prebiotic ...
Gowda Madhu M Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Virginia Commonwealth University; Massey Cancer Center; Richmond, VA - - 2013
The adaptive immune system has been reported to play a dual role in many cancers, on one hand inhibiting tumor growth and, on the other hand, promoting disease progression, escape from cancer immunosurveillance and relapse. We have previously reported that the suppression of the adaptive immune response associated with high ...
Netea Mihai G - - 2013
The inability of innate immunity to build an immunological memory is considered a main difference with adaptive immunity. This concept has been challenged by studies in plants, invertebrates and mammals. Recently, a paradigm shift in our understanding host defence has been triggered by the mounting evidence for innate immune memory, ...
Aalaei-Andabili Seyed Hossein - - 2013
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are one of the major families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). MicroRNAs (MiRs) are small noncoding RNAs with regulatory effects on biological process, and it has been recently shown that they can control inflammatory process and the response to an infection by modulating the function of ...
Cho Yoonsang Y Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, USA. - - 2013
The Cho and Baldan labs focus their efforts on novel pathways that control atherogenesis. MIF (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor) recruits macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions and activates the production of matrix proteinases, which in turn destabilize atherosclerotic plaques. On the other hand, miR-33 coordinates the expression of several sterol transporters essential ...
Yokomichi Noriyuki - - 2013
PEGL-DOX is an excellent treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer that rarely causes side-effects like cardiotoxicity or hair loss, but frequently results in Hand-Foot Syndrome (HFS). In severe cases, it can become necessary to reduce the PEGL-DOX concentration or the duration of the drug therapy, sometimes making it difficult to continue ...
Martirosyan Anna - - 2013
The complex immune system of mammals is the result of evolutionary forces that include battles against pathogens, as sensing and defeating intruders is a prerequisite to host survival. On the other hand, microorganisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade both arms of immunity: the innate and the adaptive immune systems. ...
Lühder Fred - - 2013
The concept of neuroprotective autoimmunity implies that immune cells, especially autoantigen-specific T cells, infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) after injury and contribute to neuroregeneration and repair by secreting soluble factors. Amongst others, neurotrophic factors and neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) are considered to play an important role ...
Pot Bruno - - 2013
The intestinal microbiota is known to be a driving force in the development and maintenance of the immune system. While substantial shifts in the microbiota composition may influence immune functionality in a longer term, short occasional changes might also be sensed. The latter opens considerable perspectives for the use of ...
Zóka András - - 2013
Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune ...
Kim Ji Hyun - - 2012
In the developing human musculoskeletal system, cell death with macrophage accumulation occurs in the thigh muscle and interdigital area. To comprehensively clarify the distribution of macrophages, we immunohistochemically examined 16 pairs of upper and lower extremities without the hip joint (left and right sides) obtained from 8 human fetuses at ...
Donofrio Nicole M - - 2012
Fungal effectors have often been referred as a 'sea of diversity', but recently, experiments have shed some light onto effector biology, including discovery that unrelated fungi utilize some common methods for creating a more compatible host environment. A wheat pathogen and a rice pathogen, for example, have evolved mechanisms to ...
Kanaho Yasunori - - 2012
In this manuscript, involvement of PLD in fMLP-induced superoxide generation and degranulation were re-investigated using PLD(-/-) neutrophils, and the molecular mechanisms of these neutrophil functions were examined. Neither PLD1 nor PLD2 is involved in these fMLP-induced neutrophil functions. The results obtained in this study provide evidence that cPKC plays an ...
Fleisher Thomas A - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recognition that apoptosis - programmed cell death - is an important mechanism in immune homeostasis has led to the identification of human disorders associated with defects in the critical control mechanism. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients have been identified with defects affecting the extrinsic apoptotic pathway mediated by ...
Lilic Desa - - 2012
Fungal infections affect individuals with an impaired immune system and are on the increase, often with serious consequences. Recent studies in patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) have led to important breakthroughs in our understanding of the different, mutually exclusive pathways underlying immunity to mucocutaneous as opposed to invasive fungal ...
Watkins C - - 2012
Patients can develop malignancies due to various reasons including genetic factors, chemical carcinogens, radiation, and defects in their immune system. The immune system is postulated to carry out routine surveillance for malignancy. Patients who have defective immune responses may be susceptible to malignancies due to complicated underlying mechanisms. These include ...
Notarangelo Luigi Daniele - - 2012
Inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are classically considered as disorders arising from hyper-activation of immunity and hence are treated with drugs that suppress the lymphocyte activation and inflammation. Although this strategy has proven useful to cure symptoms, it rarely can heal the disease and long-term treatments are usually needed. Inflammatory and ...
Watkins Casey - - 2012
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is associated with defective function of the NADPH-oxidase system in conjunction with phagocytic defects which leads to granuloma formation and serious infectious complications. This is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The association of defective phagocyte function with other coincidental immune defects is unknown. Defects ...
Kharbanda Kusum K KK Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE 68105, USA. - - 2013
Data from several laboratories have shown that ethanol (EtOH) feeding impairs many essential methylation reactions that contribute to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). EtOH is also a comorbid factor in the severity of hepatitis C virus-induced liver injury. The presence of viral proteins further exacerbates the methylation defects to disrupt multiple ...
Hanania Raed - - 2012
As major effector cells of the innate immune response, macrophages must adeptly migrate from blood to infected tissues. Endothelial transmigration is accomplished by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-induced degradation of basement membrane and extracellular matrix components. The classical activation of macrophages with LPS and IFN-γ causes enhanced microtubule (MT) stabilization and secretion ...
Hölttä-Vuori Maarit - - 2012
Rationale:The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in the processing of atherogenic lipoproteins in macrophages. However, the functional role of actin and the regulatory proteins involved are unknown.Objective:Coronin-1A (Coro1A) was identified as a differentially expressed transcript in wild-type versus Niemann-Pick type C1 deficient macrophages exposed to acetylated low-density lipoproteins (AcLDL). We ...
Krejsek Jan - - 2012
Crohn's disease (CD) is an immune-mediated chronic intestinal disorder thought to be the result of an aggressive immune response to a subset of enteric bacteria in a genetically predisposed host. Numerous environmental factors are apparently involved in disease pathogenesis. Impaired ability of CD patients to control the gut microflora is ...
Kuhn Christoph - - 2012
This paper presents the modeling of a host immune system, more precisely the immune effector cell and immune memory cell population, and its interaction with an invading pathogen population. It will tackle two issues of interest; on the one hand, in defining a stochastic model accounting for the inherent nature ...
Birru Rahel L - - 2012
Second hand smoke (SHS) introduces thousands of toxic chemicals into the lung, including carcinogens and oxidants, which cause direct airway epithelium tissue destruction. It can also illicit indirect damage through its effect on signaling pathways related to tissue cell repair and by the abnormal induction of inflammation into the lung. ...
Takano Katsuki - - 2011
We clarified whether actin cytoskeleton is involved in the macrophage apoptosis induced by cationic liposomes composed of stearylamine (SA-liposomes). Externalization of phosphatidylserine induced by SA-liposomes was suppressed by cytochalasin D, a specific inhibitor of polymerization of F-actin. Furthermore, activation of PKCδ and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which could be ...
Morley Sharon Celeste - - 2012
L-plastin is a leukocyte-specific protein that cross-links actin filaments into tight bundles, increasing the stability of actin-based structures such as podosomes and lamellipodia. While first identified as an abundant cytoplasmic protein in hematopoietically derived cells over 25 years ago, the requirement for L-plastin in multiple functions critical for immunity, such ...
Yuan Robert T - - 2011
Caspase-8 can trigger cell death following prodomain-mediated recruitment to the 'death-inducing signaling complex.' The prodomain consists of two death effector domain (DED) motifs that undergo homotypic interactions within the cell. Aside from mediating recruitment of procaspase-8, the prodomains have also been implicated in regulating cell survival, proliferation, death, senescence, differentiation, ...
Rehklau K - - 2012
Non-muscle cofilin (n-cofilin) is a member of the ADF/cofilin family of actin depolymerizing proteins. Recent studies reported a mitochondrial translocation of n-cofilin during apoptosis. As these studies also revealed impaired cytochrome c release and a block in apoptosis upon small interfering RNA-mediated n-cofilin knockdown, n-cofilin was postulated to be essential ...
Frausto-Del-Río Dulce - - 2011
IFNγ is a potent activator and IL-10 a powerful inhibitor of macrophage functions. However, neither all cellular functions are enhanced by IFNγ nor IL-10 inhibits all cellular responses. Thus, FcγRs-mediated phagocytosis in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) increases after IL-10 treatment, and decreases after treatment with IFNγ, although both IL-10 and IFNγ ...
Flannagan Ronald S - - 2012
Burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, is an opportunistic pathogen that causes devastating infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The ability of B.  cenocepacia to survive within host cells could contribute significantly to its virulence in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we explored the mechanisms that enable ...
Rosen Robert H - - 2011
Current topical agents for field therapy of actinic keratoses have single mechanisms of action and must be applied for weeks. Ingenol mebutate gel, a novel drug for field therapy of actinic keratoses, appears to have a dual mechanism of action: (1) rapid lesion necrosis and (2) specific neutrophil-mediated, antibody-dependent cellular ...
Rosales-Reyes Roberto - - 2011
Burkholderia cenocepacia is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. The bacterium survives intracellularly in macrophages within a membrane-bound vacuole (BcCV) that precludes the fusion with lysosomes. The underlying cellular mechanisms and bacterial molecules mediating these phenotypes are unknown. Here, we show that intracellular ...
Efthimiou Maria - - 2011
Previous findings showed that the anticancer drugs p-N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl) amino-l-phenylalanine (melphalan, MEL) and p-N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)aminophenylbutyric acid (chlorambucil, CAB) belonging to the nitrogen mustard group, in addition to their clastogenic activity, also exert aneugenic potential, nondisjunction and chromosome delay. Their aneugenic potential is mainly mediated through centrosome defects. To further investigate their aneugenicity ...
Okada Shinichiro - - 2011
The Pleckstrin and Sec7 domain-containing (PSD) gene, which regulates skeletal rearrangements, has been found to be more frequently methylated both in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated colorectal cancer tissues (5 of 7; 71.4%) and matched normal epithelia (4 of 7; 57.1%) compared to non-neoplastic UC epithelia (6 of 22; 27.3%) and sporadic ...
Haglund Cat M CM Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2011
Intracellular pathogens subvert the host cell cytoskeleton to promote their own survival, replication, and dissemination. Study of these microbes has led to many discoveries about host cell biology, including the identification of cytoskeletal proteins, regulatory pathways, and mechanisms of cytoskeletal function. Actin is a common target of bacterial pathogens, but ...
Radhakrishnan Girish K - - 2011
TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain-containing proteins play a crucial role in innate immunity in eukaryotes. Brucella is a highly infectious intracellular bacterium that encodes a TIR domain protein (TcpB) to subvert host innate immune responses to establish a beneficial niche for pathogenesis. TcpB inhibits NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) activation and pro-inflammatory ...
Nabzdyk Christoph S - - 2011
Survivin (SVV) is a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Nuclear SVV is essential for mitosis, whereas in mitochondria SVV has a cytoprotective function. Here, we investigated the effects of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated SVV knockdown on cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis, migration, and gene expression ...
Föger Niko - - 2011
Mast cell (MC) activation via aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) causes degranulation and release of proinflammatory mediators in a process that involves the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the regulatory pathways and the molecular links between cytoskeletal changes and MC function are incompletely understood. In this ...
Frittoli Emanuela - - 2011
Dendritic cells (DCs) flexibly adapt to different microenvironments by using diverse migration strategies that are ultimately dependent on the dynamics and structural organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we have shown that DCs require the actin capping activity of the signaling adaptor Eps8 to polarize and to form elongated migratory ...
Ahmed Ahmed Ashour - - 2011
The extracellular matrix protein TGFBI enhances the cytotoxic response of cancer cells to paclitaxel by affecting integrin signals that stabilize microtubules. Extending the implications of this knowledge, we tested the more general hypothesis that cancer cell signals which increase microtubule stability before exposure to paclitaxel may increase its ability to ...
Lie Pearl P Y - - 2012
Interleukin (IL)-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine with important roles in innate immunity, as well as in normal tissue homeostasis. Interestingly, recent studies have also shown IL-1 to function in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and cell junctions. For example, treatment of different epithelia with IL-1α often results in the ...
Babich Alexander - - 2011
Movement of immunoreceptor microclusters tunes lymphocyte activation, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this issue of Immunity, Schnyder et al. (2011) and Hashimoto-Tane et al. (2011) show that cytoplasmic dynein drives microcluster centralization along microtubules.
Konakahara Shu - - 2011
Leucine-rich repeat and fibronectin type III domain-containing (LRFN) family proteins are thought to be neuronal-specific proteins that play essential roles in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Here, we focused on expression and function of LRFN4, the fourth member of the LRFN family, in non-neural tissues. We found that LRFN4 was ...
Mendez G - - 2011
The BH3-only Bcl-2 subfamily member Bim is a well known apoptosis promoting protein. However, the mechanisms upstream of mitochondrion membrane permeability by which Bim is involved in apoptosis have been poorly investigated, particularly in response to agents capable of interfering with the cytoskeleton architecture and arresting cells in mitosis. Based ...
Henke Nadine - - 2011
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) was initially identified for its ability to inhibit BAX-induced apoptosis in yeast cells and is the founding member of a family of highly hydrophobic proteins localized in diverse cellular membranes. It is evolutionarily conserved and orthologues from plants can substitute for mammalian BI-1 in regard to its ...
Mostowy Serge S Institut Pasteur, Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Paris F-75015, France. - - 2011
Autophagy is an important mechanism of innate immune defense. We have recently shown that autophagy components are recruited with septins, a new and increasingly characterized cytoskeleton component, to intracytosolic Shigella that have started to polymerize actin. On the other hand, intracytosolic Listeria avoids autophagy recognition by expressing ActA, a bacterial ...
Maltusch Adrienne - - 2011
Background: The efficacy of topically applied diclofenac 3 % in combination with hyaluronic acid 2.5 % in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs) has been demonstrated in several clinical studies, but the exact mode of action is still unclear. This study evaluates the potential molecular and cellular main modes of ...
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