Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 772
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Rigotti Attilio - - 2003
Because cholesterol is a precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones, steroidogenic tissues have evolved multiple pathways to ensure adequate supplies of cholesterol. These include synthesis, storage as cholesteryl esters, and import from lipoproteins. In addition to endocytosis via members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily, steroidogenic cells acquire cholesterol ...
Swynghedauw Bernard - - 2003
This review focuses on the molecular determinants of the duration of the QT interval as measured on by electrocardiography in normal subjects and during cardiac hypertrophy and failure. (a) In control conditions, on a single cell, the shape and duration of the action potential is the result of a balance ...
Lolis Elias - - 2003
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a ubiquitous protein that is found in virtually all cells. Its precise function in the majority of cells is not known, but studies performed over the last decade indicate that it is a critical upstream regulator of the innate and acquired immune response. MIF ...
Rozenberg Orit - - 2003
Human serum paraoxonase (PON1), an HDL-associated esterase, protects lipoproteins against oxidation, probably by hydrolyzing specific lipid peroxides. As arterial macrophages play a key role in oxidative stress in early atherogenesis, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of PON1 on macrophage oxidative stress. For this purpose ...
Nguyen Mai Tuyet - - 2003
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) exhibits pro- and anti-inflammatory activities and regulates cell proliferation and survival. We investigated the effects of MIF on apoptosis. As MIF exhibits oxidoreductase activity and participates in regulating oxidative cell stress, we studied whether MIF could affect oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. We demonstrated that ...
Jin Weijun - - 2003
The endothelium interacts extensively with lipids and lipoproteins, but there are very few data regarding the ability of endothelial cells to secrete lipases. In this study, we investigated the ability of endothelial cells to secrete the triglyceride lipase and phospholipase activities characteristic of endothelial lipase (EL), a recently described member ...
Milosavljevic Dragana - - 2003
Mixed dyslipidemia of phenotype IIB is characterized by elevated levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-1 and VLDL-2 subfractions and of low density lipoprotein (LDL), which are associated with premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by the presence of lipid-rich macrophage foam cells. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key factor ...
Hara Masumi - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates cellular cholesterol efflux and plays a crucial role in the inhibition of atherogenesis. We investigated whether there is an isoform-specific difference in its function for cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line that lacks endogenous apoE expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: When ...
Denkinger Claudia M - - 2003
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of macrophage effector functions and T cell activation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has remained unresolved. In this study, we report that ...
Asmis Reto - - 2003
Several studies suggest that macrophage death and subsequent lysis contribute to the development of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Although oxidized LDL (OxLDL) is thought to contribute to lesion formation and induces macrophage apoptosis, the mechanisms underlying macrophage lysis have not been well defined. To determine if induction of apoptosis in human ...
Nguyen, Tuyet Mai
It was the aim of this work to investigate and establish potential connections between the biochemical redox properties of MIF and the role of the redox activity of MIF for its biological functions and effects on cellular signaling. In particular, I wished to determine in detail the biochemical redox properties ...
Calandra Thierry - - 2003
Among innate immune cells, macrophages play an essential role in the sensing and elimination of invasive microorganisms. Binding of microbial products to pathogen-recognition receptors stimulates macrophages to release cytokines and other effector molecules that orchestrate the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, the protein known as macrophage migration inhibitory ...
Zhang Jimin - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase) is a key enzyme in the activation of the pro-drugs of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) and capecitabine. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), the major cells expressing dThdPase have been shown to be stromal cells, particularly macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was designed to clarify whether ...
Roger Thierry - - 2003
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has emerged recently as an important mediator of inflammation and innate immunity. MIF is rapidly released by macrophages after stimulation with microbial products and pro-inflammatory cytokines and, in turn, stimulates the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Immunoneutralization of MIF or deletion ...
Fingerle-Rowson Gunter - - 2003
Glucocorticoid hormones are important anti-inflammatory agents because of their anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic action within the immune system. Their clinical usefulness remains limited however by side effects that result in part from their growth inhibitory action on sensitive target tissues. The protein mediator, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), is an important ...
Salvayre Robert - - 2002
Cultured cells are able to oxidize low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which are present in atherosclerosis areas, exhibit a variety of biological properties potentially involved in atherogenesis. This review is focused on the toxicity of oxLDL, more precisely on the toxic compounds generated during LDL oxidation, the features ...
Miller Yury I - - 2003
Minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mmLDL) is a pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic lipoprotein that, unlike profoundly oxidized LDL (OxLDL), is not recognized by scavenger receptors and thus does not have enhanced uptake by macrophages. However, here we demonstrate that mmLDL (as well as OxLDL) induces actin polymerization and spreading of macrophages, ...
Imanishi Toshio - - 2002
Under normal conditions, vascular endothelial cells are resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis, although they express detectable Fas on their cell surface. Because oxidized Low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is thought to promote atherogenesis, the potential role that Ox-LDL may play in Fas-mediated apoptosis was investigated in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), ...
Hu Ying-Li - - 2002
Endothelial cell (EC) migration is required for vascular development and wound healing. We investigated the roles of microtubule (MT) dynamics and the small GTPase Rac in the fluid shear stress-induced protrusion of lamellipodia and enhancement of migration of bovine aortic ECs (BAECs). Shear stress increased lamellipodial protrusion and cell migration. ...
Kunjathoor Vidya V - - 2002
Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) can result in the avid uptake of these lipoproteins via a family of macrophage transmembrane proteins referred to as scavenger receptors (SRs). The genetic inactivation of either of two SR family members, SR-A or CD36, has been shown previously to reduce oxidized LDL uptake ...
Ares Mikko P S - - 2002
Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression ...
Zang Xingxing - - 2002
Cytokines are the molecular messengers of the vertebrate immune system, coordinating the local and systemic immune responses to infective organisms. We report here functional and structural data on cytokine-like proteins from a eukaryotic pathogen. Two homologues of the human cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) have been isolated from the ...
Feng Bo - - 2002
In advanced atherosclerosis, macrophage foam cells progressively accumulate large amounts of unesterified or "free" cholesterol (FC), a process that is thought to contribute to foam cell death and lesional necrosis. The cellular consequences of early FC accumulation, including those that lead to further FC accumulation, are poorly understood. In this ...
Zhang Youyan - - 2002
ABCA1 is an ATP binding cassette transporter that plays an essential role in cholesterol and phospholipid efflux and HDL biogenesis. ABCA1 expression in macrophage cells is subject to regulation by cAMP, cholesterol loading, and ligands of the nuclear receptors liver X receptor (LXR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). We report ...
Alfonso Teresa B - - 2002
glial cells missing (gcm) is the primary regulator of glial cell fate in Drosophila. In addition, gcm has a role in the differentiation of the plasmatocyte/macrophage lineage of hemocytes. Since mutation of gcm causes only a decrease in plasmatocyte numbers without changing their ability to convert into macrophages, gcm cannot ...
Coutant Frédéric - - 2002
During the acute phase response, the interplay between high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins (LDL) favors transient generation of oxidized LDL with proinflammatory activities. We hypothesized that oxidative modification of LDL is an endogenous signal for the immune system, and we have shown that oxidized LDL promotes mature dendritic ...
Wu Tianying - - 2002
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may contribute to the accumulation of apoptotic cells in atherosclerotic plaques. Although it is well established in monophasic chemical systems that the highly unsaturated EPA and DHA will oxidize more readily than FA that contain fewer double bonds, our previous studies showed that enrichment of LDL, which ...
Takase Hiroshi - - 2002
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression and secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) and evaluate its role in ocular inflammation. METHODS: Tissue samples of HTM cells were isolated from donor human eyes or corneoscleral buttons, and the HTM cells were cultured. The expression of MIF ...
Banfi C - - 2002
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and the onset of coronary artery disease. LDL oxidation alters the antithrombotic balance of human endothelial cells inducing surface tissue factor (TF) pathway activity, which results in enhanced fibrin deposition. Fibrinolysis, which is strictly regulated ...
Yamada Gen - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally described as a T-cell-derived cytokine that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and promotes the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. MIF plays an important role in the regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance in inflammatory response. This study investigated serum levels of circulating MIF in patients ...
Shimizu Tadamichi - - 2002
Psoriasis is a persistent cutaneous disease characterized by skin inflammation and infiltration of immunocytes such as lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, concomitant with abnormal epidermal hyperproliferation. We previously showed that the serum level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with psoriasis were ...
Wang Xi - - 2002
AIM: To determine whether Salmonella Typhimurium (STM)in gastrointestinal tract can induce the functional activation of brain, whether the vagus nerve involves in signaling immune information from gastrointestinal tract to brain and how it influences the immune function under natural infection condition. METHODS: Animal model of gastrointestinal tract infection in the ...
Murakami H - - 2002
The level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and the functions of dendritic cells (DC) are up-regulated in the peripheral blood, and the numbers of MIF-expressing cells and mature DC are increased at the colonic mucosa from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, a functional relationship between MIF and DC, ...
Wang Lisheng - - 2002
In immune cells, proinflammatory cytokine gene expression is regulated by glucocorticoids, whereas migration-inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, has the unique property of counteracting the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta secretion. A few lines of evidence suggest that gammadelta T cells play an important role in immunoregulation. ...
Magi Barbara - - 2002
Human milk is a source of bioactive substances regulating the development and activity of the newborn immune system. Human milk has been found to contain a number of cytokines, including interleukins, growth factors, and colony stimulating factors. In the present study, we assessed 10 specimens of human milk for the ...
Stavitsky Abram B - - 2002
The secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is enhanced by inflammatory and other stimuli. MIF regulates innate and adaptive immune responses, but the mechanisms of this regulation are poorly understood. Our hypothesis was that MIF generated by these stimuli regulates these responses by modulating key molecular expression. This hypothesis ...
Blessing Erwin - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It has not yet been determined whether lipid-loaded macrophages (foam cells), a major cellular component of atherosclerotic lesions, have the capacity to support growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae and be activated to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to C pneumoniae infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lipid loading of RAW 264.7 cells ...
Jessup Wendy - - 2002
Macrophages are important participants in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, in cholesterol accumulation, as mediators of the immune response, and as sources of secreted enzymes and growth factors. Besides potentially contributing to local oxidation of lesion lipoproteins, many aspects of macrophage function can be affected by interaction with oxidized lipoproteins. ...
Lister Andrea - - 2002
The relevance of immune-endocrine interactions to the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis in teleosts is virtually unexplored. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate the effects of murine cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) macrophage conditioned media (MCM) on testosterone (T) production ...
Lue Hongqi - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a unique cytokine and critical mediator of host defenses with a role in septic shock and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. Here, we attempt to correlate current knowledge on the molecular pathways of MIF activity with its ...
Bacher Michael - - 2002
To test the hypothesis that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a role in macrophage invasion during virus-induced encephalitis, we analyzed the expression and cellular localization of MIF in the Borna disease virus (BDV)-infected rat brain, monitored monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and evaluated the influence of anti-inflammatory treatment with dexamethasone. MIF mRNA ...
Lin Guorong - - 2002
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) protects against cardiovascular diseases by removal of excess lipids from cells. HDL apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux involves multiple cellular proteins to remove both cholesterol and phospholipids that are otherwise stored in the cells. This article reviews recent progress in the understanding of receptors, signal mediators, Golgi and vesicle ...
Maaser Christian - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) inhibits macrophage migration and has pleiotropic activities on immune and inflammatory responses, cell growth, and glucose metabolism. MIF is produced by T cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Because intestinal epithelial cells produce mediators important for regulating mucosal immune and inflammatory responses, we ...
Garner Brett - - 2002
Macrophages synthesize and secrete apolipoprotein E (apoE) constitutively. This process is upregulated under conditions of cholesterol loading. The response to cholesterol is antiatherogenic as it is believed to promote cholesterol efflux from the artery wall. The concentration of lactosyl ceramide (LacCer), a glycosphingolipid recently discovered to regulate cellular signaling, proliferation, ...
Jostarndt Kristina - - 2002
Modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated as an initiating or amplifying factor in atherogenesis. Some of its biological activities, such as apoptosis induction and upregulation of the scavenger receptor CD36, appear to share common signaling pathways in cells of the cardiovascular system. Exposure of low-differentiated monocytic cells to LDL ...
Baugh John A - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been proposed to be the physiologic counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action within the immune system. In this role, MIF's position within the cytokine cascade is to act in concert with glucocorticoids to control both the "set point" and the magnitude of the inflammatory response. As ...
Baugh John A. - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been proposed to be the physiologic counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action within the immune system. In this role, MIF's position within the cytokine cascade is to act in concert with glucocorticoids to control both the "set point" and the magnitude of the inflammatory response. As ...
Orita Masaya - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released from T-cells and macrophages, and is a key molecule in inflammation. Although a detailed understanding of the biological functions of MIF has not yet been found, it is known that MIF catalyzes the tautomerization of phenylpyruvate and a non-physiological molecule, ...
Mitchell Robert A - - 2002
The importance of the macrophage in innate immunity is underscored by its secretion of an array of powerful immunoregulatory and effector molecules. We report herein that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a product of activated macrophages, sustains macrophage survival and function by suppressing activation-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Endotoxin administration to MIF(-/-) ...
Subbanagounder Ganesamoorthy - - 2002
Monocyte recruitment to the vessel wall, mediated by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), plays an important role in atherogenesis. We have shown previously that minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein, oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (Ox-PAPC), activates endothelial cells to produce MCP-1 and IL-8. By using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods coupled with ...
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