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Results 401 - 450 of 752
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Ares Mikko P S - - 2002
Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression ...
Zang Xingxing - - 2002
Cytokines are the molecular messengers of the vertebrate immune system, coordinating the local and systemic immune responses to infective organisms. We report here functional and structural data on cytokine-like proteins from a eukaryotic pathogen. Two homologues of the human cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) have been isolated from the ...
Feng Bo - - 2002
In advanced atherosclerosis, macrophage foam cells progressively accumulate large amounts of unesterified or "free" cholesterol (FC), a process that is thought to contribute to foam cell death and lesional necrosis. The cellular consequences of early FC accumulation, including those that lead to further FC accumulation, are poorly understood. In this ...
Zhang Youyan - - 2002
ABCA1 is an ATP binding cassette transporter that plays an essential role in cholesterol and phospholipid efflux and HDL biogenesis. ABCA1 expression in macrophage cells is subject to regulation by cAMP, cholesterol loading, and ligands of the nuclear receptors liver X receptor (LXR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). We report ...
Alfonso Teresa B - - 2002
glial cells missing (gcm) is the primary regulator of glial cell fate in Drosophila. In addition, gcm has a role in the differentiation of the plasmatocyte/macrophage lineage of hemocytes. Since mutation of gcm causes only a decrease in plasmatocyte numbers without changing their ability to convert into macrophages, gcm cannot ...
Coutant Frédéric - - 2002
During the acute phase response, the interplay between high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins (LDL) favors transient generation of oxidized LDL with proinflammatory activities. We hypothesized that oxidative modification of LDL is an endogenous signal for the immune system, and we have shown that oxidized LDL promotes mature dendritic ...
Wu Tianying - - 2002
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may contribute to the accumulation of apoptotic cells in atherosclerotic plaques. Although it is well established in monophasic chemical systems that the highly unsaturated EPA and DHA will oxidize more readily than FA that contain fewer double bonds, our previous studies showed that enrichment of LDL, which ...
Takase Hiroshi - - 2002
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression and secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) and evaluate its role in ocular inflammation. METHODS: Tissue samples of HTM cells were isolated from donor human eyes or corneoscleral buttons, and the HTM cells were cultured. The expression of MIF ...
Banfi C - - 2002
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and the onset of coronary artery disease. LDL oxidation alters the antithrombotic balance of human endothelial cells inducing surface tissue factor (TF) pathway activity, which results in enhanced fibrin deposition. Fibrinolysis, which is strictly regulated ...
Yamada Gen - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally described as a T-cell-derived cytokine that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and promotes the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. MIF plays an important role in the regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance in inflammatory response. This study investigated serum levels of circulating MIF in patients ...
Shimizu Tadamichi - - 2002
Psoriasis is a persistent cutaneous disease characterized by skin inflammation and infiltration of immunocytes such as lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, concomitant with abnormal epidermal hyperproliferation. We previously showed that the serum level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with psoriasis were ...
Wang Xi - - 2002
AIM: To determine whether Salmonella Typhimurium (STM)in gastrointestinal tract can induce the functional activation of brain, whether the vagus nerve involves in signaling immune information from gastrointestinal tract to brain and how it influences the immune function under natural infection condition. METHODS: Animal model of gastrointestinal tract infection in the ...
Murakami H - - 2002
The level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and the functions of dendritic cells (DC) are up-regulated in the peripheral blood, and the numbers of MIF-expressing cells and mature DC are increased at the colonic mucosa from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, a functional relationship between MIF and DC, ...
Wang Lisheng - - 2002
In immune cells, proinflammatory cytokine gene expression is regulated by glucocorticoids, whereas migration-inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, has the unique property of counteracting the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta secretion. A few lines of evidence suggest that gammadelta T cells play an important role in immunoregulation. ...
Magi Barbara - - 2002
Human milk is a source of bioactive substances regulating the development and activity of the newborn immune system. Human milk has been found to contain a number of cytokines, including interleukins, growth factors, and colony stimulating factors. In the present study, we assessed 10 specimens of human milk for the ...
Stavitsky Abram B - - 2002
The secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is enhanced by inflammatory and other stimuli. MIF regulates innate and adaptive immune responses, but the mechanisms of this regulation are poorly understood. Our hypothesis was that MIF generated by these stimuli regulates these responses by modulating key molecular expression. This hypothesis ...
Blessing Erwin - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It has not yet been determined whether lipid-loaded macrophages (foam cells), a major cellular component of atherosclerotic lesions, have the capacity to support growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae and be activated to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to C pneumoniae infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lipid loading of RAW 264.7 cells ...
Jessup Wendy - - 2002
Macrophages are important participants in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, in cholesterol accumulation, as mediators of the immune response, and as sources of secreted enzymes and growth factors. Besides potentially contributing to local oxidation of lesion lipoproteins, many aspects of macrophage function can be affected by interaction with oxidized lipoproteins. ...
Lister Andrea - - 2002
The relevance of immune-endocrine interactions to the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis in teleosts is virtually unexplored. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate the effects of murine cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) macrophage conditioned media (MCM) on testosterone (T) production ...
Lue Hongqi - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a unique cytokine and critical mediator of host defenses with a role in septic shock and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. Here, we attempt to correlate current knowledge on the molecular pathways of MIF activity with its ...
Bacher Michael - - 2002
To test the hypothesis that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a role in macrophage invasion during virus-induced encephalitis, we analyzed the expression and cellular localization of MIF in the Borna disease virus (BDV)-infected rat brain, monitored monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and evaluated the influence of anti-inflammatory treatment with dexamethasone. MIF mRNA ...
Lin Guorong - - 2002
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) protects against cardiovascular diseases by removal of excess lipids from cells. HDL apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux involves multiple cellular proteins to remove both cholesterol and phospholipids that are otherwise stored in the cells. This article reviews recent progress in the understanding of receptors, signal mediators, Golgi and vesicle ...
Maaser Christian - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) inhibits macrophage migration and has pleiotropic activities on immune and inflammatory responses, cell growth, and glucose metabolism. MIF is produced by T cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Because intestinal epithelial cells produce mediators important for regulating mucosal immune and inflammatory responses, we ...
Garner Brett - - 2002
Macrophages synthesize and secrete apolipoprotein E (apoE) constitutively. This process is upregulated under conditions of cholesterol loading. The response to cholesterol is antiatherogenic as it is believed to promote cholesterol efflux from the artery wall. The concentration of lactosyl ceramide (LacCer), a glycosphingolipid recently discovered to regulate cellular signaling, proliferation, ...
Jostarndt Kristina - - 2002
Modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated as an initiating or amplifying factor in atherogenesis. Some of its biological activities, such as apoptosis induction and upregulation of the scavenger receptor CD36, appear to share common signaling pathways in cells of the cardiovascular system. Exposure of low-differentiated monocytic cells to LDL ...
Baugh John A - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been proposed to be the physiologic counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action within the immune system. In this role, MIF's position within the cytokine cascade is to act in concert with glucocorticoids to control both the "set point" and the magnitude of the inflammatory response. As ...
Baugh John A. - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been proposed to be the physiologic counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action within the immune system. In this role, MIF's position within the cytokine cascade is to act in concert with glucocorticoids to control both the "set point" and the magnitude of the inflammatory response. As ...
Orita Masaya - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released from T-cells and macrophages, and is a key molecule in inflammation. Although a detailed understanding of the biological functions of MIF has not yet been found, it is known that MIF catalyzes the tautomerization of phenylpyruvate and a non-physiological molecule, ...
Mitchell Robert A - - 2002
The importance of the macrophage in innate immunity is underscored by its secretion of an array of powerful immunoregulatory and effector molecules. We report herein that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a product of activated macrophages, sustains macrophage survival and function by suppressing activation-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Endotoxin administration to MIF(-/-) ...
Subbanagounder Ganesamoorthy - - 2002
Monocyte recruitment to the vessel wall, mediated by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), plays an important role in atherogenesis. We have shown previously that minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein, oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (Ox-PAPC), activates endothelial cells to produce MCP-1 and IL-8. By using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods coupled with ...
Argmann C A - - 2001
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted by various cells, including macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. TGF-beta1 is present in atherosclerotic lesions, but its role in regulating macrophage foam cell formation is not understood. Hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants (VLDL-REMs) in their native or oxidized form ...
Viora M - - 2001
This study investigates the in vitro effects of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), 'physiological' pro-oxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger and glutathione precursor, and their combination on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell functions. We found that treatment with ox-LDL induced a significant down-regulation of proliferative response to mitogens, antigens and ...
Zhang C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Rosa roxburghii tratt juice (RRTJ) administration has been shown to significantly ameliorate atherosclerotic diseases in cholesterol-fed animals. However, the mechanism for the antiatherogenic effect of RRTJ is not clear. METHODS: We investigated the effects of RRTJ on in vitro oxidative modification of LDL and on LDL-induced macrophage growth and ...
Ruan X Z - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Lipid-mediated renal injury is an important component of glomerulosclerosis and its similarity to atherosclerosis is well described. This study focused on the relationship between lipid-mediated injury and inflammation by examining the role of inflammatory cytokines in the regulation of human mesangial cell low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. METHODS: A human ...
de Jong Y P - - 2001
The cytokine macrophage-migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is secreted by a number of cell types upon induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because colitis is dependent on interplay between the mucosal immune system and intestinal bacteria, we investigated the role of MIF in experimental colitis. MIF-deficient mice failed to develop disease, but reconstitution ...
Varadhachary A S - - 2001
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that altered or modified lipoproteins contribute to plaque formation and lesion progression in atherogenesis. In this study we examined if lipoproteins and their oxidized forms can exert an immunomodulatory effect, thereby potentially influencing atherogenesis. We demonstrate that LDL, upon ...
Panini S R - - 2001
Owing at least in part to oxysterol components that can induce apoptosis, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is cytotoxic to mammalian cells with receptors that can internalize it. Vascular cells possess such receptors, and it appears that the apoptotic response of vascular cells to the oxysterols borne by oxLDL is an important ...
Suri S - - 2001
Bisphosphonates have become an important addition to the pharmacological armamentarium against postmenopausal osteoporosis. One of the major side effects of oral therapy with some nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates appears to be gastrointestinal (GI) intolerability, particularly esophageal irritation and ulceration. Because nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can cause apoptosis in a variety of cell types in ...
Panini S R - - 2001
The rationale for the present review is that oxysterols found in oxidized LDL (oxLDL) play a role in atherogenesis. This perspective is based on studies that show that induction of apoptosis in vascular cells is an important process in atherogenesis, that apoptosis can be induced by oxLDL, and that the ...
Hundal R S - - 2001
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is known to induce endothelial adhesion molecule and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression and this is thought to be involved in monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions. oxLDL has also been found to induce macrophage proliferation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether oxLDL might ...
Huang X R - - 2001
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to play a pivotal role in inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. This study investigates the role of MIF in gastric inflammation. METHODS: Expression of MIF was examined in a rat gastric ulcer model induced by acetic acid, and the functional ...
Keidar S - - 2001
The goal of the present study was to elucidate mechanisms for angiotensin II (Ang II) induction of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) uptake by macrophages, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. Compared with placebo treatment, Ang II injections (0.1 mL, 10(-7) mol/L per day) for 2 weeks to apolipoprotein E-deficient mice ...
Kume N - - 2001
Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX)-1 is a type II membrane protein that belongs to the C-type lectin family of molecules, which can act as a cell-surface endocytosis receptor for atherogenic oxidized LDL. LOX-1 can support binding, internalization and proteolytic degradation of oxidized LDL, but not of significant amounts of acetylated ...
Fingerle-Rowson G R - - 2001
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is produced by neuroendocrine and immune tissues and possesses several features that allow it to be characterized as a neuroendocrine mediator. Its pro-inflammatory action and its pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases, such as septic shock, arthritis and other diseases, have clearly been demonstrated ...
Sakr S W - - 2001
A key cellular event in atherogenesis is the interaction of macrophages with lipoproteins in the subendothelium. In vivo, these lipoproteins are bound to matrix and often aggregated, yet most cell-culture experiments explore these events using soluble monomeric lipoproteins. We hypothesized that the internalization and degradation of matrix-retained and aggregated low ...
Froidevaux C - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To review the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in host responses to infection and to explore the potential of MIF as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. DATA SOURCES: Published articles on the role of MIF in innate immune ...
Nishihira J - - 2001
Various therapeutic approaches to multiple sclerosis (MS) have been presented, but no specific and effective method has so far been established. In recent years, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been re-evaluated as a pluripotent cytokine involved in a broad spectrum of inflammation and immune responses. During the course of ...
Kataoka H - - 2001
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which may increase atherosclerotic plaque instability. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms causing the Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in VSMCs, especially focusing on the involvement of Bax/Bcl-2 and the lectinlike Ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). In cultured bovine aortic ...
Lorkowski S - - 2001
Several members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family are involved in cholesterol efflux from cells. A defect in one member, ABCA1, results in Tangier disease, a condition characterized by cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and virtual absence of mature circulating high-density lipoproteins. Expression of a second member, ABCG1, is increased ...
Wehrle-Haller B - - 2001
Neural crest-derived melanocyte precursors (MPs) in avian and murine embryos emerge from the dorsal neural tube into a migration staging area (MSA). MPs subsequently migrate from the MSA on a dorsolateral pathway between the dermamyotome and the overlying epithelium. In mouse embryos, MPs express the receptor tyrosine kinase, KIT, and ...
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