Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 775
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Bravo Elena - - 2008
Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. ...
Stojanović Ivana - - 2009
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by recently described T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which have critical role in immunity to extracellular bacteria and the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders. IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta are crucial for the generation of Th17 cells in mice, while the ...
Seres László - - 2008
The expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1 is greatly increased in macrophages by cholesterol loading via the activation of the nuclear receptor LXR. Several recent studies demonstrated that ABCG1 expression is associated with increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages to high-density lipoprotein, suggesting an atheroprotective role for this protein. Our ...
Kamir Daniela D Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2008
Parasitic organisms have evolved specialized strategies to evade immune defense mechanisms. We describe herein an ortholog of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is produced by the obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania major. The Leishmania MIF protein, Lm1740MIF, shows significant structural homology with human MIF as revealed by a ...
Frank Philippe G - - 2008
Lipoprotein metabolism plays an important role in the development of several human diseases, including coronary artery disease and the metabolic syndrome. A good comprehension of the factors that regulate the metabolism of the various lipoproteins is therefore key to better understanding the variables associated with the development of these diseases. ...
Curfs Daniëlle M J - - 2008
Secreted phospholipase A2 group X (sPLA(2)-X) is one of the most potent enzymes of the phospholipase A(2) lipolytic enzyme superfamily. Its high catalytic activity toward phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid of cell membranes and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), has implicated sPLA(2)-X in chronic inflammatory conditions such as atherogenesis. We studied the ...
Dhanantwari Preeta - - 2008
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that causes cardiac contractile dysfunction, whereas inactivation of MIF improves cardiac function in experimental animal models of sepsis. We used cultured cardiomyocytes to determine whether MIF-induced contractile dysfunction was mediated in part by myocyte apoptosis and to identify MIF-activated intracellular signaling ...
Tian Ling L Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-3360, United - - 2009
Adiponectin is one of several, important metabolically active cytokines secreted from adipocytes. Low circulating levels of this adipokine have been associated epidemiologically with obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine if adiponectin can modulate lipid metabolism in macrophages, we expressed the adiponectin gene in human THP-1 ...
Virella Gabriel G Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, United States. - - 2008
Modified forms of LDL are immunogenic and activate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Both types of responses are pro-inflammatory and are probably primary players in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammatory reaction characteristic of atherosclerosis. The immunologic response to modified LDL can be directed to MHC-II-associated peptides in the ...
Polavarapu Rohini - - 2008
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family, mediates cellular signal transduction pathways. In this study we investigated the role of LRP in cell death. We found that incubation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in serum-free media induces caspase-3 activation, an effect that is ...
Pugh Nirmal D - - 2008
We have identified potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts. These bacterial lipoproteins, along with lipopolysaccharides, were substantially more potent than other bacterially derived components when tested in in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation systems. In experiments using RAW 264.7 ...
Zernecke Alma - - 2008
The highly conserved and archetypical yet atypical cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) fulfills pleiotropic immune functions in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence has emerged from both expression and functional studies to implicate MIF in various aspects of cardiovascular disease. The present review is aimed at providing ...
Leonarduzzi Gabriella - - 2008
Oxidative stress, inflammation and altered cholesterol metabolism and levels are among the pathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive impairment that may accompany aging. Within the research area of hypercholesterolemia and age-related disease processes, the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol interaction with the inflammatory cells of the macrophage lineage are yet to be elucidated. ...
Ide F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Verruciform xanthoma (VX) holds two basic pathogenic interests: (1) Why and how do macrophage foam cells accumulate exclusively in the sub-basal papillae? and (2) What underlies the disease chronicity? Moreover, an unsolved question is which came first - epithelial hyperplasia or foam cell collection? MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed ...
Javeed A - - 2008
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in inflammatory and immune responses. MIF was originally discovered as a lymphokine involved in delayed hypersensitivity and various macrophage functions, including production of proinflammatory cytokines, glucocorticoid-induced immunomodulator, and natural killer cell inhibitory factor (NKIF), regulation of toll-like receptor expression, ...
Ayoub Sally - - 2008
The past decade has seen the emergence of two new paradigms in inflammatory disease: first, cardiovascular complications of atherosclerosis are markedly increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); and second, inflammatory mechanisms are important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. These concurrent developments have lead to ...
Damico Rachel L - - 2008
Human endothelial cells (EC) are typically resistant to the apoptotic effects of stimuli associated with lung disease. The determinants of this resistance remain incompletely understood. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by human pulmonary artery EC (HPAEC). Its expression increases in response to various death-inducing stimuli, ...
Eder Katalin - - 2008
Inflammatory activation of monocytes is a hallmark event in cardiovascular disease. Activated monocytes migrate into atherosclerotic lesions, differentiate into macrophages and ingest lipids to become foam cells. These, in turn, through interaction with other inflammatory cell types contribute to plaque instability and are thought to play a key role in ...
Gerry Andrew B - - 2008
We investigated the effect of pH on macrophage apoptosis induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), as human atherosclerotic lesions have regions of low pH. Hydroperoxide-rich and oxysterol-rich LDL caused 38% and 74% apoptosis of J774 macrophages, respectively, at 24 h, as measured by the externalization of phosphatidylserine. Native LDL, ...
Lan Hui Y - - 2008
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to play a pathogenic role in kidney disease. This article will review the current understanding of the expression of MIF and its functional role in immune-mediated renal injury in both human and animal models of kidney disease. Upregulation of MIF is found ...
Persson Jenny - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory cytokines can affect intracellular lipid metabolism. A variety of effects have been described for different cell types; hepatocyte lipid turnover pathways are inhibited during inflammation, whereas interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) reduces intracellular cholesterol levels in fibroblasts. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are up-regulated at ...
Nakamura Hajime - - 2008
Thioredoxin (TRX) is a small multifunctional protein with a redox-active dithiol/disulfide in the conserved active site. Human TRX was originally identified as a cytokine-like factor in virus-transformed cells. The TRX family of proteins share the active site sequence: -Cys-Xxx-Xxx-Cys-. Intracellularly TRX scavenges reactive oxygen species and regulates various signal transduction ...
Ohkawara Tatsuya - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in the development of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have indicated an association of MIF with gastrointestinal inflammation including colitis, but the mechanism by which MIF exacerbates gut inflammation has not been fully clarified. In this study, in order further to ...
Bach Jan-Philipp - - 2008
MIF has been described as a protein that plays an essential role in both innate and acquired immunity. Previous studies have demonstrated that MIF activates lymphocytes, granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, MIF can counteract the physiological function of steroids, thus playing a role in immune system regulation. Further evidence for a ...
Lehmann Lutz E - - 2008
The oxidoreductase Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is discussed as a promising target for immunomodulatory therapy in patients with severe sepsis. Moreover, MIF expresses tautomerase as well as thiol-protein oxidoreductase activities and has a potential role in cellular redox homeostasis, apoptosis inhibition, endotoxin responsiveness as well as regulation of nuclear ...
Kevill Katharine A - - 2008
Using a mouse model of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), we demonstrate a central role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in lung maturation at the developmental stage when human neonates are most susceptible to RDS. We prematurely delivered mouse pups at embryonic day 18, during the early saccular stage ...
Ferro Eloisa Amália Vieira - - 2008
Considering the potential role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the inflammation process in placenta when infected by pathogens, we investigated the production of this cytokine in chorionic villous explants obtained from human first-trimester placentas stimulated with soluble antigen from Toxoplasma gondii (STAg). Parallel cultures were performed with villous ...
Kaliora Andriana-C - - 2007
AIM: To assess the effects of mastic administration on cytokine production of circulating mononuclear cells of patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: The study was conducted in patients with established mildly to moderately active CD, attending the outpatient clinics of the hospital, and in healthy controls. Recruited to a ...
Gore Yael - - 2008
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream activator of innate immunity that regulates subsequent adaptive responses. It was previously shown that in macrophages, MIF binds to a complex of CD74 and CD44, resulting in initiation of a signaling pathway. In the current study, we investigated the role of MIF ...
Elliott David A - - 2008
Apolipoprotein-E (apoE) expression may be associated with apoptosis resistance. Since macrophages constitutively synthesize apoE we speculated that this may contribute to apoptosis resistance. Using siRNA, human monocyte derived macrophage (hMDM) apoE mRNA and protein was reduced by 97% and 61%, respectively. ApoE knockdown increased staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activation by 78% without ...
Inoue Nobutaka - - 2007
Well-known coronary risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes are reported to induce the oxidative stress. Under the oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is oxidatively modified in the vasculature, and formed oxidized LDL induces endothelial dysfunction, expression of adhesion molecules and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. It ...
Out Ruud - - 2008
The concept that macrophages can become foam cells as a result of a disturbed balance between the uptake of cholesterol from lipoproteins and cholesterol efflux is generally accepted. ABCA1 and ABCG1 are two cholesterol transporters that may act sequentially to remove cellular cholesterol, but currently their combined role in vivo ...
Maurer Kirk J KJ Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2007
The formation of cholesterol gallstones is a complex process involving contributions from genes and environmental factors. Although gallbladder inflammation is believed to be common during cholelithogenesis, the role of immunologic factors is unknown. The role of adaptive immunity in cholesterol cholelithogenesis was analyzed utilizing immunocompetent Helicobacter spp.-infected and -uninfected BALB/c ...
Ramírez Javier A - - 2007
In a previous work our group showed that some synthetic stigmastanes may play a role in immune-mediated inflammation. In this paper we report the syntheses of a series of new steroidal compounds derived from dehydroepiandrosterone and stigmasterol, and the evaluation of their in vitro inhibitory activity of the TNF-alpha production ...
Sun Xiaocun - - 2008
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of calcitriol on adipocyte and macrophage cytokine expression as well as release and on adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk in local modulation of inflammation. We investigated calcitriol modulation of the expression of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) and macrophage surface-specific protein CD14, two key ...
Hoi Alberta Y - - 2007
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a cytokine originally reported in the 1960s as the prototypic T lymphokine, has emerged in recent years as a key factor regulating inflammatory responses. Both by directly activating immune cells, and by participating in activation entrained by other stimuli, MIF is important in innate and ...
Tabata Takahiro - - 2007
Since accumulation and interaction of immune cells including T cells and monocytes/macrophages are involved in the processes of atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis is currently understood as an inflammatory disorder. Entrapment of extracellular matrices components such as hyaluronan by monocytes and macrophages, as well as uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) by these ...
Buono Chiara - - 2007
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the control of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Several studies have recently shown that LXRs promote reverse cholesterol transport and inhibit atherosclerosis. Our study investigated whether LXRs affect macrophage uptake of LDL by human monocyte-derived macrophages. We have previously shown that ...
Fuhrman Bianca - - 2008
Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and LDL oxidation play a pivotal role in early atherogenesis. We thus questioned possible mechanisms for oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL)-induced monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation in vivo. Mouse peritoneal mononuclear cells, that were isolated 1, 2, or 3 days after Ox-LDL intraperitoneal injection, gradually exhibited the characteristic macrophage morphology, along with the ...
Khan Uniza W - - 2007
The present study in the wall lizard, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, was aimed to understand the role of histamine (HA) in the regulation of Leydig cell and testicular macrophage activities, for the first time, in ectothermic vertebrates. Although HA did not affect the testosterone production from unstimulated Leydig cells, it had dual ...
Radhika Achuthan - - 2007
Transendothelial migration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their subsequent interaction with the subendothelial matrix lead to their differentiation to macrophages (mphis). To study whether preexposure of monocytes in circulation to modified proteins influences their differentiation to mphis, an in vitro model system using isolated PBMC in culture was ...
Nowicki Marcin - - 2007
The oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-dependent activation of the lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) triggers apoptosis in vascular cells and appears to be involved in atherosclerosis. Autophagy might be an alternate to apoptosis in endothelial cells. The EA.hy926 endothelial cell line has been reported to undergo necrosis under oxLDL stimulation. For this ...
Wang Xinwen - - 2007
Clinical use of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors such as ritonavir may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms of ritonavir on cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells, which is a critical factor of atherogenesis. Human THP-1 monocytes ...
Cho Yoonsang Y Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, - - 2007
Hookworms, parasitic nematodes that infect nearly one billion people worldwide, are a major cause of anemia and malnutrition. We hypothesize that hookworms actively manipulate the host immune response through the production of specific molecules designed to facilitate infection by larval stages and adult worm survival within the intestine. A full-length ...
Sigruener Alexander - - 2007
Uptake of modified lipoproteins by macrophages causes foam cell formation and promotes atherosclerosis. Atherogenic lipoproteins are cytotoxic and induce cell death under certain conditions but may also enhance macrophage survival. Macrophages treated with enzymatically modified LDL (E-LDL) were subjected to GeneChip analysis and the antiapoptotic gene TOSO was found induced. ...
Botham K M - - 2007
The accumulation of foam cells in the artery wall causes fatty streaks, the first lesions in atherosclerosis. LDL (low-density lipoprotein) plays a major role in foam cell formation, although prior oxidation of the particles is required. Recent studies, however, have provided considerable evidence to indicate that CMRs (chylomicron remnants), which ...
Bravo E - - 2007
Although it is clear that chylomicron remnants are atherogenic, events leading to their internalization by macrophages are still debated. The lack of apoE (apolipoprotein E) in CRLPs (chylomicron remnant-like particles) reduces macrophage TAG (triacylglycerol) content by approx. 50%, suggesting that, as well as apoE-mediated endocytic uptake, apoE receptor-independent mechanisms are ...
Viganò Paola - - 2007
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pivotal regulator of the innate and adaptive immunity affecting the response and behavior of macrophages and lymphocytes. MIF is also implicated in other fundamental cellular processes including angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Several studies examined the expression of MIF in reproductive organs and tissues ...
Sato Koichi - - 2007
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine 1-phosphate mediates a variety of lipoprotein-induced actions in vascular cell systems. However, it remains unknown whether extracellular S1P is associated with lipoproteins to exert biological actions in central nervous system. Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) induced rat astrocyte migration in a manner sensitive to S1P receptor antagonist ...
Lo James C - - 2007
Hyperlipidemia, one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease, is often associated with inflammation. We identified lymphotoxin (LT) and LIGHT, tumor necrosis factor cytokine family members that are primarily expressed on lymphocytes, as critical regulators of key enzymes that control lipid metabolism. Dysregulation of LIGHT expression on ...
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