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Wong Benny L W - - 2009
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of immune and inflammatory responses; however, its role in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis remains unknown. We infected MIF knockout (KO) and wild-type mice with SS1 HP and found that 2 weeks after infection, MIF and its receptor CD74 were markedly up-regulated ...
Cooke Gordon - - 2009
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor represents a key cytokine in human diseases. It plays an important role in both innate and acquired immunity and has been shown to be a key mediator of inflammatory diseases. More recently MIF has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Over the decades its structure and functions ...
Chi Xiumei - - 2009
To assess whether ascorbic acid decreases the cytotoxicity of oxidized human low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in cells involved in atherosclerosis, its interaction with oxLDL was studied in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Macrophages took up ascorbate to millimolar intracellular concentrations and retained it with little loss over 18h in culture. Culture of ...
de Souza Juliana A - - 2010
Plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect endothelial cells against apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). The specific component(s) of HDLs implicated in such cytoprotection remain(s) to be identified. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were incubated with mildly oxLDL in the presence or absence of each of five physicochemically distinct HDL ...
Thewke Douglas - - 2009
Oxysterol-induced macrophage apoptosis may have a role in atherosclerosis. Macrophages lacking the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) are partially resistant to apoptosis induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). AM-251 and SR144528 are selective antagonists of CB1 and CB2 receptors, respectively. We observed that both compounds reduce 7KC-induced apoptosis in Raw 264.7 macrophages. ...
Paiva Claudia N - - 2009
Deposition of immune complexes (IC) triggers Fc gamma R-dependent inflammation, leading to tissue damage in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, immune glomerulonephritis, and several immune vasculitides. Evidences support a role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in a number of inflammatory diseases, but the triggering of its secretion and its ...
Prieto-Lafuente Lidia L Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, - - 2009
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a highly conserved cytokine considered to exert wide-ranging, proinflammatory effects on the immune system. Recently, members of this gene family have been discovered in a number of invertebrate species, including parasitic helminths. However, chronic helminth infections are typically associated with a Th2-dominated, counter-inflammatory phenotype, ...
Filip Ana-Maria - - 2009
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders such as infection, sepsis, and autoimmune disease. MIF exists preformed in cytoplasmic pools and exhibits an intrinsic tautomerase and oxidoreductase activity. MIF levels are elevated in the serum of animals and ...
Geldhoff Madelijn - - 2009
Bacterial meningitis is a complex disorder in which injury is caused, in part, by the causative organism and, in part, by the host's own inflammatory response. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and a neuro-endocrine mediator that might play a role in pneumococcal meningitis. Here, we discuss ...
Hovland Anders - - 2009
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is well-established in selected patients with uncontrolled LDL levels. As such treatment affects biomarkers important in atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes, we systematically compared the inflammatory response induced by three LDL apheresis columns. Three patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia participated in a cross-over study with six ...
Frascaroli Giada - - 2009
Macrophages contribute to host defense and to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Conversely, they are important targets of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a herpesvirus that has evolved many strategies to modulate the host immune response. Because an efficient macrophage trafficking is required for triggering an adequate immune response, we investigated the ...
Takahashi Koichiro - - 2009
MIF is a critical mediator of the host defense, and is involved in both acute and chronic responses in the lung. Neutralization of MIF reduces neutrophil accumulation into the lung in animal models. We hypothesized that MIF, in the alveolar space, promotes neutrophil accumulation via activation of the CD74 receptor ...
Vera Pedro L - - 2009
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine constitutively expressed by urothelial cells. During inflammatory stimuli, MIF is released into the lumen complexed to other proteins and these complexes can bind to urothelial cell-surface receptors to activate signaling pathways. Since MIF is complexed to alpha1-inhibitor III (A1-I3; a member ...
Cui Xu X Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202, - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that a nitric oxide donor, DETA-NONOate, up-regulates stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) in the ischemic brain and their respective receptors chemokine CXC motif receptor 4 (CXCR4) and Tie2 in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and thereby promote SVZ neuroblast cell migration after stroke. C57BL/6J ...
Brodeur Mathieu R - - 2008
Oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) are known to promote atherosclerosis, but it is only recently that OxLDL have been associated with alterations of the functions of bone-forming osteoblasts and osteoporosis. Although high density lipoproteins (HDL) are recognized for their anti-atherogenic action, there is less information about their ability to protect ...
Park Young Mi - - 2009
The trapping of lipid-laden macrophages in the arterial intima is a critical but reversible step in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clearly defined. Here, we tested in mice the hypothesis that CD36, a class B scavenger receptor expressed on macrophages, has a role in this ...
Boyanovsky Boris B - - 2009
We previously reported that LDL modified by group V secretory phospholipase A2 (GV-LDL) promotes macrophage foam cell formation through a mechanism independent of scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36, and dependent on cellular proteoglycans. This study investigates the role of syndecans, a family of cell surface proteoglycans known to mediate endocytosis ...
Takahashi Go - - 2008
Animal skin pattern is one of the good model systems used to study the mechanism of pattern formation. Molecular genetic studies with zebrafish have shown that pigment cells play a major role in the mechanism of stripe formation. Among the variety of cellular events that may be involved in the ...
Okutsu Reiko - - 2009
Internalization of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) via macrophage scavenger receptors (e.g. scavenger receptor A and CD36) is thought to play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent with selective phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory action, has been reported to ameliorate atherosclerosis in mouse models. However, the ...
DeFranco Anthony L - - 2008
Uric acid (UA) crystals are a potent stimulator of inflammation, but how they activate immune cells is not known. In this issue of Immunity, Ng et al. (2008) provide evidence suggesting that UA activates the Syk kinase via membrane cholesterol.
Qiu Guosong - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial lipase (EL) is expressed by macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated the influence of EL expression on cholesterol efflux in macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study used lentivirus to introduce either EL shRNA for loss-of-function studies or EL cDNA for gain-of-function studies to investigate the role of ...
Osto Elena - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by monocyte-derived macrophages is a crucial step in foam cell formation and early atherosclerotic lesion. Increasing evidence supports the theory that activation of protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta) is involved in many mechanisms promoting atherosclerosis. Thus, we investigated whether inhibition of PKCbeta prevents foam cell formation. ...
Zhang Chao - - 2009
This study was to evaluate whether macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) can be used as a better marker of inflammatory detection through the biodistribution and inflammatory imaging study with (131)I-labelled anti-MIF McAb and control antibody in inflammatory model mice. The mRNA and protein expression of MIF in inflammatory lesions were ...
Santos Leilani L - - 2009
Originally discovered and named as an in vitro inhibitor of macrophage migration, the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has now been shown to be a key regulator of acute and chronic immuno-inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atherosclerosis, and more recently systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Common inflammatory events in ...
Weinberg J B - - 2008
Survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells requires sustained activation of the antiapoptotic PI-3-K/Akt pathway, and many therapies for CLL cause leukemia cell death by triggering apoptosis. Blood lipoprotein particles are either pro- or antiapoptotic. High-density lipoprotein particles are antiapoptotic through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3-mediated activation of the PI-3-K/Akt pathway. Apolipoprotein ...
Okazaki Hiroaki - - 2008
Unstable lipid-rich plaques in atherosclerosis are characterized by the accumulation of macrophage foam cells loaded with cholesterol ester (CE). Although hormone-sensitive lipase and cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) have been proposed to mediate the hydrolysis of CE in macrophages, circumstantial evidence suggests the presence of other enzymes with neutral cholesterol ester ...
Riazy Maziar - - 2009
Oxidized LDL (OxLDL) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of early as well as advanced stages of atherosclerosis. One possible mechanism involves local upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study was done to define the mechanism by which OxLDL increases secretion ...
Crow J Allen JA Department of Basic Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100, - - 2008
Cholesteryl esters are hydrolyzed by cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) yielding free cholesterol for export from macrophages. Hence, CEH has an important regulatory role in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). CEH and human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) appear to be the same enzyme. CES1 is inhibited by oxons, the bioactive metabolites of ...
Liu Lingfeng - - 2008
The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim acts as a sensor for apoptotic stimuli and initiates apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. To identify novel regulators of Bim, we employed the yeast two-hybrid system and isolated the human gene encoding macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a ubiquitously expressed proinflammatory mediator that has ...
Kudchodkar Bhalchandra B Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, The University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, 3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, TX 76107, - - 2008
Chronic hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy significantly attenuates atherosclerosis in New Zealand white rabbits as well as the apoE knockout (KO) mice, independent of plasma lipid concentrations and lipoprotein profiles. Because atherosclerosis has many features of a chronic inflammatory disease, in which both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses participate, we examined ...
Xie, B; ;
Circulation dysfunction-associated mortality is defined as its reduced responsiveness to circulation active agents in the pathological context of sepsis/septic shock. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a versatile pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been identified independently from other mediators and found to play certain roles in the “bio-vicious-gate” of circulation collapse. Cumulating evidence ...
Oswald Stefan - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Genetic variability in hepatic uptake was recently shown to influence the disposition and cholesterol-lowering effects of statins. Ezetimibe, an inhibitor of the intestinal cholesterol uptake protein Niemann-Pick C 1 like 1, is another drug for which genetic polymorphisms of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are expected to be ...
Burnett Giselle T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) secrete key modifiers of tumor progression and their modification has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy. Phenotypic changes that may render TAMs selectively vulnerable to anti-cancer agents were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene arrays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to study inflammation- ...
Bravo Elena - - 2008
Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. ...
Stojanović Ivana - - 2009
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by recently described T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which have critical role in immunity to extracellular bacteria and the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders. IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta are crucial for the generation of Th17 cells in mice, while the ...
Seres László - - 2008
The expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1 is greatly increased in macrophages by cholesterol loading via the activation of the nuclear receptor LXR. Several recent studies demonstrated that ABCG1 expression is associated with increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages to high-density lipoprotein, suggesting an atheroprotective role for this protein. Our ...
Kamir Daniela D Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2008
Parasitic organisms have evolved specialized strategies to evade immune defense mechanisms. We describe herein an ortholog of the cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is produced by the obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania major. The Leishmania MIF protein, Lm1740MIF, shows significant structural homology with human MIF as revealed by a ...
Frank Philippe G - - 2008
Lipoprotein metabolism plays an important role in the development of several human diseases, including coronary artery disease and the metabolic syndrome. A good comprehension of the factors that regulate the metabolism of the various lipoproteins is therefore key to better understanding the variables associated with the development of these diseases. ...
Curfs Daniëlle M J - - 2008
Secreted phospholipase A2 group X (sPLA(2)-X) is one of the most potent enzymes of the phospholipase A(2) lipolytic enzyme superfamily. Its high catalytic activity toward phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid of cell membranes and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), has implicated sPLA(2)-X in chronic inflammatory conditions such as atherogenesis. We studied the ...
Dhanantwari Preeta - - 2008
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that causes cardiac contractile dysfunction, whereas inactivation of MIF improves cardiac function in experimental animal models of sepsis. We used cultured cardiomyocytes to determine whether MIF-induced contractile dysfunction was mediated in part by myocyte apoptosis and to identify MIF-activated intracellular signaling ...
Tian Ling L Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-3360, United - - 2009
Adiponectin is one of several, important metabolically active cytokines secreted from adipocytes. Low circulating levels of this adipokine have been associated epidemiologically with obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine if adiponectin can modulate lipid metabolism in macrophages, we expressed the adiponectin gene in human THP-1 ...
Virella Gabriel G Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, United States. - - 2008
Modified forms of LDL are immunogenic and activate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Both types of responses are pro-inflammatory and are probably primary players in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammatory reaction characteristic of atherosclerosis. The immunologic response to modified LDL can be directed to MHC-II-associated peptides in the ...
Polavarapu Rohini - - 2008
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family, mediates cellular signal transduction pathways. In this study we investigated the role of LRP in cell death. We found that incubation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in serum-free media induces caspase-3 activation, an effect that is ...
Pugh Nirmal D - - 2008
We have identified potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts. These bacterial lipoproteins, along with lipopolysaccharides, were substantially more potent than other bacterially derived components when tested in in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation systems. In experiments using RAW 264.7 ...
Zernecke Alma - - 2008
The highly conserved and archetypical yet atypical cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) fulfills pleiotropic immune functions in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence has emerged from both expression and functional studies to implicate MIF in various aspects of cardiovascular disease. The present review is aimed at providing ...
Leonarduzzi Gabriella - - 2008
Oxidative stress, inflammation and altered cholesterol metabolism and levels are among the pathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive impairment that may accompany aging. Within the research area of hypercholesterolemia and age-related disease processes, the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol interaction with the inflammatory cells of the macrophage lineage are yet to be elucidated. ...
Ide F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Verruciform xanthoma (VX) holds two basic pathogenic interests: (1) Why and how do macrophage foam cells accumulate exclusively in the sub-basal papillae? and (2) What underlies the disease chronicity? Moreover, an unsolved question is which came first - epithelial hyperplasia or foam cell collection? MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed ...
Javeed A - - 2008
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in inflammatory and immune responses. MIF was originally discovered as a lymphokine involved in delayed hypersensitivity and various macrophage functions, including production of proinflammatory cytokines, glucocorticoid-induced immunomodulator, and natural killer cell inhibitory factor (NKIF), regulation of toll-like receptor expression, ...
Ayoub Sally - - 2008
The past decade has seen the emergence of two new paradigms in inflammatory disease: first, cardiovascular complications of atherosclerosis are markedly increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); and second, inflammatory mechanisms are important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. These concurrent developments have lead to ...
Damico Rachel L - - 2008
Human endothelial cells (EC) are typically resistant to the apoptotic effects of stimuli associated with lung disease. The determinants of this resistance remain incompletely understood. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by human pulmonary artery EC (HPAEC). Its expression increases in response to various death-inducing stimuli, ...
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