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Zattoni Michela - - 2011
Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that inflammatory processes contribute to the pathophysiology of epilepsy, but underlying mechanisms remain mostly unknown. Using immunohistochemistry for CD45 (common leukocyte antigen) and CD3 (T-lymphocytes), we show here microglial activation and infiltration of leukocytes in sclerotic tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), ...
Li Gang - - 2011
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder affecting approximately 8 out of 1000 people. Its pathophysiology, however, has remained elusive in many regards. Consequently, adequate seizure control is still lacking in about one third of patients. Cytokines are soluble mediators of cell communication that are critical in immune regulation. In ...
Vezzani Annamaria - - 2011
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, and is characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures. Despite progress in pharmacological and surgical treatments of epilepsy, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of individual seizures, and about the mechanisms whereby a healthy brain ...
Huang Ri-sheng - - 2010
It has been proposed that the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is an important regulator of the immune system and has been shown to be involved in acute inflammatory response. However, the function of ...
Gieseg Steven P - - 2010
The severity of atheroma burden in patients strongly correlates to increasing levels of plasma neopterin, the oxidation product of 7,8-dihydroneopterin. Interferon-γ stimulation of macrophages causes the synthesis of 7,8-dihydroneopterin, a potent antioxidant that inhibits oxidative damage to cells, and the cytotoxicity of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to monocyte-like U937 cells ...
Lin Yi-Ling - - 2010
Cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CEC) comprise the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a previous study, we showed that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) can induce apoptosis of mouse CEC. Resveratrol possesses chemopreventive potential. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on oxLDL-induced insults to mouse CEC and its possible mechanisms. Exposure of ...
Suzuki Masashi - - 2010
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) protects the artery wall by removing cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages. However, recent evidence suggests that HDL might also inhibit atherogenesis by combating inflammation. To identify potential antiinflammatory mechanisms, we challenged macrophages with lipopolysaccharide, an inflammatory microbial ligand for Toll-like receptor 4. HDL inhibited the expression of 30 ...
Chang Huai-Chia - - 2011
Cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Our previous study showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces apoptosis of CECs. This study was designed to further evaluate the effects of resveratrol on oxLDL-induced CEC insults and its possible molecular mechanisms. Resveratrol decreased the oxidation of LDL ...
Francia A - - 2010
Functional disturbances of the immune system have been detected more often among persons affected by epilepsy than in the general population. In the February-July period of 2007 a specific questionnaire on the relationship between epilepsy and immunological response was sent to 27 specialized Centres for Epilepsy in nine Italian regions. ...
Liu Wei - - 2010
Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) induces macrophage-derived foam cell formation, a hallmark of early atherosclerosis, in the presence of low density lipoprotein (LDL). However, its mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In this study we examined the effects of live, heat-killed and UV-inactivated C. pneumoniae on cholesterol metabolism in THP-1-derived macrophages ...
Fraser Deborah A - - 2010
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of modified lipoproteins in the arterial intima. C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) are not only recognition components involved in activation of inflammation via the complement cascade, but they are also able to directly modulate phagocyte activation. Studies in ...
Han Cong - - 2010
Host macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria infections. Several Plasmodium parasite-derived MIFs were identified to have the potential to regulate host immune response. However, the role of Plasmodium MIFs in the immunopathogenesis of malaria infection and the relationships between these mediators and inflammatory ...
Nakaya Kazuhiro - - 2010
Recent failure of an HDL-cholesterol raising strategy using a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor highlights the importance of the anti-atherogenic function rather than plasma concentration of HDL. Cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, has been widely used in patients with atherosclerotic diseases and is known to increase HDL-cholesterol. However, ...
Yin Hui - - 2010
Although studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) prevents leukocyte infiltration and organ damage following LPS challenge, the mechanisms involved in this protection are incompletely understood. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is thought to play a pivotal role in modulation of inflammatory and immune response through upregulation of TLR4 expression. ...
Anzinger Joshua J - - 2010
To examine the pinocytotic pathways mediating native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by human macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated macrophages (the predominant macrophage phenotype in human atherosclerotic plaques). We identified the kinase inhibitor SU6656 and the Rho GTPase inhibitor toxin B as inhibitors of macrophage fluid-phase pinocytosis of LDL. Assessment of macropinocytosis by ...
Smirnov A N - - 2010
Normally macrophages localized in the arterial vessel wall perform the "reverse transfer" of cholesterol, which includes endocytosis of low density lipoproteins (LDL), cholesterol transfer to newly formed high density lipoprotein particles, and their following elimination by the liver. The homeostatic function of macrophages for cholesterol involves a system of lipid ...
Vieira-de-Abreu Adriana - - 2011
Recent studies have demonstrated an essential and nonredundant role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in asthma pathogenesis. Here we investigate the mechanisms involved in MIF-induced eosinophil activation. By using a model of allergic pulmonary inflammation, we observed that allergen challenge-elicited eosinophil influx, lipid body (also known as lipid droplets) ...
Kruit Janine K - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) display significant abnormalities in both LDL and HDL particles. Recent data suggest that these changes in lipoprotein particles could contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM. In this review, we focus on these abnormalities and discuss their possible impact on beta-cell ...
Kim Sungwon - - 2010
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is recognized as a soluble factor produced by sensitized T lymphocytes and inhibits the random migration of macrophages. Recent studies have revealed a more prominent role for MIF as a multi-functional cytokine mediating both innate and adaptive immune responses. This study describes the cloning and ...
Katsuura Sakurako - - 2010
This study was designed to prospectively examine the impact of a brief naturalistic stressor (academic examination) on salivary/serum cortisol, measures of anxiety and depressive mood, and 50 circulating immune mediators assessed 7 days before, the first day of, and 2 days after the first term examination period (5 days) among ...
Yvan-Charvet Laurent - - 2010
Antiatherogenic effects of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) include the ability to inhibit apoptosis of macrophage foam cells. The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 have a major role in promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophages to apolipoprotein A-1 and HDL and are upregulated during the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis). The ...
McLaren James E - - 2010
TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A), a TNF superfamily cytokine that binds to death receptor 3 (DR3), is highly expressed in macrophage foam cell-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, although its role in foam cell formation has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether TL1A can directly stimulate macrophage foam cell formation in ...
Shao Qin - - 2010
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) cross-talks with macrophages, and both play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is potently induced in macrophages by diverse stimuli, suggesting that it may be a key regulator of inflammation in vascular cells. The detailed mechanism of Nur77 ...
Han Runlin - - 2010
Plasma lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, Lp[a] and HDL) function primarily in lipid transport among tissues and organs. However, cumulative evidence suggests that lipoproteins may also prevent bacterial, viral and parasitic infections and are therefore a component of innate immunity. Lipoproteins can also detoxify lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Infections can induce oxidation ...
Tripathi Gaurav - - 2010
CONTEXT: Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease and its progression to ESRD. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is released by macrophages and lymphocytes and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plays an important pathogenetic role in several inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVES: We have explored the ...
Smith Kent J - - 2010
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in the activation and survival of macrophages. This study examined the role of HSP70B', a poorly characterized member of the HSP70 family, in response to oxidatively modified LDL (oxLDL) and immune complexes prepared with human oxLDL and purified human antibodies to oxLDL (oxLDL-IC) ...
Buonocore Francesco - - 2010
The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine produced in numerous cell types, mainly T lymphocytes and macrophages, in response to inflammatory stimuli. In this paper we report the identification of a cDNA encoding a MIF molecule from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), its expression analysis and its 3D ...
Barrilleaux Bonnie L - - 2010
Therapeutic administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by systemic delivery utilizes the innate ability of the cells to home to damaged tissues, but it can be an inefficient process due to a limited knowledge of cellular cues that regulate migration and homing. Our lab recently discovered that a potent pro-inflammatory ...
Ietta Francesca - - 2010
Successful pregnancy involves a series of events, most of them mediated by hormones and cytokines. Estrogens, besides being important for placental growth and embryo development, have a marked effect on the immune system exerting either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous studies suggest that estrogens directly affect cellular function, including cytokine ...
Grandl Margot - - 2010
Macrophage foam cells formed during uptake of atherogenic lipoproteins are a hallmark of atherosclerotic lesion development. In this study, human macrophages were incubated with two prototypic atherogenic LDL modifications enzymatically degraded LDL (E-LDL) and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) prepared from the same donor LDL. To detect differences in macrophage lipid storage, ...
Guo Jin - - 2010
1. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is strongly associated with atherosclerosis, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie atherosclerosis and AMI are undefined at present. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a member of the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. It has been demonstrated previously ...
Bacher Michael - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that amyloid beta protein (Abeta ), the essential molecule for the formation of toxic oligomers and, subsequently, Alzheimer plaques, has been associated in vivo with the immune modulator, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) (17). To further investigate this association in vivo we used the APP transgenic ...
Klingenberg Roland - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Autoimmune responses to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to its progression, whereas immunization with LDL may induce atheroprotective or proatherogenic responses. The objective of this study was to develop an atheroprotective vaccine by targeting a peptide of the LDL protein constituent apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) to ...
Ermak Natalia - - 2010
We compared the apoptotic mechanism involved in U937 human monocytic cell line in presence of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) obtained after treatment with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or copper (Cu). Both types of oxLDL induced U937 apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway. In contrast to HOCl-oxLDL, Cu-oxLDL induced apoptosis via ...
Boyanovsky Boris B - - 2010
Previous studies have established that hydrolysis of LDL by Group V secretory phospholipase A(2) (GV sPLA(2)) generates a modified particle capable of inducing macrophage foam cell formation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether GV sPLA(2)-hydrolyzed LDL (GV-LDL) produces pro-atherogenic effects in macrophages independent of cholesterol accumulation. ...
Choi Jung-Suk - - 2010
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis accompanying lipid-laden cell appearance, inflammatory responses, and vascular dysfunction. This study examined the potentials of polyphenol quercitrin to inhibit oxLDL induction of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and CD36 involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). J774A1 murine macrophages ...
Kojima Chiari - - 2010
AIM: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been shown to block matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity, which plays a role in atherogenesis. MMP-9 activity of macrophages is increased during foam cell formation. To investigate the contribution of ACEIs to foam cell formation, we studied the effects of an ACEI, imidaprilat, on THP-1 ...
Regis Eduardo G - - 2010
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and infectious diseases, however its role in HIV-1 infection is unknown. Here we show that HIV-1-infected patients present elevated plasma levels of MIF, that HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) release a greater amount of MIF, ...
Tie Guodong - - 2010
We tested the hypothesis that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced inactivation of Akt within endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is mediated at the level of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), specifically by nitrosylation of the p85 subunit of PI3K, and that this action is critical in provoking oxLDL-induced EPC apoptosis. Hypercholesterolemic ApoE null mice ...
Pemberton Alan D - - 2010
Nuclear histones have previously been shown to aggregate LDL in vitro, suggestive of a possible pro-atherogenic role. Recent studies indicate that histones are released during acute inflammation, and therefore might interact with circulating lipoproteins in vivo. In view of the associative link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease, the behaviour of ...
Miller Yury I - - 2010
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major extracellular carrier of cholesterol and, as such, plays important physiologic roles in cellular function and regulation of metabolic pathways. However, under pathologic conditions of hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and/or genetic disorders, specific components of LDL become oxidized or otherwise modified, and the transport of cholesterol ...
Robciuc Marius R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) plays important roles in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis and is expressed by macrophages and macrophage foam cells (MFCs). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the major protein from HDL, apoA-I, affects PLTP derived from MFCs. RESULTS: as cell model we used ...
Devillard Raphael - - 2010
Sphingomyelin hydrolysis in response to stress-inducing agents, and subsequent ceramide generation, are implicated in various cellular responses, including apoptosis, inflammation and proliferation, depending on the nature of the different acidic or neutral sphingomyelinases. This study was carried out to investigate whether the neutral Mg(2+)-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) plays a role ...
Assun??o-Miranda Iranaia - - 2010
Several viruses cause acute and chronic joint inflammation in humans, and among them, the alphaviruses are of special interest due to the increasing number of outbreaks in which they are the etiological factor. Sindbis virus (SinV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, is the most widely distributed of all known ...
Efrat Michal - - 2010
Macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation is the hallmark of early atherogenesis. In addition to macrophages, at least three more major players regulate atherosclerosis development; paraoxonase 1 (PON1), antioxidants, and HDL. PON1 is an HDL-associated lactonase which posses antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties. PON1 protects against macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation, and ...
Al Gadban Mohammed M - - 2010
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC) contribute to formation of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells). It has been shown that oxLDL-IC are considerably more efficient than oxLDL in induction of foam cell formation, inflammatory cytokines secretion, and cell survival promotion. Whereas oxLDL is taken up by several scavenger ...
Baeza Garcia Alvaro - - 2010
We have identified and characterized a Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) family member in the Lophotrochozoan invertebrate, Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In mammals, MIF is a widely expressed pleiotropic cytokine with potent pro-inflammatory properties that controls cell functions such as gene ...
Chuang Chia-Chang - - 2010
Patients infected with Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) show severe inflammatory responses characterised by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an upstream proinflammatory regulator, increases the inflammation caused by sepsis. Whether MIF regulates responses to V. vulnificus infection and the actual mechanism by which V. vulnificus initiates ...
Zhou Xiaoye - - 2010
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a molecule mediating free cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to apoAI and high density lipoprotein (HDL), inhibits the formation of lipid-laden macrophage/foam cells and the development of atherosclerosis. ERK1/2 are important signaling molecules regulating cellular growth and differentiation. The ERK1/2 signaling pathway is implicated in ...
Guo Jin - - 2010
SUMMARY 1. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated tightly with atherosclerosis (AS), and is responsible for causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie AS and AMI are undefined at present. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a member of the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. It has ...
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