Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 764
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Dong C - - 1996
There has been an intensive effort in the past year to identify immunologic and nonimmunologic factors in the pathogenesis of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Significant progress has been made regarding cell proliferation and cell death, with particular focus on cell growth factors, cell death factors, and their receptors. Endothelial cell injury ...
Bernhagen J - - 1996
30 years ago, investigations into the molecular basis of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH) provided evidence for the first lymphokine activity: a lymphocyte-derived mediator called macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which inhibited the random migration of peritoneal macrophages. Despite the long-standing association of MIF with the DTH reaction and the ...
Grunfeld C - - 1996
Lipid metabolism is extensively regulated during the host response to infection. As with other aspects of the host response, these events are mediated by cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and the interferons. Cytokines can decrease lipoprotein lipase and increase lipolysis in cultured fat cells. In vivo, ...
Leitinger N - - 1995
Beside prostaglandin (PG) I2 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), nitric oxide (NO) is a key fepellant substance contributing to haemostatic balancing. The role of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been gaining increasing importance. It is well accepted that LDL in their modified (i.e. oxidized) form are ...
Nishino T - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was one of the first lymphokine activities to be discovered and was described almost 30 years ago to be a soluble factor(s) produced by activated T lymphocytes. In more recent studies, MIF has been "rediscovered" to be an abundant, pre-formed constituent of the anterior ...
Pai R - - 1995
Disordered lipoprotein metabolism and the enhanced influx and accumulation of circulating mononuclear leukocytes into vascular tissue are common pathobiological phenomena associated with both atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis. Since atherogenic lipoproteins (such as low density lipoprotein, LDL) have been implicated in monocyte migration and proliferation into the glomerular mesangium, we examined the ...
Calandra T - - 1995
Glucocorticoid hormones are important for vital functions and act to modulate inflammatory and immune responses. Yet, in contrast to other hormonal systems, no endogenous mediators have been identified that can directly counter-regulate their potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Recent investigations of the protein macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was ...
Maor I - - 1995
Macrophage uptake of oxidatively modified LDL (Ox-LDL), unlike the uptake of acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL), resulted in lysosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC). As sphingomyelin (SM) binds UC with high affinity, we considered whether lysosomes also accumulate Ox-LDL-derived SM, and if such a phenomenon could be involved in the lysosomal trapping ...
Rie J - - 1995
Studies were undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that infiltrating glomerular macrophages in experimental glomerulonephritis are activated to produce oxygen-free radicals that are capable of enhancing oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Low-density lipoprotein oxidation was assessed by increased electrophoretic mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis and by the generation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive ...
Uno H - - 1995
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that immune processes are important in the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether low density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorption therapy affected serum cytokine levels and the expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and monocytes) in patients with arteriosclerotic obliterance (ASO). METHODS AND ...
Kiener P A - - 1995
The ability of immune complexes of LDL or acetylated LDL (acLDL), together with antibodies to LDL, to induce a proatherogenic phenotype in human monocytic cells has been explored. Treatment of THP-1 monocytic cells or peripheral human monocytes with LDL immune complexes containing intact anti-LDL markedly enhanced the ability of these ...
Lau W - - 1995
In the early development of atherosclerotic plaque, monocytes are recruited to the arterial intima where they accumulate lipid and become foam cells. The recently described murine chemotactic S100 protein, CP-10, may have an important role in this process. Intraperitoneal injection of CP-10(42-55) (chemotactic hinge region peptide) into mice caused a ...
Norgard M V - - 1995
The membrane lipoproteins of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi have potent immunostimulatory properties in vitro, implicating them as major inflammatory mediators in syphilis and Lyme disease. Recently, we reported that synthetic lipohexapeptide analogs (lipopeptides) of the lipoproteins could be used as surrogates for native spirochetal lipoproteins in immune cell activation ...
Radolf J D - - 1995
The observation that the major membrane immunogens of the spirochetal pathogens. Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi are lipoproteins prompted studies to investigate macrophage activation by the 47-kDa lipoprotein of T. pallidum and the acylated outer surface protein A (OspA) of B. burgdorferi. Both lipoproteins induced the synthesis of biologically active ...
Thai S F - - 1995
A critical step in development of atherosclerosis is the interaction of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with mononuclear phagocytes. Oxidized LDL, as well as acetyl-LDL, is rapidly taken up into macrophages via a family of scavenger receptors. We report that macrophages treated with oxidized LDL have markedly lower levels of mRNA ...
Liao F - - 1995
The fatty streak begins with entrapment of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins in the subendothelial space at susceptible sites in the arterial wall. Minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein (MM-LDL) induces endothelial cells to bind monocytes and produce message and protein for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In culture, human ...
Mankertz J - - 1995
Macrophages, besides helper T-lymphocytes, are target cells for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report on a mechanism to deliver selectively antiretroviral drugs to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. These cells and cells of the endothelium express scavenger receptors which mediate the transport of modified low density lipoprotein (LDL). LDL ...
Calandra T - - 1996
Recent studies have led to the discovery of a mediator that acts as an endogenous counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action within the immune system. Isolated as a product of anterior pituitary cells, this protein was found to have the sequence of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), one of the first cytokine ...
Holvoet P - - 1994
Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) and autoimmune antibodies against oxidized LDL have been demonstrated in human atherosclerotic lesions; they may enhance the progression of these lesions by 1) enhancing monocyte adhesion and macrophage foam cell generation; 2) inducing smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and foam cell generation; 3) enhancing platelet ...
Bernhagen J - - 1994
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been identified to be secreted by the pituitary gland and the monocyte/macrophage and to play an important role in endotoxic shock. Despite the recent molecular cloning of a human T-cell MIF, characterization of the biochemical and biological properties of this protein has ...
Lopes-Virella M F - - 1994
The possible involvement of immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been suggested intermittently since the early 1970s. Both humoral and cellular mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and/or progression of atheromatous lesions, but the theories postulating the involvement of autoantibodies and immune complexes have met ...
WybraƄska I - - 1994
Effects of NO-donors (3-morpholinosydnonimine-SIN-1 and sodium nitroprusside NaNP) on the accumulation and degradation of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) by macrophages were studied. Ox-LDL, but not native-LDL (n-LDL) suppressed the LPS-stimulated biosynthesis of NO by macrophages. SIN-1 at low concentrations < 100 microM was without any effect while SIN-1 at high concentration ...
Bucala R - - 1994
Recent studies have led to the re-discovery of the protein originally described as macrophage-migration inhibitory factor (MIF) to be both a pituitary hormone and a pro-inflammatory, macrophage cytokine. MIF is a pivotal mediator in endotoxic shock and may serve as a pituitary "stress" hormone that regulates systemic inflammatory responses.
Vijayagopal P - - 1994
Studies were performed to evaluate the effect of several factors on the metabolism of lipoprotein-proteoglycan complexes in human monocyte-derived macrophages. In vivo apoB-lipoprotein-proteoglycan complex was isolated from human aorta fibrous-plaque lesions and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-proteoglycan complex was formed in vitro. Degradation of LDL-proteoglycan complex and cholesteryl ester synthesis mediated by ...
Aviram M - - 1994
Macrophage degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was shown to be increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The involvement of second messengers in this phenomenon was studied. Preincubation of J-774A.1 macrophages with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors D-sphingosine or staurosporine did not significantly affect the stimulatory action of LPS. Similarly, ...
Bernhagen J - - 1994
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a major protein constituent of the anterior pituitary gland released into the bloodstream during endotoxaemia. For many years, MIF had been thought to be a T cell product associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. The identification of MIF as a pituitary 'stress' hormone ...
Fong L G - - 1994
The regulation of the macrophage-induced oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cytokines was investigated. As an initial source of cytokines, medium from an activated type 2 helper T-cell clone was tested. This cell-free supernatant inhibited the subsequent oxidation of LDL by mouse peritoneal macrophages. The inhibition was concentration- and ...
Sporeno E - - 1994
Oncostatin M is a cytokine that acts as a growth regulator on a wide variety of cells and has diverse biological activities including acute phase protein induction, LDL receptor up-regulation and cell-specific gene expression. In order to gather information about the Onc M structure, we established a protocol for large ...
Shiratori Y - - 1994
Atheroma macrophages accumulate large amounts of free cholesterol (FC) as well as cholesteryl ester (CE). An important adaptive response to FC loading might be increased cellular phospholipid to accommodate the excess FC. To explore this idea, J774 macrophages were incubated for 48 h without lipid, with acetyl-low density lipoprotein to ...
Contreras J A - - 1994
Cholesteryl ester-laden macrophages are the hallmark of the fatty streaks that precede arteriosclerotic plaques in humans and experimental animals. This article studies several aspects of cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester metabolism in cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) consistently inhibited cholesteryl ester mobilization from cells that had been loaded with ...
Maziere C - - 1994
The effect of tumor necrosis factor on the oxidative modification of LDL by U937 human monocytes or murine endothelial cells was studied by determination of the lipid peroxidation product content and the electrophoretic mobility of the particle. In the range of concentrations from 2.5 to 10 ng/ml, the cytokine induced ...
Matthys K E - - 1994
Activated cholesterol-laden macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions are believed to influence the progression of this disease. The induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity was investigated in control and cholesterol-laden J774 macrophages, obtained by pre-incubation with oxidized or acetylated low density lipoproteins (oxLDL, acLDL). Loading with oxLDL caused a small induction ...
Ettinger W H - - 1994
Cytokines, important biochemical mediators of inflammation, cause a rapid fall in the plasma concentration of cholesterol in vivo. One mechanism by which cytokines may cause acquired hypocholesterolemia is by decreasing the hepatic synthesis and secretion of apolipoproteins. To test this hypothesis, we incubated Hep G2 cells with human recombinant tumor ...
Lopes-Virella M F - - 1993
It has been proposed for several decades that infections may be responsible for the accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have shown an association between atherosclerosis and both viral and bacterial infections. In this review, we summarize the evidence linking infections with abnormalities in lipid and lipoprotein levels and the ...
Bernhagen J - - 1993
Cytokines are critical in the often fatal cascade of events that cause septic shock. One regulatory system that is likely to be important in controlling inflammatory responses is the neuroendocrine axis. The pituitary, for example, is ideally situated to integrate central and peripheral stimuli, and initiates the increase in systemic ...
Wu J - - 1993
IL-10, in addition to being a cytokine synthesis-inhibitory factor, is a cytokine that exerts multiple effects on various cell types. Recombinant human migration inhibitory factor (MIF) inhibits the migration of human monocytes as well as that of guinea pig and murine macrophages. In addition, it has recently been shown to ...
Zuckerman S H - - 1993
Macrophage apo E synthesis and secretion has been previously demonstrated to be regulated by intracellular free cholesterol levels and is decreased by cytokines and other inflammatory stimuli associated with macrophage activation. In a recent study, the opposing effects of TGF beta and GM-CSF were reported with the former increasing and ...
Evans A J - - 1993
The present investigations have examined the mechanism(s) whereby Sf 60-400 very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from Type IV hypertriglyceridemic subjects cause cholesteryl ester and triglyceride accumulation in J774 macrophages. Both apolipoprotein (apo) E-poor and apoE-rich Type IV VLDL subfractions, isolated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography, were capable of enhancing cellular cholesterol and ...
Bottalico L A - - 1993
Lipoprotein(a) levels in the plasma are strongly correlated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Although the mechanism of this effect is not known, the interaction of lipoprotein(a) with macrophages may be important. Previous work has shown that macrophages in culture internalize and degrade native lipoprotein(a) poorly. In the present study, the ...
de Ricqlès D - - 1993
We have previously reported that breast cancer patients and some healthy subjects show positive T-cell-mediated immune responses to a semi-purified mouse mammary tumour viral pool (MMTV). We have now used Western blotting to analyse the specificity of the response and to determine the target polypeptides. Two types of T-cell response ...
Skarlatos S I - - 1993
Lipoprotein lipase, a lipolytic enzyme essential for normal hydrolysis of triglycerides in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, is found in several cell types, including macrophages. The role of lipoprotein lipase in mediating the uptake of normal VLDL triglycerides into human cultured monocyte-derived macrophages was studied using macrophage cells ...
Yui S - - 1993
We previously reported that cell membrane components and lipoproteins were able to induce the growth of murine peritoneal macrophages. The aim of the present study was to examine whether macrophage growth could also be induced by chemically modified lipoproteins, such as acetylated low density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL) or oxidized LDL, ligands ...
Schwartz C J - - 1993
Two key events in the atherogenic cascade are the focal influx and accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol at arterial sites having a predilection for atherosclerotic lesion development and the recruitment of blood monocytes to these lesion-prone sites. Both processes are enhanced in the setting of hyperlipidemia and dyslipoproteinemia. The ...
Aviram M - - 1993
Modified forms of low density lipoprotein (LDL) are associated with increased atherogenicity. Modified LDL, in comparison with native LDL, demonstrates enhanced cellular uptake by macrophages, foam cell formation and also causes the secretion of cytokines and growth factors from arterial wall cells. Non-enzymatic modifications of LDL (proteoglycans, glycosylation, immune complexes) ...
Blocki F A - - 1992
Mammals have separate enzymatic and cellularly mediated detoxification systems. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) protect against xenobiotic chemicals which continuously enter the body, largely through mucous membranes. These enzymes catalyse the conjugation of glutathione with a wide variety of electrophilic compounds rendering them non-toxic. Mammals also mount a cellular immunological response on ...
Lopes-Virella M F - - 1992
It was recently proposed that the increased levels of modified lipoproteins in diabetic patients may be responsible for the accelerated development of macrovascular complications associated with the disease. Modified lipoproteins are believed to induce the transformation of macrophages into foam cells and, in some cases, to induce endothelial cell damage. ...
Yates M T - - 1992
Low density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidatively modified by macrophages have been shown to be atherogenic in ex vivo studies. We studied the potential role of nitric oxide (NO), a free radical produced by macrophages, in LDL modification. Human LDL (1 mg/ml) were incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages in Ham's F-10 medium. ...
Roma P - - 1992
In J774 murine macrophages, chemically oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and biologically oxidized LDL (BioOxLDL) have similar metabolic fates, characterized by a relatively poor degradation when compared with acetylated LDL (AcLDL), and a modest ability to activate acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) (850 and 754 pmol [14C]oleate/mg cell protein in OxLDL- and BioOxLDL-incubated cells, ...
Oiknine J - - 1992
Inflammation is associated with macrophage activation, and this process has been shown to occur during atherogenesis. Macrophages (J774A.1) that were activated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, or phorbol ester demonstrated a 30-35% increased uptake and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in comparison with nonactivated cells. This phenomenon was also ...
Grove R I - - 1991
Recent evidence suggests the possibility that macrophages can influence lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore we investigated the ability of cultured macrophages to alter low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake in a human liver cell line (HepG2). Conditioned media from phlogogenic-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages or from a human macrophage cell line stimulated with endotoxin ...
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