Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 740
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Scheidegger K J - - 2000
Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. LDL has been shown to be mitogenic and proapoptotic for vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood and may result from an alteration in intracellular mitogenic signaling either directly by LDL or indirectly through ...
Nishihira J - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in inflammatory and immune responses. MIF was originally discovered as a lymphokine involved in delayed hypersensitivity and various macrophage functions, including phagocytosis, spreading, and tumoricidal activity. Recently, MIF was reevaluated as a proinflammatory cytokine and pituitary-derived hormone potentiating endotoxemia. ...
Larkin L - - 2000
Apolipoprotein E (apo E), a 34 kDa component of lipoproteins produced by the liver and in circulating macrophages, plays a critical role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver via the circulation. Cholesterol-rich macrophages (macrophage foam cells) are a major cell type in human atherosclerotic lesions. Apo E ...
Daun J M - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by several cell types, including mononuclear and pituitary cells. It has also been shown to counteract cortisol-induced inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MIF antagonized the effect of hydrocortisone on the NF-kappaB/IkappaB ...
Schmidt-Supprian M - - 2000
The precise regulatory mechanisms of amplification and downregulation of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the inflammatory response have not been fully delineated. Although activated protein C (APC) and its precursor protein C (PC) have recently been reported to be promising therapeutic agents in the management of meningococcal sepsis, direct ...
Janabi M - - 2000
-CD36 is 1 of the class B scavenger receptor expressed on monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphi), platelets, and adipocytes. In our previous studies, we reported that the uptake of oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDLs) is reduced by approximately 50% in Mphi from CD36-deficient patients compared with that in control subjects. Recently, ...
Liao H S - - 2000
The class A macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR-A) is a multifunctional trimeric glycoprotein involved in innate immune response as well as the development of lipid-laden foam cells during atherosclerosis. The MSR ligand, oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), is known to be cytotoxic to macrophages and other cell types. This study examined ...
Vicca S - - 2000
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) play a critical role in atherogenesis. We investigated the apoptotic process in human monocytic THP-1 cell line, exposed to oxLDL generated by treatment of native LDL either with hypochlorous acid (HOCl), mainly affecting the protein moiety, or with copper sulfate (CuSO(4)), mainly affecting the lipid moiety. ...
Sugano M - - 2000
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels have been shown to be inversely correlated with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms of the direct protective effect of HDL on endothelial cells are not fully understood. The apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by cytokines and/or oxidized low-density lipoproteins, etc. may provide a mechanistic clue ...
Chisolm G M GM - - 2000
The first reports of the influences of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) on cell function pertained to negative effects on cell growth-growth arrest, injury, and toxicity. Since these studies, it has become apparent that sublethal levels of oxLDL cause some, but not all, cells to proliferate. This review highlights the growth-promoting effects ...
Hörkkö S - - 2000
Considerable evidence now points to an important role for the immune system in experimental models of atherosclerosis. We have reviewed the growing body of evidence that oxidation of LDL generates a wide variety of neoself determinants that lead to cellular and humoral immune responses. In particular, we have demonstrated that ...
de Nigris F - - 2000
Apoptosis may play an important role in atherogenesis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes apoptosis in the arterial wall in addition to several other proatherogenic effects. Tocopherol supplements have been suggested to protect against coronary heart disease (CHD) in epidemiological studies. The effects of oxLDL and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol on apoptotic ...
Kume N - - 2000
Macrophages appear to take up oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) by multiple receptor-mediated pathways. This study, therefore, has been performed to determine if LOX-1, a novel receptor for Ox-LDL, which was identified in vascular endothelial cells, is also expressed in macrophages. Expression of LOX-1 can be induced after macrophage-like differentiation ...
Klouche M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic, nonoxidative modification transforms LDL to an atherogenic molecule (E-LDL) that activates complement and macrophages and is present in early atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on the atherogenic effects of E-LDL on human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). E-LDL accumulated in these cells, and this was accompanied ...
Duan H - - 2000
Macrophage-derived apoE, produced in the vessel wall, may have important effects during atherogenesis. The production of apoE by macrophages can be regulated at a transcriptional level by cellular differentiation state, cytokines and sterol loading. In addition, there are post-transcriptional and post-translational loci for regulation. We have recently identified an intermediate ...
Nicoletti A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In the course of atherosclerosis, humans and apolipoprotein (apoE) Knockout (KO) mice exhibit an active cell-mediated and humoral immune process, both at the systemic level and within atheromata. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) infiltrate the vascular wall, where they are oxidatively modified. This oxidative modification may generate new epitopes for ...
Moraga F - - 2000
The oxidation of methionine residues in many proteins, including the serine proteinase inhibitor alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), can result in functional inactivation. In this study we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of oxidized AAT (oxAAT), specifically its ability to activate human monocytes in culture. Monocytes stimulated with oxAAT at concentrations up to 0.2 ...
Hamel L - - 2000
Human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) exhibit upregulation of inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), upon exposure to oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL(ox)). The presence of Hsp70 is thought to protect the cell against the toxic effects of the modified lipoprotein. In order to test this hypothesis, Hsp70 in SMC was ...
Rusiñol A E - - 2000
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces apoptosis in macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity and determine its tissue specificity, we have used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells expressing human CD36 (CHO/CD36). Expression of CD36 rendered these cells susceptible to killing by ...
Pentikäinen M O - - 2000
Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation of an injured intima. The pathological processes are initiated by accumulation of morphologically distinct, modified forms of LDL, and followed by cellular infiltration and foam cell formation. Activated intimal cells secrete enzymes and agents capable of modifying LDL, and the modified lipids of LDL, ...
März W - - 2000
Atherosclerosis has many features of a chronic inflammatory disease. Atherosclerotic lesions contain inflammatory cells like activated T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Systemic markers of inflammation such as white blood cells, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6 and soluble adhesion molecules are predictive of future cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for the ...
Furlaneto C J - - 2000
High density lipoprotein (HDL) and its main apolipoproteins, AI and serum amyloid A (SAA), present in physiological and acute phase response conditions, respectively, affect the inflammatory process. This study focuses on the effect of AI, SAA, and HDL from healthy (N-HDL) and acute phase individuals (AP-HDL) on the release of ...
Massy Z A - - 2000
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating a mesangial cell inflammatory response. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a marker of active inflammation and ongoing glomerular injury. Therefore, we investigated the effects of native and oxidized LDL on human mesangial cell production of IL-6 and a possible modulation ...
Yuan X M - - 2000
We have previously shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces damage to the macrophage lysosomal membranes, with ensuing leakage of lysosomal contents and macrophage cell death. Cholesterol oxidation products (ChOx) have been reported to be the major cytotoxic components of oxidized LDL/LDL- and also to stimulate cholesterol accumulation in vascular ...
Kulla A - - 2000
Stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) components are thought to play an important role in regulating invasion of human gliomas. Macrophages and microglial cells may heavily influence the integrity of the extracellular compartment of gliomas, and the affected ECM may play a key role in regulating migratory activity of both tumor cells ...
Biwa T - - 2000
We and other groups have recently demonstrated that oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induces proliferation of macrophages in vitro. Since previous immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that macrophages and macrophage derived foam cells proliferated in situ in atherosclerotic lesions, it seems reasonable to expect that the Ox-LDL-induced macrophage proliferation might be linked ...
Silverman G J - - 2000
The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves an inflammatory process that is modulated by the immune system, and within these complex responses we have discerned a possible role for an archetypic B-1 clone. We speculate that due to their immunogenicity and in vivo distribution the "neo"-self determinants created in oxidatively modified LDL ...
Kurushima H - - 2000
Macrosialin, the mouse homolog of human CD68, is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein found almost exclusively in macrophages. Its function remains uncertain. It has a high affinity for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in ligand blots and antibodies against the human homolog, CD68, inhibit the binding of oxidized LDL to a ...
Kikuchi J - - 2000
Recently, we have found that aggregated low density lipoprotein (agLDL) inhibits apoptosis of lipid-bearing macrophages, thereby facilitating foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. To clarify the mechanisms by which agLDL inhibits apoptosis of macrophages, we isolated the genes specifically induced by agLDL by using a subtraction-based cloning strategy. One of the ...
Furukawa Y - - 2000
The effect of aggregated low-density lipoprotein (agLDL) on cell viability and macrophage-specific gene expression using human peripheral blood monocytes in culture was investigated. AgLDL suppressed activation-induced cell death of phorbol ester-treated macrophages. The inhibition of apoptosis was accompanied by downregulation of apoptosis-promoting proteases, including interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and CPP32 and ...
Janciauskiene S - - 1999
Atherosclerotic plaques contain a significant number of macrophage foam cells and are associated with an inflammatory state. Inflammation induces the secretion from monocytes and other cells of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, proteinases and proteinase inhibitors among many other molecular species. AAT is prominent among the serine proteinase inhibitors and is ...
Matsunaga J - - 1999
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally identified several decades ago as a lymphokine-derived protein that inhibited monocyte migration. Recently, it has been reported that MIF has D-dopachrome tautomerase, phenylpyruvate tautomerase and thiol protein oxidoreductase activities, although the physiological significance of those activities is not yet clear. Here we show ...
Byrne G I GI Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA. - - 1999
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular prokaryotic human pathogen responsible for a significant portion of atypical pneumonia and associated with a variety of chronic sequelae, the most significant of which is atherosclerosis. The organism is endowed with several attributes that may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions or promote ...
van Reyk D M - - 1999
Lipid-laden macrophage foam cells are an early and persistent component of atherosclerotic lesions. As such they are likely to play a key role in disease progression, both as scavengers of lipid and as inflammatory mediators. The sterol content of macrophage foam cells is largely native cholesterol together with a small ...
Siow R C - - 1999
Vascular cell death is a key feature of atherosclerotic lesions and may contribute to the plaque "necrotic" core, cap rupture, and thrombosis. Oxidatively modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and dietary antioxidants are thought to protect the vasculature against LDL-induced cytotoxicity. Because LDL oxidative modification ...
Wuttge D M - - 1999
Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoproteins and cell membrane phospholipids occurs in many situations in the body, both under normal and pathological conditions. Low-density lipoprotein is particularly prone to oxidation and is believed to be a pathogenetic component in atherogenesis. Both antibody responses and T-cell responses to oxidatively modified ...
Hermanowski-Vosatka A - - 1999
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that was first described as an inhibitor of the random migration of monocytes and macrophages and has since been proposed to have a number of immune and catalytic functions. One of the functions assigned to MIF is that of a tautomerase that ...
Shimizu T - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disorder. The underlying cause of AD is multifactorial, and several cytokines are considered to be involved in this severe inflammatory skin disease. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immunoregulatory cytokine essential for T-cell activation and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Recently we ...
Sasaki T - - 1999
We have previously reported that ligands of scavenger receptor such as acetylated low density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL) and oxidized LDL induced growth of peripheral macrophages in vitro. This suggests the possibility that in addition to foam cell formation, modified or oxidized LDLs induce macrophage proliferation in atherosclerotic lesions. To learn further ...
Caligiuri G - - 1999
Estrogens and immunity against LDL could be important in atherogenesis. Herein, we describe the development of atherosclerotic lesions and cellular immune responses to modified LDL in male and female apoE knockout (E0) mice over time, and the effect of 17beta-estradiol on atherosclerosis-related cellular immunity. Animals were studied after 16 or ...
Leech M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine whose involvement in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) synthesis and T cell activation suggests a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Antagonism of MIF is associated with marked inhibition of animal models of RA. Uniquely, MIF is inducible ...
Kellner-Weibel G - - 1999
-The present study examined free cholesterol (FC) crystallization in macrophage foam cells. Model foam cells (J774 or mouse peritoneal macrophages [MPMs]) were incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein and FC/phospholipid dispersions for 48 hours, resulting in the deposition of large stores of cytoplasmic cholesteryl esters (CEs). The model foam cells ...
Galle J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Glomerulosclerosis and atherosclerosis are chronic inflammatory processes that may be influenced by oxidized lipoproteins, oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), and oxidized lipoprotein(a) [oxLp(a)]. We hypothesize that these lipoproteins contribute to the development of glomerulosclerosis and atherosclerosis through the induction of oxidative stress, which influences cell viability. We therefore determined the ...
Sakai M - - 1999
Glucocorticoid, an anti-inflammatory agent, inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in various experimental animal models. This is partially explained by its ability to inhibit smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation in the intima and to reduce chemotaxis of circulating monocytes and leukocytes into the subendothelial spaces. We have recently demonstrated that ...
Eligini S - - 1999
Atherogenesis involves several aspects of chronic inflammation and wound healing. Indeed, the atheroma is considered a special case of tissue response to injury. Injurious stimuli may include lipoproteins trapped within lesions where protein and lipid moieties have undergone chemical modifications. We have studied the effect of oxidized low density lipoproteins ...
Arcuri F - - 1999
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally identified for its capacity to inhibit the random migration of macrophages in vitro. To date, the role of MIF as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, pituitary hormone, and counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action on the immune response is commonly recognized. Although recent studies suggest an involvement ...
Podrez E A - - 1999
Oxidized LDL is implicated in atherosclerosis; however, the pathways that convert LDL into an atherogenic form in vivo are not established. Production of reactive nitrogen species may be one important pathway, since LDL recovered from human atherosclerotic aorta is enriched in nitrotyrosine. We now report that reactive nitrogen species generated ...
Arcuri F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a lymphokine originally identified for its capacity to inhibit the random migration of macrophages. Recent data have further extended knowledge of the physiological role of this protein, showing that MIF is produced by several human organs and tissues. The present study was intended ...
Skepper J N - - 1999
This study examines ion homeostasis in monocyte-macrophages committed to death by apoptosis. X-ray microanalysis has been used to demonstrate that intracellular concentrations of potassium decreased whilst those of sodium increased following 3 h of exposure to 100 microg/ml of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. In contrast, the maximal incidence ...
Kalayoglu M V MV Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, - - 1999
Exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae is correlated with atherosclerosis in a variety of clinical and epidemiological studies, but how the organism may initiate and promote the disease is poorly understood. One pathogenic mechanism could involve modulation of macrophage function by C. pneumoniae. We recently demonstrated that C. pneumoniae induces macrophages to ...
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