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Results 451 - 500 of 750
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Sellati T J - - 2001
To extend prior studies implicating treponemal lipoproteins as major proinflammatory agonists of syphilitic infection, we examined the responses induced by intradermal injection of human subjects with synthetic lipoprotein analogues (lipopeptides) corresponding to the N termini of the 17- and 47-kDa lipoproteins of Treponema pallidum. Responses were assessed visually and by ...
Zwaka T P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: LDL and C-reactive protein (CRP) are important cardiovascular risk factors. Both LDL and CRP deposit in the arterial wall during atherogenesis. Stranded LDL is taken up by macrophages, causing foam cell formation. Because native LDL does not induce foam cell formation, we hypothesized that CRP may opsonize native LDL ...
Kaplan M - - 2001
Interaction between arterial macrophages and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) leads to foam cell formation, a critical step during early atherogenesis. Until now, cellular uptake of lipoproteins was studied through incubation of the media-soluble lipoprotein with cultured macrophages. However, as lipoproteins in the arterial wall are bound to subendothelial matrix, we questioned ...
Ouchi N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we discovered an adipocyte-specific plasma protein, adiponectin, that is decreased in patients with coronary artery disease. We previously demonstrated that adiponectin acts as a modulator for proinflammatory stimuli and inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial ...
Roger T - - 2001
Discovered in the early 1960s as a T-cell cytokine, MIF has emerged to be an important mediator of the innate immune system. MIF was identified recently to be released by a vast array of cells, including monocytes/macrophages, T-cells, B-cells, endocrine cells and epithelial cells in response to infection and stress. ...
Whitman S C - - 2000
Previous studies have examined lipoprotein metabolism by macrophages following prolonged exposure (>24 h) to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Because M-CSF activates several signaling pathways that could rapidly affect lipoprotein metabolism, we examined whether acute exposure of macrophages to M-CSF alters the metabolism of either native or modified lipoproteins. Acute incubation ...
Kaneko K - - 2000
Inflammatory process plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Recently, group-II phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), an inflammatory mediator, was reported to exist in human atherosclerotic lesions and to enhance the development of murine atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) stimulates the growth of several types ...
Wintergerst E S - - 2000
Macrophage death may play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Here we present evidence that CD36 is involved in oxidized LDL (OxLDL)-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-CD36 mAb SMO and OKM-5 reduced the number of apoptotic cells in OxLDL-treated macrophages by more than 94%, but they ...
Napoli C - - 2000
Apoptosis of arterial cells induced by oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) is thought to contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. However, most data on apoptotic effects and mechanisms of OxLDL were obtained with extensively oxidized LDL unlikely to occur in early stages of atherosclerotic lesions. We now demonstrate that mildly ...
Niino M - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. It is released by activated T lymphocytes and macrophages and up-regulates the proinflammatory activity of these cells. MIF is required for antigen- and mitogen-driven T cell activation, and stimulates macrophages to release ...
Scheidegger K J - - 2000
Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. LDL has been shown to be mitogenic and proapoptotic for vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood and may result from an alteration in intracellular mitogenic signaling either directly by LDL or indirectly through ...
Nishihira J - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in inflammatory and immune responses. MIF was originally discovered as a lymphokine involved in delayed hypersensitivity and various macrophage functions, including phagocytosis, spreading, and tumoricidal activity. Recently, MIF was reevaluated as a proinflammatory cytokine and pituitary-derived hormone potentiating endotoxemia. ...
Larkin L - - 2000
Apolipoprotein E (apo E), a 34 kDa component of lipoproteins produced by the liver and in circulating macrophages, plays a critical role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver via the circulation. Cholesterol-rich macrophages (macrophage foam cells) are a major cell type in human atherosclerotic lesions. Apo E ...
Daun J M - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by several cell types, including mononuclear and pituitary cells. It has also been shown to counteract cortisol-induced inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MIF antagonized the effect of hydrocortisone on the NF-kappaB/IkappaB ...
Schmidt-Supprian M - - 2000
The precise regulatory mechanisms of amplification and downregulation of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the inflammatory response have not been fully delineated. Although activated protein C (APC) and its precursor protein C (PC) have recently been reported to be promising therapeutic agents in the management of meningococcal sepsis, direct ...
Janabi M - - 2000
-CD36 is 1 of the class B scavenger receptor expressed on monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphi), platelets, and adipocytes. In our previous studies, we reported that the uptake of oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDLs) is reduced by approximately 50% in Mphi from CD36-deficient patients compared with that in control subjects. Recently, ...
Liao H S - - 2000
The class A macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR-A) is a multifunctional trimeric glycoprotein involved in innate immune response as well as the development of lipid-laden foam cells during atherosclerosis. The MSR ligand, oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), is known to be cytotoxic to macrophages and other cell types. This study examined ...
Vicca S - - 2000
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) play a critical role in atherogenesis. We investigated the apoptotic process in human monocytic THP-1 cell line, exposed to oxLDL generated by treatment of native LDL either with hypochlorous acid (HOCl), mainly affecting the protein moiety, or with copper sulfate (CuSO(4)), mainly affecting the lipid moiety. ...
Sugano M - - 2000
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels have been shown to be inversely correlated with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms of the direct protective effect of HDL on endothelial cells are not fully understood. The apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by cytokines and/or oxidized low-density lipoproteins, etc. may provide a mechanistic clue ...
Chisolm G M GM - - 2000
The first reports of the influences of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) on cell function pertained to negative effects on cell growth-growth arrest, injury, and toxicity. Since these studies, it has become apparent that sublethal levels of oxLDL cause some, but not all, cells to proliferate. This review highlights the growth-promoting effects ...
Hörkkö S - - 2000
Considerable evidence now points to an important role for the immune system in experimental models of atherosclerosis. We have reviewed the growing body of evidence that oxidation of LDL generates a wide variety of neoself determinants that lead to cellular and humoral immune responses. In particular, we have demonstrated that ...
de Nigris F - - 2000
Apoptosis may play an important role in atherogenesis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes apoptosis in the arterial wall in addition to several other proatherogenic effects. Tocopherol supplements have been suggested to protect against coronary heart disease (CHD) in epidemiological studies. The effects of oxLDL and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol on apoptotic ...
Kume N - - 2000
Macrophages appear to take up oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) by multiple receptor-mediated pathways. This study, therefore, has been performed to determine if LOX-1, a novel receptor for Ox-LDL, which was identified in vascular endothelial cells, is also expressed in macrophages. Expression of LOX-1 can be induced after macrophage-like differentiation ...
Klouche M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic, nonoxidative modification transforms LDL to an atherogenic molecule (E-LDL) that activates complement and macrophages and is present in early atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on the atherogenic effects of E-LDL on human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). E-LDL accumulated in these cells, and this was accompanied ...
Duan H - - 2000
Macrophage-derived apoE, produced in the vessel wall, may have important effects during atherogenesis. The production of apoE by macrophages can be regulated at a transcriptional level by cellular differentiation state, cytokines and sterol loading. In addition, there are post-transcriptional and post-translational loci for regulation. We have recently identified an intermediate ...
Nicoletti A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In the course of atherosclerosis, humans and apolipoprotein (apoE) Knockout (KO) mice exhibit an active cell-mediated and humoral immune process, both at the systemic level and within atheromata. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) infiltrate the vascular wall, where they are oxidatively modified. This oxidative modification may generate new epitopes for ...
Moraga F - - 2000
The oxidation of methionine residues in many proteins, including the serine proteinase inhibitor alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), can result in functional inactivation. In this study we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of oxidized AAT (oxAAT), specifically its ability to activate human monocytes in culture. Monocytes stimulated with oxAAT at concentrations up to 0.2 ...
Hamel L - - 2000
Human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) exhibit upregulation of inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), upon exposure to oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL(ox)). The presence of Hsp70 is thought to protect the cell against the toxic effects of the modified lipoprotein. In order to test this hypothesis, Hsp70 in SMC was ...
Rusiñol A E - - 2000
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces apoptosis in macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity and determine its tissue specificity, we have used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells expressing human CD36 (CHO/CD36). Expression of CD36 rendered these cells susceptible to killing by ...
Pentikäinen M O - - 2000
Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation of an injured intima. The pathological processes are initiated by accumulation of morphologically distinct, modified forms of LDL, and followed by cellular infiltration and foam cell formation. Activated intimal cells secrete enzymes and agents capable of modifying LDL, and the modified lipids of LDL, ...
März W - - 2000
Atherosclerosis has many features of a chronic inflammatory disease. Atherosclerotic lesions contain inflammatory cells like activated T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Systemic markers of inflammation such as white blood cells, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6 and soluble adhesion molecules are predictive of future cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for the ...
Furlaneto C J - - 2000
High density lipoprotein (HDL) and its main apolipoproteins, AI and serum amyloid A (SAA), present in physiological and acute phase response conditions, respectively, affect the inflammatory process. This study focuses on the effect of AI, SAA, and HDL from healthy (N-HDL) and acute phase individuals (AP-HDL) on the release of ...
Massy Z A - - 2000
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating a mesangial cell inflammatory response. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a marker of active inflammation and ongoing glomerular injury. Therefore, we investigated the effects of native and oxidized LDL on human mesangial cell production of IL-6 and a possible modulation ...
Yuan X M - - 2000
We have previously shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces damage to the macrophage lysosomal membranes, with ensuing leakage of lysosomal contents and macrophage cell death. Cholesterol oxidation products (ChOx) have been reported to be the major cytotoxic components of oxidized LDL/LDL- and also to stimulate cholesterol accumulation in vascular ...
Kulla A - - 2000
Stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) components are thought to play an important role in regulating invasion of human gliomas. Macrophages and microglial cells may heavily influence the integrity of the extracellular compartment of gliomas, and the affected ECM may play a key role in regulating migratory activity of both tumor cells ...
Biwa T - - 2000
We and other groups have recently demonstrated that oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induces proliferation of macrophages in vitro. Since previous immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that macrophages and macrophage derived foam cells proliferated in situ in atherosclerotic lesions, it seems reasonable to expect that the Ox-LDL-induced macrophage proliferation might be linked ...
Silverman G J - - 2000
The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves an inflammatory process that is modulated by the immune system, and within these complex responses we have discerned a possible role for an archetypic B-1 clone. We speculate that due to their immunogenicity and in vivo distribution the "neo"-self determinants created in oxidatively modified LDL ...
Kurushima H - - 2000
Macrosialin, the mouse homolog of human CD68, is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein found almost exclusively in macrophages. Its function remains uncertain. It has a high affinity for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in ligand blots and antibodies against the human homolog, CD68, inhibit the binding of oxidized LDL to a ...
Kikuchi J - - 2000
Recently, we have found that aggregated low density lipoprotein (agLDL) inhibits apoptosis of lipid-bearing macrophages, thereby facilitating foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. To clarify the mechanisms by which agLDL inhibits apoptosis of macrophages, we isolated the genes specifically induced by agLDL by using a subtraction-based cloning strategy. One of the ...
Furukawa Y - - 2000
The effect of aggregated low-density lipoprotein (agLDL) on cell viability and macrophage-specific gene expression using human peripheral blood monocytes in culture was investigated. AgLDL suppressed activation-induced cell death of phorbol ester-treated macrophages. The inhibition of apoptosis was accompanied by downregulation of apoptosis-promoting proteases, including interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and CPP32 and ...
Janciauskiene S - - 1999
Atherosclerotic plaques contain a significant number of macrophage foam cells and are associated with an inflammatory state. Inflammation induces the secretion from monocytes and other cells of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, proteinases and proteinase inhibitors among many other molecular species. AAT is prominent among the serine proteinase inhibitors and is ...
Matsunaga J - - 1999
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was originally identified several decades ago as a lymphokine-derived protein that inhibited monocyte migration. Recently, it has been reported that MIF has D-dopachrome tautomerase, phenylpyruvate tautomerase and thiol protein oxidoreductase activities, although the physiological significance of those activities is not yet clear. Here we show ...
Byrne G I GI Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA. - - 1999
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular prokaryotic human pathogen responsible for a significant portion of atypical pneumonia and associated with a variety of chronic sequelae, the most significant of which is atherosclerosis. The organism is endowed with several attributes that may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions or promote ...
van Reyk D M - - 1999
Lipid-laden macrophage foam cells are an early and persistent component of atherosclerotic lesions. As such they are likely to play a key role in disease progression, both as scavengers of lipid and as inflammatory mediators. The sterol content of macrophage foam cells is largely native cholesterol together with a small ...
Siow R C - - 1999
Vascular cell death is a key feature of atherosclerotic lesions and may contribute to the plaque "necrotic" core, cap rupture, and thrombosis. Oxidatively modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and dietary antioxidants are thought to protect the vasculature against LDL-induced cytotoxicity. Because LDL oxidative modification ...
Wuttge D M - - 1999
Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoproteins and cell membrane phospholipids occurs in many situations in the body, both under normal and pathological conditions. Low-density lipoprotein is particularly prone to oxidation and is believed to be a pathogenetic component in atherogenesis. Both antibody responses and T-cell responses to oxidatively modified ...
Hermanowski-Vosatka A - - 1999
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that was first described as an inhibitor of the random migration of monocytes and macrophages and has since been proposed to have a number of immune and catalytic functions. One of the functions assigned to MIF is that of a tautomerase that ...
Shimizu T - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disorder. The underlying cause of AD is multifactorial, and several cytokines are considered to be involved in this severe inflammatory skin disease. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immunoregulatory cytokine essential for T-cell activation and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Recently we ...
Sasaki T - - 1999
We have previously reported that ligands of scavenger receptor such as acetylated low density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL) and oxidized LDL induced growth of peripheral macrophages in vitro. This suggests the possibility that in addition to foam cell formation, modified or oxidized LDLs induce macrophage proliferation in atherosclerotic lesions. To learn further ...
Caligiuri G - - 1999
Estrogens and immunity against LDL could be important in atherogenesis. Herein, we describe the development of atherosclerotic lesions and cellular immune responses to modified LDL in male and female apoE knockout (E0) mice over time, and the effect of 17beta-estradiol on atherosclerosis-related cellular immunity. Animals were studied after 16 or ...
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