Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 775
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Orita Masaya - - 2002
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released from T-cells and macrophages, and is a key molecule in inflammation. Although a detailed understanding of the biological functions of MIF has not yet been found, it is known that MIF catalyzes the tautomerization of phenylpyruvate and a non-physiological molecule, ...
Mitchell Robert A - - 2002
The importance of the macrophage in innate immunity is underscored by its secretion of an array of powerful immunoregulatory and effector molecules. We report herein that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a product of activated macrophages, sustains macrophage survival and function by suppressing activation-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Endotoxin administration to MIF(-/-) ...
Subbanagounder Ganesamoorthy - - 2002
Monocyte recruitment to the vessel wall, mediated by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), plays an important role in atherogenesis. We have shown previously that minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein, oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (Ox-PAPC), activates endothelial cells to produce MCP-1 and IL-8. By using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods coupled with ...
Argmann C A - - 2001
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted by various cells, including macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. TGF-beta1 is present in atherosclerotic lesions, but its role in regulating macrophage foam cell formation is not understood. Hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants (VLDL-REMs) in their native or oxidized form ...
Viora M - - 2001
This study investigates the in vitro effects of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), 'physiological' pro-oxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger and glutathione precursor, and their combination on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell functions. We found that treatment with ox-LDL induced a significant down-regulation of proliferative response to mitogens, antigens and ...
Zhang C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Rosa roxburghii tratt juice (RRTJ) administration has been shown to significantly ameliorate atherosclerotic diseases in cholesterol-fed animals. However, the mechanism for the antiatherogenic effect of RRTJ is not clear. METHODS: We investigated the effects of RRTJ on in vitro oxidative modification of LDL and on LDL-induced macrophage growth and ...
Ruan X Z - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Lipid-mediated renal injury is an important component of glomerulosclerosis and its similarity to atherosclerosis is well described. This study focused on the relationship between lipid-mediated injury and inflammation by examining the role of inflammatory cytokines in the regulation of human mesangial cell low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. METHODS: A human ...
de Jong Y P - - 2001
The cytokine macrophage-migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is secreted by a number of cell types upon induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because colitis is dependent on interplay between the mucosal immune system and intestinal bacteria, we investigated the role of MIF in experimental colitis. MIF-deficient mice failed to develop disease, but reconstitution ...
Varadhachary A S - - 2001
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that altered or modified lipoproteins contribute to plaque formation and lesion progression in atherogenesis. In this study we examined if lipoproteins and their oxidized forms can exert an immunomodulatory effect, thereby potentially influencing atherogenesis. We demonstrate that LDL, upon ...
Panini S R - - 2001
Owing at least in part to oxysterol components that can induce apoptosis, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is cytotoxic to mammalian cells with receptors that can internalize it. Vascular cells possess such receptors, and it appears that the apoptotic response of vascular cells to the oxysterols borne by oxLDL is an important ...
Suri S - - 2001
Bisphosphonates have become an important addition to the pharmacological armamentarium against postmenopausal osteoporosis. One of the major side effects of oral therapy with some nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates appears to be gastrointestinal (GI) intolerability, particularly esophageal irritation and ulceration. Because nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can cause apoptosis in a variety of cell types in ...
Panini S R - - 2001
The rationale for the present review is that oxysterols found in oxidized LDL (oxLDL) play a role in atherogenesis. This perspective is based on studies that show that induction of apoptosis in vascular cells is an important process in atherogenesis, that apoptosis can be induced by oxLDL, and that the ...
Hundal R S - - 2001
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is known to induce endothelial adhesion molecule and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression and this is thought to be involved in monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions. oxLDL has also been found to induce macrophage proliferation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether oxLDL might ...
Huang X R - - 2001
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to play a pivotal role in inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. This study investigates the role of MIF in gastric inflammation. METHODS: Expression of MIF was examined in a rat gastric ulcer model induced by acetic acid, and the functional ...
Keidar S - - 2001
The goal of the present study was to elucidate mechanisms for angiotensin II (Ang II) induction of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) uptake by macrophages, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. Compared with placebo treatment, Ang II injections (0.1 mL, 10(-7) mol/L per day) for 2 weeks to apolipoprotein E-deficient mice ...
Kume N - - 2001
Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX)-1 is a type II membrane protein that belongs to the C-type lectin family of molecules, which can act as a cell-surface endocytosis receptor for atherogenic oxidized LDL. LOX-1 can support binding, internalization and proteolytic degradation of oxidized LDL, but not of significant amounts of acetylated ...
Fingerle-Rowson G R - - 2001
The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is produced by neuroendocrine and immune tissues and possesses several features that allow it to be characterized as a neuroendocrine mediator. Its pro-inflammatory action and its pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases, such as septic shock, arthritis and other diseases, have clearly been demonstrated ...
Sakr S W - - 2001
A key cellular event in atherogenesis is the interaction of macrophages with lipoproteins in the subendothelium. In vivo, these lipoproteins are bound to matrix and often aggregated, yet most cell-culture experiments explore these events using soluble monomeric lipoproteins. We hypothesized that the internalization and degradation of matrix-retained and aggregated low ...
Froidevaux C - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To review the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in host responses to infection and to explore the potential of MIF as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. DATA SOURCES: Published articles on the role of MIF in innate immune ...
Nishihira J - - 2001
Various therapeutic approaches to multiple sclerosis (MS) have been presented, but no specific and effective method has so far been established. In recent years, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been re-evaluated as a pluripotent cytokine involved in a broad spectrum of inflammation and immune responses. During the course of ...
Kataoka H - - 2001
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which may increase atherosclerotic plaque instability. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms causing the Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in VSMCs, especially focusing on the involvement of Bax/Bcl-2 and the lectinlike Ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). In cultured bovine aortic ...
Lorkowski S - - 2001
Several members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family are involved in cholesterol efflux from cells. A defect in one member, ABCA1, results in Tangier disease, a condition characterized by cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and virtual absence of mature circulating high-density lipoproteins. Expression of a second member, ABCG1, is increased ...
Wehrle-Haller B - - 2001
Neural crest-derived melanocyte precursors (MPs) in avian and murine embryos emerge from the dorsal neural tube into a migration staging area (MSA). MPs subsequently migrate from the MSA on a dorsolateral pathway between the dermamyotome and the overlying epithelium. In mouse embryos, MPs express the receptor tyrosine kinase, KIT, and ...
Arcuri F - - 2001
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was discovered as an activated T-lymphocyte-derived protein that inhibits the random migration of macrophages in vitro. Subsequently, knowledge of the physiological actions of MIF was extended to include its role as a proinflammatory cytokine that affects several functions of macrophages and lymphocytes. Previous reports have ...
Van Lenten B J - - 2001
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the basal state are anti-inflammatory, capable of destroying oxidized lipids that generate an inflammatory response. However, HDL during acute inflammation are altered and become pro-inflammatory. This "chameleon-like" nature of HDL is considered to be due to the complex composition of HDL. The data reviewed here demonstrate ...
Sellati T J - - 2001
To extend prior studies implicating treponemal lipoproteins as major proinflammatory agonists of syphilitic infection, we examined the responses induced by intradermal injection of human subjects with synthetic lipoprotein analogues (lipopeptides) corresponding to the N termini of the 17- and 47-kDa lipoproteins of Treponema pallidum. Responses were assessed visually and by ...
Zwaka T P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: LDL and C-reactive protein (CRP) are important cardiovascular risk factors. Both LDL and CRP deposit in the arterial wall during atherogenesis. Stranded LDL is taken up by macrophages, causing foam cell formation. Because native LDL does not induce foam cell formation, we hypothesized that CRP may opsonize native LDL ...
Kaplan M - - 2001
Interaction between arterial macrophages and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) leads to foam cell formation, a critical step during early atherogenesis. Until now, cellular uptake of lipoproteins was studied through incubation of the media-soluble lipoprotein with cultured macrophages. However, as lipoproteins in the arterial wall are bound to subendothelial matrix, we questioned ...
Ouchi N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we discovered an adipocyte-specific plasma protein, adiponectin, that is decreased in patients with coronary artery disease. We previously demonstrated that adiponectin acts as a modulator for proinflammatory stimuli and inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial ...
Roger T - - 2001
Discovered in the early 1960s as a T-cell cytokine, MIF has emerged to be an important mediator of the innate immune system. MIF was identified recently to be released by a vast array of cells, including monocytes/macrophages, T-cells, B-cells, endocrine cells and epithelial cells in response to infection and stress. ...
Whitman S C - - 2000
Previous studies have examined lipoprotein metabolism by macrophages following prolonged exposure (>24 h) to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Because M-CSF activates several signaling pathways that could rapidly affect lipoprotein metabolism, we examined whether acute exposure of macrophages to M-CSF alters the metabolism of either native or modified lipoproteins. Acute incubation ...
Kaneko K - - 2000
Inflammatory process plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Recently, group-II phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), an inflammatory mediator, was reported to exist in human atherosclerotic lesions and to enhance the development of murine atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) stimulates the growth of several types ...
Wintergerst E S - - 2000
Macrophage death may play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Here we present evidence that CD36 is involved in oxidized LDL (OxLDL)-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-CD36 mAb SMO and OKM-5 reduced the number of apoptotic cells in OxLDL-treated macrophages by more than 94%, but they ...
Napoli C - - 2000
Apoptosis of arterial cells induced by oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) is thought to contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. However, most data on apoptotic effects and mechanisms of OxLDL were obtained with extensively oxidized LDL unlikely to occur in early stages of atherosclerotic lesions. We now demonstrate that mildly ...
Niino M - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. It is released by activated T lymphocytes and macrophages and up-regulates the proinflammatory activity of these cells. MIF is required for antigen- and mitogen-driven T cell activation, and stimulates macrophages to release ...
Scheidegger K J - - 2000
Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. LDL has been shown to be mitogenic and proapoptotic for vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood and may result from an alteration in intracellular mitogenic signaling either directly by LDL or indirectly through ...
Nishihira J - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in inflammatory and immune responses. MIF was originally discovered as a lymphokine involved in delayed hypersensitivity and various macrophage functions, including phagocytosis, spreading, and tumoricidal activity. Recently, MIF was reevaluated as a proinflammatory cytokine and pituitary-derived hormone potentiating endotoxemia. ...
Larkin L - - 2000
Apolipoprotein E (apo E), a 34 kDa component of lipoproteins produced by the liver and in circulating macrophages, plays a critical role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver via the circulation. Cholesterol-rich macrophages (macrophage foam cells) are a major cell type in human atherosclerotic lesions. Apo E ...
Daun J M - - 2000
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by several cell types, including mononuclear and pituitary cells. It has also been shown to counteract cortisol-induced inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MIF antagonized the effect of hydrocortisone on the NF-kappaB/IkappaB ...
Schmidt-Supprian M - - 2000
The precise regulatory mechanisms of amplification and downregulation of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the inflammatory response have not been fully delineated. Although activated protein C (APC) and its precursor protein C (PC) have recently been reported to be promising therapeutic agents in the management of meningococcal sepsis, direct ...
Janabi M - - 2000
-CD36 is 1 of the class B scavenger receptor expressed on monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphi), platelets, and adipocytes. In our previous studies, we reported that the uptake of oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDLs) is reduced by approximately 50% in Mphi from CD36-deficient patients compared with that in control subjects. Recently, ...
Liao H S - - 2000
The class A macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR-A) is a multifunctional trimeric glycoprotein involved in innate immune response as well as the development of lipid-laden foam cells during atherosclerosis. The MSR ligand, oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), is known to be cytotoxic to macrophages and other cell types. This study examined ...
Vicca S - - 2000
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) play a critical role in atherogenesis. We investigated the apoptotic process in human monocytic THP-1 cell line, exposed to oxLDL generated by treatment of native LDL either with hypochlorous acid (HOCl), mainly affecting the protein moiety, or with copper sulfate (CuSO(4)), mainly affecting the lipid moiety. ...
Sugano M - - 2000
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels have been shown to be inversely correlated with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms of the direct protective effect of HDL on endothelial cells are not fully understood. The apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by cytokines and/or oxidized low-density lipoproteins, etc. may provide a mechanistic clue ...
Chisolm G M GM - - 2000
The first reports of the influences of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) on cell function pertained to negative effects on cell growth-growth arrest, injury, and toxicity. Since these studies, it has become apparent that sublethal levels of oxLDL cause some, but not all, cells to proliferate. This review highlights the growth-promoting effects ...
Hörkkö S - - 2000
Considerable evidence now points to an important role for the immune system in experimental models of atherosclerosis. We have reviewed the growing body of evidence that oxidation of LDL generates a wide variety of neoself determinants that lead to cellular and humoral immune responses. In particular, we have demonstrated that ...
de Nigris F - - 2000
Apoptosis may play an important role in atherogenesis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes apoptosis in the arterial wall in addition to several other proatherogenic effects. Tocopherol supplements have been suggested to protect against coronary heart disease (CHD) in epidemiological studies. The effects of oxLDL and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol on apoptotic ...
Kume N - - 2000
Macrophages appear to take up oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) by multiple receptor-mediated pathways. This study, therefore, has been performed to determine if LOX-1, a novel receptor for Ox-LDL, which was identified in vascular endothelial cells, is also expressed in macrophages. Expression of LOX-1 can be induced after macrophage-like differentiation ...
Klouche M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic, nonoxidative modification transforms LDL to an atherogenic molecule (E-LDL) that activates complement and macrophages and is present in early atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on the atherogenic effects of E-LDL on human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). E-LDL accumulated in these cells, and this was accompanied ...
Duan H - - 2000
Macrophage-derived apoE, produced in the vessel wall, may have important effects during atherogenesis. The production of apoE by macrophages can be regulated at a transcriptional level by cellular differentiation state, cytokines and sterol loading. In addition, there are post-transcriptional and post-translational loci for regulation. We have recently identified an intermediate ...
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