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Sueyoshi Ryo - - 2013
Novel strategies are needed to address the problem of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). We previously demonstrated a 3-fold lengthening of pig bowel after 2 weeks of applied distractive forces, but we have not elucidated the mechanisms facilitating this growth. We used a mouse model of distraction-induced enterogenesis. High ...
Nmorsi Opg - - 2012
To investigate the relationship between white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, and Interleukin(IL)-1 α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 production in Cameroonians with Onchocerca volvulus (O. volvulus) infection. A total of 357 individuals from five sites at Upper Sanga, Lekkie, Nyong, Kelle and Sanaga Maritime divisions and located along Sanaga valley of ...
Lu Xinjie - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess whether immunization of Ldlr(tm1Her) Apob(tm2Sgy)J mice with 2 peptides located at the N-terminus of the C5a receptor (C5aR), either alone or in combination, is effective in reducing atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five- to 6-week-old female Ldlr(tm1Her)Apob(tm2Sgy)J mice were immunized using ...
Badawi Ahmed H - - 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease in which the immune system recognizes proteins of the myelin sheath as antigenic, thus initiating an inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system. This leads to demyelination of the axons, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and lesion formation. Current therapies for the treatment ...
Abu El-Asrar Ahmed M - - 2012
Aqueous humor (AH) samples from 14 patients with presumed tuberculous uveitis (PTU), and 30 control patients were assayed for the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin IL-4, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and the chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1, IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and SDF-1/CXCL12 with the use ...
Stanisic Milo - - 2012
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Innate immune pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) were investigated by measuring and comparing the systemic and subdural fluid levels of cytokines. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Cytokine values were analyzed in samples obtained during surgery of 56 adult patients who were operated on ...
Li Nan - - 2012
Supplementation studies of glutamine, arginine, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have established the safety of each of these nutrients in neonates; however, the potential for a more stable and soluble dipeptide, arginyl-glutamine (Arg-Gln) or DHA with anti-inflammatory properties, to exert benefits on hyperoxia-induced intestinal injury has not been investigated. Arg-Gln dipeptide ...
Virzì Grazia Maria - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 is characterized by a rapid worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). An immune-mediated damage and alteration of immune response have been postulated as potential mechanisms involved in CRS type 1. In this pilot study, we examined the possible role of ...
Konno Fabiana T C - - 2012
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Its major antigen is a 43 kDa glycoprotein whose peptides embody different functions: P10 peptide, a T-cell epitope, induces protective response while P4 and P23 peptides inhibit both, macrophage functions and inflammatory reaction, thus facilitating infection. Here we ...
Choi Ka-Yee - - 2012
Host defence peptides (HDPs) are innate immune effector molecules found in diverse species. HDPs exhibit a wide range of functions ranging from direct antimicrobial properties to immunomodulatory effects. Research in the last decade has demonstrated that HDPs are critical effectors of both innate and adaptive immunity. Various studies have hypothesized ...
Kim Seon-Young - - 2012
The few studies on the associations between cytokines and depressive mood in patients with cancer have produced conflicting results. This study investigated the associations between plasma cytokines and depressive mood in patients with breast cancer using a large panel of pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating cytokines. We recruited 273 hospitalized patients ...
Szarka Eszter - - 2012
Antibodies specific for bovine type II collagen (CII) and Fcγ receptors play a major role in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to clarify the mechanism of immune complex-mediated inflammation and modulation of the disease. CII pre-immunized DBA/1 mice were intravenously boosted with ...
Tynan Graham A - - 2012
Dendritic cell (DC) activation is commonly used as a measure of the immunomodulatory potential of candidate exogenous and endogenous molecules. Residual lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination is a recurring theme and the potency of LPS is not always fully appreciated. To address this, polymyxin B (PmB) is often used to neutralise contaminating ...
Matsuwaki Yoshinori - - 2012
Recent studies suggest that host immune responses to environmental fungi may play an important role in the development of allergic diseases, such as human asthma. Epithelium is considered an active participant in allergic inflammation. We previously reported that aspartate protease from Alternaria induces the activation and degranulation of human eosinophils ...
Lau Karen - - 2012
Propylene glycol (PG) is a common solvent used in medical preparations. It is generally recognized as safe at regulated concentrations; however, its apoptotic potential is unknown. PG triggered widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration with the greatest damage at postnatal day 7 (P7). Significant apoptosis was observed at doses as low as 2 ...
Vercelli Claudia A - - 2012
Prostaglandins (PG) are effective abortifacients and are important mediators of lipopolisaccharide (LPS)-induced embryonic resorption (ER). Besides, anandamide (AEA) has been described as one of the major endocannabinoids present in the uterus suggesting that it might play a role in reproduction. It has been reported that high levels of AEA are ...
Imbeault Pascal - - 2012
In vitro and animal studies report that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) trigger the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Whether POP exposure is associated with a dysregulation of cytokine response remains to be investigated in humans. We studied the strength of association between plasma POP levels and circulating cytokines as immune ...
Watanabe Atsushi A Dairy Hygiene Research Division, Hokkaido Research Station, National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH), National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 4 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-0045, - - 2012
A single intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine interleukin-8 (IL-8) at 50 μg/quarter/head, but not 10 μg/quarter/head, induced clinical mastitis in three of four cows during the dry-off period, resulting in an elevated rectal temperature, redness and swelling of the mammary gland, extensive polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration, and milk clot formation from 1 ...
Li James C B - - 2011
HIV-1 transactivator protein, Tat, has been identified as an activator of HIV-1 replication. It also dysregulates cytokine production and apoptosis in T-cells. Of the various cell death processes, autophagy is a self-digestion and degradation mechanism that recycles the contents of the cytosol, including macromolecules and cellular organelles, resulting in self-repair ...
Xue Hongyu - - 2011
Accumulating evidence suggests that the amino acid glutamate (Glu) may play a role in mediating immune function. The demonstration of Glu receptors (GluR) and Glu transporters (GluT) on a variety of immune cells suggests that Glu has a functional role in immunoregulation well beyond its role as a neurotransmitter. The ...
Pitrak D L - - 2011
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine if switching to an Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-containing regimen resulted in greater immune reconstitution in patients with immunologic failure despite complete viral suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty patients with partial or no immune response to HAART despite viral suppression were ...
Muratori Claudia - - 2010
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected macrophages in the parenchyma of central nervous system is an hallmark of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related neuroinflammation. Once penetrated the blood-brain barrier (BBB), macrophages closely interact with astrocytes, beginning with those lying beneath the BBB endothelium. By investigating the consequences of the cell-cell interaction ...
Highleyman Liz - - 2010
Inflammation is a broad term for what happens in the body when the immune system is activated to counter a threat. A healthy immune response is key to good health, but ongoing immune activation and inflammation due to a persistent threat such as chronic HIV infection can lead to many ...
Tripathy Manoj Kumar - - 2010
One of the hallmarks of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection is progressive depletion of the infected and bystander CD4+ T-cells by apoptosis. Different mitochondrial proteins have been implicated in this apoptotic process; however, the role of different subunits of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in apoptosis is not clearly understood. ...
Solis Mayra - - 2011
The rapid induction of type I interferon (IFN) is essential for establishing innate antiviral responses. During infection, cytoplasmic viral RNA is sensed by two DExD/H box RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, ultimately driving IFN production. Here, we demonstrate that purified genomic RNA from HIV-1 induces a RIG-I-dependent type I IFN ...
Salte Tore - - 2011
Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, and form a link between the innate and adaptive immune system. They sample the periphery of the body for antigens and present them to T cells to elicit a proper immune response. It has been shown that dendritic cells phagocytose mycobacteria, ...
Carter Gemma C GC Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, - - 2011
Recent studies provide compelling evidence that HIV-1 entry in cell lines and lymphocytes proceeds by endocytosis, but these studies are still lacking in macrophages, an important natural target cell for HIV-1. Macrophages exhibit continual and extensive endocytic activity as part of their natural functions, so we investigated the uptake pathways ...
Sullivan Ryan J - - 2010
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs as a result of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, typically in the context of an immunodeficient state such as coinfection with HIV or transplantation. Systemic treatment of KS has traditionally involved one of several chemotherapeutic agents either in combination or as single agents, which typically provides ...
Smith Anthony J - - 2010
Microbial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract has been implicated in chronic activation of the immune system during progressive HIV-1 infection by ill-defined mechanisms. We recently identified a gene encoding syndecan-1 (SYN1) in microarray studies of HIV-1 infection in lymphatic tissues and show here that increased expression of SYN1 in the ...
Collini P P Department of Infection & Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2010
HIV-1 can establish both long lived and productive infection of macrophages (Mϕ) but circulating monocytes are less permissive to infection. Multiple studies have identified extensive changes to monocyte and Mϕ phenotype, differentiation or function. These include alterations in Toll-like receptor signaling and resultant changes to cytokine responses, specific defects in ...
Saunders Kevin O - - 2011
CD8(+) T-lymphocytes can utilize noncytolytic mechanisms to suppress HIV-1 replication through the secretion of soluble factors. The secretion of MIP-1β, MIP-1α, IP-10, MIG, IL-1α, and interferon gamma correlated most strongly with soluble noncytolytic suppression (p<0.0001). Since the noncytolytic response is impaired by histone hyperacetylation, we examined the ability of histone ...
Parmigiani Anita - - 2011
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 induces a progressive deterioration of the immune system that ultimately leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Murine models indicate that the common γ-chain (γ(c))-sharing cytokine interleukin (IL)-21 and its receptor (IL-21R) play a crucial role in maintaining polyfunctional T cell responses during chronic ...
Chang J Judy - - 2010
There is growing evidence that highlights the role of the immune response during acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the control or development of disease. The adaptive immune responses do not appear until after HIV-1 infection is already well established, so the role of earlier and faster-responding ...
Kennedy Edward M - - 2010
We biochemically simulated HIV-1 DNA polymerization in physiological nucleotide pools found in two HIV-1 target cell types: terminally differentiated/non-dividing macrophages and activated/dividing CD4(+) T cells. Quantitative tandem mass spectrometry shows that macrophages harbor 22-320-fold lower dNTP concentrations and a greater disparity between ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) and dNTP concentrations than dividing ...
Manel Nicolas - - 2010
Dendritic cells serve a key function in host defence, linking innate detection of microbes to activation of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. Whether there is cell-intrinsic recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by host innate pattern-recognition receptors and subsequent coupling to antiviral T-cell responses is not yet known. Dendritic cells are ...
Huo Lihong - - 2011
The transactivator protein Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to suppress microtubule dynamics and thereby trigger apoptosis in T lymphocytes. These actions of Tat constitute one of the major mechanisms for the massive destruction of T lymphocytes associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Herein, we show ...
Bayanolhagh Saeed - - 2010
Background: Numerous evidences indicate that in some HIV-1 positive patients, the humoral and cellular immune responses are induced against HIV-1 proteins and this is inversely related to the progress of infection. Objective: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the Adenovectors containing HIV genes in induction of immune ...
Torres Carmen - - 2010
Vitamin-D-receptor (VDR) mediates immunomodulatory effects of vitamin-D₃ (VD₃). The VDR-rs1544410_GG polymorphism has been associated with delayed progression rates to AIDS and resistance to HIV-1 infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in VD₃ mediated effects on rs1544410 genotyped dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MDM), key cells ...
Cassol Edana - - 2010
Microbial translocation contributes to immune activation and disease progression during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, its role in the African AIDS epidemic remains controversial. Here, we investigated the relationship between markers of monocyte activation, plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and HIV-1 RNA in South Africans prioritized to receive ...
Ahmed Nursarat - - 2010
Protection from primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has not yet been accomplished by vaccines inducing HIV-1-specific acquired immunity. Nevertheless, it has been reported that a small subgroup of women remain resistant to HIV-1 infection under natural conditions. If similar conditions can be induced in uninfected individuals, it ...
Xing Shaojun - - 2010
To characterize the homeostasis of CD4FoxP3 regulatory T cells (Treg) and its association with immune hyperactivation in the disease progression of chronic HIV-1 infection. Treg proliferation and apoptosis markers were determined and the relation to disease progression and Treg activation was analyzed. Fifty-six HIV-1-infected highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive subjects ...
Sachdeva Meenakshi - - 2010
Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with excessive immune activation and immune exhaustion. We investigated the relationship of these 2 phenotypes and frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in controlled and uncontrolled chronic HIV-1 infection. Immune exhaustion marker PD-1, its ligand PD-L1, CD4CD25 FoxP3 Tregs, HLA-DR, and CD38 coexpression as activation ...
Kirchhoff Frank - - 2010
Retroviruses have evolved effective strategies to evade the host immune response, such as high variability and latent infection. In addition, primate lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, have acquired several "accessory" genes that antagonize antiviral host restriction factors and facilitate viral immune evasion, thereby allowing continuous and efficient viral replication despite apparently ...
Macatangay Bernard J C - - 2010
This study was designed to evaluate which of several T-cell-specific, immune response assays are the most relevant in measuring the key characteristics of an effective immune response to HIV-1. Using 5 HIV-1 antigens as stimulants, we assessed lymphocyte proliferation, supernatant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) cytokine production (CP), single-cell IFN-gamma production by ...
Akhtar Lisa Nowoslawski LN Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2010
HIV-1 replication within macrophages of the CNS often results in cognitive and motor impairment, which is known as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in its most severe form. IFN-beta suppresses viral replication within these cells during early CNS infection, but the effect is transient. HIV-1 eventually overcomes this protective innate immune response ...
González Octavio A - - 2010
Although oral coinfections (e.g., periodontal disease) are highly prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients and appear to positively correlate with viral load levels, the potential for oral bacteria to induce HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected cells has received little attention. We showed that HIV-1 long terminal repeat ...
Samikkannu Thangavel - - 2010
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and the suppression of antigen-presenting cells. This results in immune alterations, which could lead to impaired neuronal functions, such as neuroAIDS. The neurotoxic factor kynurenine (KYN), the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), serotonin (5-HT), and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) ...
Dave Rajnish S - - 2010
HIV-1-infected opiate abusers often exhibit an accelerated form of HIV-1-associated dementia and enhanced neurological dysfunction. Productive HIV-1 infection of microglia and perivascular macrophages and the resultant secretion of neurotoxic molecules by these cells contribute to this phenomenon. In order to understand the role of morphine in this process, we performed ...
Coley William - - 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that function to control gene expression and restrict viral replication in host cells. The production of miRNAs is believed to be dependent upon the DICER enzyme. Available evidence suggests that in T lymphocytes, HIV-1 can both suppress and co-opt the host's ...
Hayashi Takaya - - 2010
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a pivotal role in host innate immune responses against microbial infection. Viruses are primarily recognized by PRRs such as Toll-like receptor 3, 7, 8 and 9, and RIG-I-like receptors. Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) is a cytosolic sensor molecule ...
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