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Results 451 - 500 of 865
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Pirhonen Jaana - - 2002
IL-23 is a novel cytokine that promotes the proliferation of naive and memory T cells and stimulates their IFN-gamma production. Besides functional similarities, IL-23 bears structural resemblance to IL-12. Biologically active IL-23 is a heterodimer whose p40 subunit is identical to IL-12p40 while its p19 subunit is distantly related to ...
Aliberti Julio - - 2002
The production of interleukin (IL)-12 is critical for the development of interferon (IFN)-gamma-dependent resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. Nevertheless, when this response is dysregulated, such as occurs in the absence of IL-10, the uncontrolled inflammation that results can have lethal consequences for the host. Recently, we demonstrated that lipoxin (LX)A(4), an ...
Aggarwal Sudeepta - - 2003
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is produced by activated T cells. Despite increasing evidence that high levels of IL-17 are associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis, the regulation of its expression is not well characterized. We observe that IL-17 production is ...
Montenegro Silvia M L - - 2002
Whole-blood-cell cultures from schistosomiasis patients were stimulated with a variety of T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent stimuli to determine whether the defect in type 1 cytokine expression observed following helminth infection is associated with alterations in interleukin-12 (IL-12) or CD40 ligand (CD40L) responsiveness. Cultures from uninfected individuals produced abundant gamma interferon in ...
Kitagaki Kunihiko - - 2002
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) are known to induce type 1 T-helper-cell (Th1) responses. We have previously demonstrated that CpG ODNs administered during sensitization prevent Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation in vivo. We also reported that key Th1 cytokines, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), are not necessary for this protection. ...
Tsiavou A - - 2002
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a potent regulator of the Th1/Th2 pathway, enhancing alloantigen-specific immune functions. In the present study, we developed a flow cytometric assay detecting intracellular IL-12 production by human CD14+ monocytes in order to assess the in vitro effects of widely used immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporine (CsA), sirolimus ...
Choi In-Soo - - 2002
Cytokines act as an important regulator of immune responses. Since cytokine expression levels are generally very low, more accurate and reliable methods of measuring their expression are needed. In this study, a modified competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to determine the expression levels and patterns of porcine ...
Goff W L - - 2002
There is a strong innate immunity in calves to infection with Babesia bovis. Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 have been shown in vitro to be important immunoregulatory cytokines. Here we demonstrate in vivo that the protective innate response in young calves to infection with virulent B. bovis involves the early appearance ...
Bao Lei - - 2002
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a proinflammatory cytokine with important immunoregulatory activities and is critical in determining the differentiation and generation of Th1 cells. For the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous IL-12 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), which is a CD4+ T-cell mediated autoimmune inflammatory ...
Kirsch Jeffrey D - - 2002
Innate immune cells recognize pathogens by detecting molecular patterns that are distinct from those of the host. One such pattern is unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, which are common in bacterial DNA but not in vertebrate genomes. Macrophages respond to such CpG motifs in bacterial DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) by inducing ...
Yoo Jae Kwang - - 2002
IL-12 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-12 induces T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion from activated T cells. It was also reported that IL-12 prevents apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells. However, the signaling mechanism that regulates these IL-12-induced responses is poorly ...
Ashkar Ali A - - 2002
Innate immunity provides the first line of defense against invading pathogens and is essential for survival in the absence of adaptive immune responses. Innate immune recognition relies on a limited number of germ-line encoded receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), that evolved to recognize conserved molecular patterns of microbial origin. ...
Jones David E J - - 2002
Bacterial DNA containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide motifs is immunostimulatory to mammals, skewing CD4(+) T-cell responses toward the Th1 phenotype. Autoreactive T-cell responses seen in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are typically of the Th1 phenotype, raising the possibility that bacterial DNA might play a role in the generation of pathologic autoimmunity. ...
Uzel Gulbu - - 2002
In this review, we present the most recent discoveries at the molecular level in white blood cell defects, and explain how their identification helped us to understand the underlying pathophysiology and directed our approach in clinical management. These lately discovered genes, relevant to immune disorders of mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils, ...
Nomaguchi Hiroko - - 2002
A DNA expressing hsp65 of Mycobacterium leprae (pACB/hsp65) was constructed by using a vector containing immunostimulatory DNA sequences (pACB). At 12 weeks post-immunization, spleen cells from BALB/cA mice immunized with pACB/hsp65, produced a significantly higher amount of IFN-gamma than mice immunized with pACB in the absence of any in vitro ...
Fan Hongtao - - 2002
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that plays an essential role in cell-mediated immunity. It is known to induce T cell apoptosis in in vivo systems such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). However, the role of IL-12 in T cell apoptosis in the absence of antigenic ...
Zeuner Rainald A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Bacterial DNA contains immunostimulatory CpG motifs that cause inflammation when injected into the knee joints of normal mice. We examined whether synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) that suppress CpG-induced immune responses prevent CpG-induced arthritis. METHODS: CpG, suppressive, and/or control ODN were injected into the knees of BALB/c mice. Joint swelling and ...
Ye Yi-Ling - - 2002
The mechanisms that cause the inflammation of airway and lung tissue in asthma have been studied extensively. It is noted that type 1T helper cell (Th1)-related cytokines could decrease the accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue and relieve airway constriction. But the therapeutic mechanisms of Th1 cytokines remain unclear. In ...
Abdi K - - 2002
Interleukin (IL)-12p75 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the product of two different genes that specify p35 and p40 subunits. The prevailing view is that IL-12 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that bridges the innate and adaptive immune responses and skews T-cell reactivity toward a TH1 cytokine pattern. Though the ...
Malaguarnera Lucia - - 2002
Interleukin (IL)-12, produced by mononuclear phagocytes, activates the T-helper 1 (Th1) cells and helps, as a mediator, the innate immune response to intracellular microbes. In Plasmodium falciparum infection, this proinflammatory cytokine has immunoregulatory functions with effects on the immune response to the blood stage of disease, but also induces protection ...
Rodríguez-Sosa Miriam - - 2002
Helminth infections induce Th2-type biased immune responses. Although the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not yet clearly defined, antigen-presenting cells (APC) could play an important role in this process. Here, we have used peritoneal macrophages (F4/80+) recruited at different times after challenge with Taenia crassiceps as APC and tested ...
Obermeier Florian - - 2002
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a dysregulated intestinal immune response with elevated levels of the Th1 cytokines TNF, IL-12 and IFN-gamma. The luminal flora has been implicated as a major factor contributing to the initiation and perpetuation of chronic intestinal inflammation by as yet unknown mechanisms. Bacterial DNA ...
Aliberti Julio - - 2002
The induction of IL-12 from dendritic cells (DCs) is thought to be a critical step in the initiation of IFN-gamma-dependent cell-mediated immunity to many intracellular pathogens. We have studied this response using an in vivo model in which IL-12 production by splenic CD8alpha+ DCs is followed after systemic injection of ...
Klinman Dennis M - - 2002
Unmethylated CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA rapidly trigger an innate immune response characterized by the activation of Ig- and cytokine-secreting cells. Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing CpG motifs mimic this activity, triggering monocytes to proliferate, secrete and/or differentiate. Analysis of hundreds of novel ODNs led to the identification of two ...
Stern Britta V - - 2002
The low frequency of tumor Ag-specific T cells in vivo has made it challenging to directly measure their clonal sizes and cytokine signatures. We used a new generation ELISPOT approach to study the constitutive immunogenicity of the RMA tumor in syngeneic B6 mice and adjuvant-guided immunity against an MHC class ...
Belladonna Maria Laura - - 2002
IL-23 is a recently discovered heterodimeric cytokine that shares biological properties with proinflammatory cytokines. The biologically active heterodimer consists of p19 and the p40 subunit of IL-12. IL-23 has been shown to possess biological activities on T cells that are similar as well distinct from those of IL-12. We have ...
Nagarajan Shanmugam - - 2002
Systemic or local administration of cytokine has been used as a mode to enhance the antitumor immune response induced by many cancer vaccines. We have investigated whether the expression of cytokines on the tumor cell surface as a glycolipid (GPI)-anchored form will be effective in inducing antitumor immune response using ...
Arruda Celina - - 2002
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a facultative, intracellular pathogen causing the most important deep mycosis in Latin America. As the production of IFN-gamma and induction of cell-mediated immunity to P. brasiliensis is of critical importance in host defense, the immunotherapeutic effect of exogenous IL-12 administration was studied in a murine model of ...
Nancey Stéphane - - 2002
We studied the in vitro effects of butyrate on the stimulated release of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokines involved in the Th-1/Th-2 balance using the whole-blood model in nine healthy humans. Cytokines were measured without (control) and after stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) alone or with addition of ...
Lamprecht P - - 2002
Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is characterized by a predominance of the type 1 T-helper cell (Th1) response. We have studied monocytic cytokine expression in untreated patients and in patients who did not respond to prior methotrexate or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole therapy, i.e. patients with active disease. Intracytoplasmic IL-12 and TNF-alpha expression was significantly ...
Mazzeo Daniela - - 2002
IL-12 is a 75 kDa heterodimeric cytokine composed of two disulfide-linked subunits, p35 and p40, which plays an important role in the regulation of the immune response. We tested the hypothesis that thiol antioxidants might interfere with dimerization of the two IL-12 subunits. We thus studied the effect of reduced ...
Masli Sharmila - - 2002
APCs deployed within iris/ciliary body are responsible for promoting anterior chamber-associated immune deviation following injection of Ag into the eye. TGFbeta-2, a constituent of the ocular microenvironment, converts conventional APCs that are pulsed with Ag into cells that induce immune deviation when injected into naive mice. TGFbeta-2-treated APCs under-express IL-12 ...
Chuang Tsung-Hsien - - 2002
Among the bacterial products known to activate the innate immune '1system is bacterial DNA. This activity resides within the nonmethylated CpG motifs of the DNA and is recapitulated using appropriate synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN). TLR9-deficient mice were shown to exhibit a nonresponsive phenotype-to-bacterial DNA and CpG-ODN. Here, we describe ...
Halin C - - 2002
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine with potent immunostimulatory activity and anti-angiogenic properties. Its clinical applications are limited, however, by severe side-effects. Here we report that an IL-12 fusion protein, consisting of IL-12 fused to a human antibody fragment specific to the oncofetal ED-B domain of fibronectin, markedly enhances the ...
Lazarczyk M - - 2002
Pentoxifylline (PTX) is commonly used in peripheral blood vessel diseases, however it has also been found to decrease the level of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Moreover, some authors reported that PTX suppresses spontaneous cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. It could influence the ...
Kariminia Amina - - 2002
The aim of the present study is to investigate the cytokines induction by smooth lipopolysaccharides (S-LPS) extracted from Brucella melitensis (Rev1 vaccine strain) and Brucella abortus (a field isolate). These lipopolysaccharides were used to induce inflammatory cytokines production in peripheral blood cell culture of healthy individuals. Secretion of IL-10 and ...
Verthelyi Daniela - - 2002
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs act as immune adjuvants in mice, boosting the humoral and cellular response to coadministered Ags. CpG ODN that stimulate human PBMC are only weakly active in mice. Thus, alternative animal models are needed to monitor the activity and safety of "human" CpG ODN ...
Gyetko Margaret R - - 2002
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)(-/-) mice cannot mount protective host defenses during infection with the opportunistic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (52D). Because effective host defense against C. neoformans requires specific immune responses and the generation of type 1 (T1) cytokines, we determined how the absence of uPA impacts these processes. Wild-type (WT) ...
Schultz Kirk R - - 2002
The 4-aminoquinolines, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, are established, with a 52% response rate, as therapy for human steroid-refractory GVHD after BMT. Chloroquine affects numerous mechanisms that play a role in GVHD, including inhibition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation, cytokine production, and antigen-presenting cell activation by bacterially derived ...
Puccetti Paolo - - 2002
Recent evidence from different experimental systems has demonstrated that autocrine activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be important at the initiation of an immune response, and that a specific set of cytokines may meet the dual needs of activating APCs and priming and/or maintaining the antigen-specific T-cell response. Composite factors ...
Liu Yunhui - - 2002
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) isa cytokine that promotesan antitumor Th1-type pattern of differentiation in mature naïveT cells. Despite its therapeutic success in multiple animal models of cancer, the utility of systemically administered recombinant cytokine has been limited by its toxicity. This has encouraged the development of local IL-12 delivery systems through ...
Foss Dennis L - - 2002
The immune response of swine to vaccination with a live, attenuated PRRSV was assessed in the presence and absence of cytokine adjuvants or cholera toxin (CT) to address the hypothesis that adjuvant danger signals, that is, inflammatory cytokines and bacterial extoxin, stimulate a more robust immune response. Animals received four ...
Mendel Itzhak - - 2002
IL-12 plays a critical role in the priming of Th1 responses to bacterial/parasitic antigens and autoantigens. Several studies have demonstrated a dependency on CD40/CD40L interactions and IL-12 for maintenance of both antibacterial/parasitic and autoreactive Th1 cells in vivo. However, it is still unclear if fully differentiated Th1 effectors require continued ...
Haskó György - - 2002
In this study, we examined the effect of dopamine on the production of IL-12 p40 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774.1 macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Treatment of J774.1 cells with dopamine (0.01-100 microM) decreased the release of IL-12 p40, in a concentration-dependent manner. The attenuating effect of dopamine on IL-12 p40 ...
Shakhov Alexander N. - - 2001
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an immunomodulatory cytokine with broad spectrum of activities, central of which are stimulation of NK cells, and promoting differentiation of T helper cells towards Th1 phenotype. IL-12 consists of two unrelated subunits, p35 and p40. Recently discovered cytokine, IL-23, which has both unique properties and those overlapping ...
Weeratna R D - - 2001
Induction of an appropriate immune response is essential for successful immunization. For example, Th1 type immune responses are necessary for the control of intracellular infections whereas Th2 type responses are more useful for the control of extracellular infections. Immunostimulatory CpG ODN (oligonucleotides containing unmethylated cytosine and guanine dinucleotides in specific ...
Panunto-Castelo A - - 2001
The outcome and severity of some diseases correlate with the dominance of either the T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 immune response, which is stimulated by IL-12 or IL-4, respectively. In the present study we demonstrate that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion by murine spleen cells stimulated with KM(+), a mannose-binding ...
Lee Y L - - 2001
Allergic asthma is strongly associated with the airway inflammation caused by the dysregulated production of cytokines secreted by the allergen-specific type-2 T helper (Th2) cells. Interleukin (IL)-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine, which strongly promotes the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells to the type-1 T helper (Th1) phenotype and suppresses ...
Jørgensen J B - - 2001
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs are known to stimulate immune responses and are potent adjuvants in higher vertebrates, but so far the effects in fish are poorly described. We here report that CpG ODNs induce IL-1beta expression and production of interferon-like cytokines in rainbow trout head-kidney macrophages, whereas ...
Ahlers J D - - 2001
Regulation of the IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) beta2 chain has been suggested to function as a molecular switch in determining T cell phenotype. However, because most studies have been carried out under conditions in which cell proliferation was occurring, it has been difficult to distinguish between instructive and selective mechanisms in ...
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