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Hui Kwai Fung KF Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR, - - 2014
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent proteins exert anti-apoptotic effects on EBV-transformed lymphoid cells by down-regulating BCL2L11 (BIM), CDKN2A (p16(INK4A) ) and CDKN1A (p21(WAF1) ). However, the potential therapeutic effects of targeting these anti-apoptotic mechanisms remain unexplored. Here, we tested both in vitro and in vivo effects of the combination of histone ...
Shan Shannon J C SJ Wilmer Eye Institute (SJCS), The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and Kellogg Eye Center (RSD), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
: The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease (TED) is complex and incompletely understood. Orbital fibroblasts (OFs) seem to be the key effector cells that are responsible for the characteristic soft tissue enlargement seen in TED. They express potentially pathogenic autoantigens, such as thyrotropin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. An ...
Henderson Amanda D AD Department of Ophthalmology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, - - 2014
Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, a negative regulator of T-cell-mediated immune response. Ipilimumab is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, its use frequently has been associated with immune-related side effects, which can be explained by its mechanism ...
Johnson K T M - - 2013
Over the past decade a number of murine models of Graves' disease (GD) have been described. The full symptom complex, including typical orbital changes, however, could not yet be induced. In this report, we examined the influence of modified immunization protocols on orbital pathology. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were immunized ...
Li Hong - - 2012
Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), an autoimmune disease, has been demonstrated to result from an increased volume of orbital contents, including adipose, connective and extraocular muscle tissues. In our previous study, we showed that Pingmu decoction is capable of alleviating GO progression. In this study, to further investigate the underlying mechanism(s), we ...
Nweze Ikenna C - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) regulation during shock and sepsis is complex. NO production by endothelial NO synthase maintains microvascular perfusion and prevents shock-induced organ injury. However, the overproduction of NO by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) contributes to liver dysfunction after shock and is associated with increased tissue damage and mortality. Estrogen ...
Breshears Laura M - - 2012
Staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs), such as toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), are the main cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). SAgs deregulate the host immune system after penetrating epithelial barriers such as the vaginal mucosa. In response to TSST-1, human vaginal epithelial cells (HVECs) produce cytokines and undergo morphological changes. The ...
Zhao Zhe - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: The goal for treating osteoarthritis (OA) is finding ways to decrease joint pain and dysfunction and prevent and slow the cartilage degeneration. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been found to improve motor dysfunction and ameliorate pain with OA in animals. However, few studies have found that it can prevent ...
Prondzinsky R - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The IABP SHOCK trial was designed as a morbidity-based randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of intraaortic balloon pulsation (IABP) in patients with infarct-related cardiogenic shock (CS). The primary endpoint was the change in the APACHE II score over a 4-day period. The prospective hypothesis was that adding ...
Jiang Li-Na - - 2012
Sepsis is denoted as a complex syndrome that results from a serious infection followed by amplified and dysregulated inflammatory response. The complex immune response associated with sepsis results in a high rate of morbidity and mortality, despite substantial basic science and clinical advances. Recently, accumulating evidence have demonstrated that regulatory ...
Takahashi Akari - - 2012
Focal inflammation causes systemic fever. Cancer hyperthermia therapy results in shrinkage of tumors by various mechanisms, including induction of adaptive immune response. However, the physiological meaning of systemic fever and mechanisms of tumor shrinkage by hyperthermia have not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated how heat shock influences ...
Kotsaki Antigone - - 2012
Despite improvement in medical care, severe sepsis and septic shock remain an unmet medical need. Their incidence is steadily increasing and the worldwide mortality ranges between 30% and 50%. This generates the need for agents that modulate the immune function of the host. Available agents can be divided into three ...
Tang Ting - - 2012
As important molecular chaperones, members of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family play essential roles in stress tolerance and innate immunity in organisms. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of a novel inducible HSP70, named as MdHSP70, was isolated from Musca domestica. The cDNA clone consisted of 2411 bp with ...
Pfeifer Roman - - 2012
Interleukin-10 is known to modulate the systemic inflammatory response after trauma. This study investigates differences in the systemic and end-organ inflammation in animals treated with either inhalative or systemic IL-10 after experimental hemorrhagic shock (HS). Pressure controlled HS was performed in C57/BL6 mice for 1.5h (6 animals per group). Inhalative ...
Dauwalder Olivier - - 2012
Toxic Shock Syndromes (TSS) and Septic Shock (SS) share many clinical signs of an exacerbated inflammatory response. In this report, we investigated whether TSS presents similar features of delayed immunosuppression as described in SS. Five children with TSS from pediatric intensive care units in a university hospital were monitored. TSS ...
Jin Se-Eun - - 2012
Context: Chitin is the polysaccharide and is found in insects, parasites and fungi. Chitin has shown various immunological effects in in vivo and in vitro models. In this study, crystallinity controlled N-acetyl glucosamine (CCG) which has a high solubility was prepared from the low molecular weight chitosan. However, the effect ...
Saha Dhanonjoy C - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The effects of acute and prior exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) on superoxide release by monocytes were examined in normal subjects and in patients with sepsis and septic shock during the acute stage and recovery. High doses of LPS, PMA and SEB stimulated monocyte superoxide ...
Sanjuán Szklarz Luiza K LK Dulbecco-Telethon Institute, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padova, - - 2012
The mitochondria-shaping protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) has genetically distinguishable roles in mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis. The latter depends on the presenilin associated rhomboid like (PARL) protease, essential for the accumulation of a soluble intermembrane space form of OPA1 (IMS-OPA1). Here we show that OPA1 and PARL participate in the ...
Gong Jie - - 2012
The main pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process. BML-111, a lipoxin receptor agonist, has been demonstrated to promote acute inflammatory resolution by reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, attenuation of neutrophilic infiltration, and increasing macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Meanwhile, lipoxins and ...
Di Paola Rosanna - - 2012
Our primary aim in this study was to test the hypothesis that PEA, a member of the fatty acid ethanolamide family and an endogenous PPAR-α ligand, exerts anti-inflammatory effects on SAO shock, causing a severe form of circulatory shock and enhanced formation of ROS. SAO shock was induced by clamping ...
Afrazi Amin - - 2012
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related mortality in premature infants, and it develops under conditions of exaggerated TLR4 signaling in the newborn intestinal epithelium. Because NEC does not develop spontaneously, despite the presence of seemingly tonic stimulation of intestinal TLR4, we hypothesized that mechanisms must exist to ...
Zhang Lei - - 2012
Heat shock proteins have been reported to stimulate the immune system via innate receptors. Our study found that the novel immunopotentiator, Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), enhanced protective immunity elicited by E. tenella antigen microneme protein 2 (EtMIC2) against avian coccidiosis. It demonstrated that the expression ...
Zheng Yuejuan - - 2012
Sepsis and its derivative endotoxic shock are still serious conditions with high mortality in the intensive care unit. The mechanisms that ensure the balance of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokine production are of particular importance. As an active α- and β-adrenergic agonist, ephedrine hydrochloride (EH) is a widely used agent ...
Chen Na - - 2012
Schisandrin B (Sch B) is the most abundant, active dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baillon (Schisandraceae). (-)Sch B was found to be the most potent stereoisomer of Sch B in producing cytoprotective action in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The elucidation of biochemical mechanism underlying the cytoprotection of ...
Yanpallewar Sudhirkumar U - - 2012
The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) therapy, a fast-acting and very effective antidepressant therapy, are poorly understood. Changes related to neuroplasticity, including enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal arborization, are believed to play an important role in mediating the effects of ECS. Here we show a ...
Novak Ivana - - 2012
Mitochondrial dynamics and turnover are crucial for cellular homeostasis and differentiation. The removal of damaged mitochondria that could contribute to cellular dysfunction or death is achieved through the process of mitochondrial autophagy, i.e., mitophagy. Moreover, mitophagy is responsible for removal of mitochondria during terminal differentiation of red blood cells and ...
Lemaire Irma - - 2012
Cell fusion into multinucleated giant cells (MGC) is an essential process that contributes to many important biological mechanisms in mammalians. In the bone and immune system, macrophages are endowed with a remarkable potential for cell fusion events as evidenced by their propensity to fuse with other cells and between themselves ...
de Azevedo M S P - - 2012
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an attractive and safe alternative for the expression of heterologous proteins, as they are nonpathogenic and endotoxin-free organisms. Lactococcus lactis, the LAB model organism, has been extensively employed in the biotechnology field for large-scale production of heterologous proteins, and its use as a "cell factory" ...
Bleiblo Farag - - 2012
Sepsis and its associated syndromes represent the systemic host response to severe infection and is manifested by varying degrees of hypotension, coagulopathy, and multiorgan dysfunction. Despite great efforts being made to understand this condition and designing therapies to treat sepsis, mortality rates are still high in septic patients. Characterization of ...
Chafekar Sidhartha M - - 2012
The molecular mechanisms by which polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded huntingtin (Htt) causes neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD) remain unclear. The malfunction of cellular proteostasis has been suggested as central in HD pathogenesis and also as a target of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of HD. We present results that offer a previously ...
Linkermann Andreas - - 2012
Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) signaling may result in survival, apoptosis or programmed necrosis. The latter is called necroptosis if the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or genetic knockout of RIP3 prevents it. In the lethal mouse model of TNFα-mediated shock, addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (zVAD) ...
Hawksworth Jason S - - 2012
The inflammatory response to severe traumatic injury results in significant morbidity and mortality. Lymphocytes have recently been identified as critical mediators of the early innate immune response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Experimental manipulation of lymphocytes following hemorrhagic shock may prevent secondary immunologic injury in surgical and trauma patients. The objective of ...
Kim B-R - - 2012
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a specific molecular marker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), serves as a potential target for RCC-specific immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DCs). However, pulsing of DCs with CA9 alone is not sufficient for generation of a therapeutic anti-tumour immune response against RCC. In this study, in order ...
Aronoff David M - - 2012
Prostaglandins are important mediators and modulators of the inflammatory response to infection. The prostaglandins participate in the pathogenesis of hemodynamic collapse, organ failure, and overwhelming inflammation that characterize severe sepsis and shock. In light of this, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibiting pharmacological agents have been extensively studied for their capacity to ameliorate ...
Lee Chen-Ting - - 2012
Macrophages function both under normothermia and during periods of body temperature elevation (fever). Whether macrophages sense and respond to thermal signals in a manner which regulates their function in a specific manner is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of ...
Abumaree M H - - 2011
The outer layer of the human placenta is the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. The syncytiotrophoblast is formed by the fusion of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts, and aged syncytiotrophoblast nuclei are extruded into the maternal blood as membrane-enclosed "syncytial nuclear aggregates" that are then eliminated from the maternal circulation. Apoptosis proteins are hypothesized to be ...
Kim Hyungsoo H Signal Transduction Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2011
Defining the mechanisms underlying the control of mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to understanding cellular adaptation to diverse physiological conditions. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia induces fission of mitochondrial membranes, dependent on availability of the mitochondrial scaffolding protein AKAP121. AKAP121 controls mitochondria dynamics through PKA-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1 ...
Kim Yong-Gil - - 2011
We previously reported that interleukin-32 gamma (IL-32γ) has a direct effect on osteoclast differentiation and activation in vitro in the context of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) co-stimulation. However, the stage of osteoclast differentiation at which IL-32γ exerts its effect was not determined. Here, we demonstrated that IL-32γ plays ...
Yang Rj - - 2011
The Fas antigen is a transmembrane receptor that can trigger apoptosis in a variety of somatic cells. Ovarian follicular atresia and luteolysis are thought to occur by apoptosis. To reveal the intracellular signal transduction molecules involved in the process of follicular development in the bovine ovary, Fas gene without the ...
Huang Ying - - 2011
Autophagy is a highly conserved, closely regulated homeostatic cellular activity that allows for the bulk degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. Its roles in cancer initiation and progression and in determining the response of tumor cells to anticancer therapy are complicated, and only limited investigation has been conducted on ...
Lemaire Irma I Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada. - - 2011
The P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R), an ATP-gated ion channel, has been implicated in the process of cell-to-cell fusion into multinucleated macrophages (MA), but its contribution to MA fusion driven by physiological/pathological stimuli is not clearly established. Based on several lines of evidence, we demonstrate that P2X(7)R is critical for the induction ...
Song Bong-Seok - - 2011
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a powerful tool, not only for producing cloned animals, but also in revealing various early developmental events. However, relatively little is known regarding the biological events and underlying mechanism(s) directly associated with early development of SCNT embryos. Here, we show that production of high-quality ...
McNally Amy K - - 2011
Foreign body-type multinucleated giant cells (FBGC), formed by macrophage fusion, are a prominent cell type on implanted biomaterials, although the roles they play at these and other sites of chronic inflammation are not understood. Why lymphocytes are present in this scenario and the effects of fusing macrophages/FBGC on subsequent lymphocyte ...
Yu Minjun M Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, - - 2011
NF-κB activation is essential for receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. IL-4 is known to inhibit the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation while at the same time promoting macrophage fusion to form multinucleated giant cells (MNG). Several groups have proposed that IL-4 inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is mediated by suppressing the ...
Münz Christian - - 2011
Macroautophagy is a catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells that has recently been shown to facilitate pathogen detection, pathogen restriction and pathogen-derived antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. Due to these protective functions during immune responses, several pathogens, including RNA and DNA viruses, have developed strategies to inhibit autophagosome generation or ...
Vinet Adrien F - - 2011
Regulators of membrane fusion play an important role in phagocytosis as they regulate the focal delivery of endomembrane which is required for optimal internalization of large particles. During internalization of Leishmania promastigotes, the surface glycolipid lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is transferred to the macrophage membrane and modifies its fusogenic properties. In this ...
Rambold Angelika S - - 2011
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that mediate essential cell functions such as apoptosis and cell-cycle control in addition to their role as efficient ATP generators. Mitochondrial morphology changes are tightly regulated, and their shape can shift between small, fragmented units and larger networks of elongated mitochondria. We demonstrate that mitochondrial ...
Huang X - - 2011
Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is one of the fates of the medial edge epithelium (MEE) during palatal fusion. Transforming growth factor β (Tgf-β) signaling (such as Tgf-β3) is required for the disappearance of the MEE, but the relationship between Tgf-β3 and apoptosis remains unclear. Here we show that the ...
Furukawa Masato - - 2011
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a redox-active protein with anti-inflammatory effects but with a short half life of 1h. Genetic fusion of Trx to human serum albumin (HSA) extended its half life without causing significant loss of its biological activities. HSA-Trx caused a decrease in the number of cells in brochoalveolar lavage ...
Sillé Fenna C M FC Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2011
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular bacterium that persists in phagosomes of myeloid cells. M. tuberculosis-encoded factors support pathogen survival and reduce fusion of phagosomes with bactericidal lysosomal compartments. It is, however, not entirely understood if host factors that mediate endosomal fusion affect M. tuberculosis intracellular localization and survival. Neither is ...
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