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Xiong Chongxiang C Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of - - 2014
Peritoneal fibrosis is one of serious complications in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD), and associated with the loss of peritoneal membrane ultrafiltration function. In this study, we investigated whether suramin, an inhibitor that blocks multiple growth factors with their receptors, would prevent development of peritoneal fibrosis in a rat model. ...
Liu Lei L Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine Boston, MA, - - 2014
Sirtuins are NAD-dependent protein deacetylases that were shown to have protective effects against different age-related diseases. SIRT2 is a strong deacetylase that is highly expressed in brain. It has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin that displays clinical features of Parkinson's Disease (PD). MPTP leads ...
Hajishengallis George - - 2013
Leading scientists from around the globe gathered on the Greek island of Kos in June 2013 to discuss the latest developments in the field of innate immunity and to explore new ideas and research collaborations.
la Sala Andrea - - 2012
The development of collateral circulation is an inherent compensatory mechanism to restore impaired blood perfusion following artery stenosis and/or occlusion. This process, termed arteriogenesis, is driven by inflammation and involves a complex remodeling of pre-existing conduit vessels running in parallel to the occluded artery. Recent studies have unveiled roles for ...
Schwartz Ronald H - - 2012
A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical ...
Hyde B B - - 2012
The mitochondrial transporter ATP binding cassette mitochondrial erythroid (ABC-me/ABCB10) is highly induced during erythroid differentiation by GATA-1 and its overexpression increases hemoglobin production rates in vitro. However, the role of ABC-me in erythropoiesis in vivo is unknown. Here we report for the first time that erythrocyte development in mice requires ...
Finn Aloke V - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine selective macrophage differentiation occurring in areas of intraplaque hemorrhage in human atherosclerosis. Macrophage subsets are recognized in atherosclerosis, but the stimulus for and importance of differentiation programs remain unknown. We used freshly isolated human monocytes, a rabbit model, and human atherosclerotic plaques ...
Zhang Ning - - 2012
Current strategies to deliver therapeutic molecules to specific cell and tissue types rely on conjugation of antibodies and other targeting ligands directly to the therapeutic molecule itself or its carrier. This work describes a novel strategy to deliver therapeutic molecules into macrophages that takes advantage of the native hemoglobin (Hb) ...
Kheansaard Wasinee - - 2011
Background/Aim: β-Thalassemia/hemoglobin E (β-thal/HbE) is a common hereditary anemia in Thailand. Ineffective erythropoiesis due to apoptosis and decreased lifespan of circulating thalassemic red blood cells are the major causes of anemia. Changes to bone marrow microenvironment could contribute to apoptotic events. This study examined the effects of cytokines interleukin-1β, tumor ...
Leduc Isabelle I Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. - - 2011
Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has an obligate requirement for heme. Heme is acquired by H. ducreyi from its human host via TonB-dependent transporters expressed at its bacterial surface. Of 3 TonB-dependent transporters encoded in the genome of H. ducreyi, only the hemoglobin receptor, HgbA, is required to ...
Hu X - - 2011
Summary.  The immune mechanism(s) that lead to hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HB-ACLF) are poorly understood. Interleukin-21 is a newly discovered cytokine that is involved in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Its potential role in HB-ACLF remains unknown. The serum levels of 12 immune cytokines measured by cytometric bead arrays and ...
Sankaran Vijay G - - 2011
Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) can ameliorate the severity of the β-hemoglobin disorders, sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia, which are major sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a result, there has been a longstanding interest in developing therapeutic approaches for inducing HbF. For more than 3 decades, ...
Sen Rupashree - - 2010
An increasing incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonials in Leishmaniasis has led to identification of plant-derived anti-leishmanial compounds like Artemisinin. Since iron-mediated generation of free radicals sustains the anti-malarial activity of Artemisinin, this study investigated whether similar mechanisms accounted for its activity in Leishmania promastigotes. Artemisinin effectively disrupted the redox potential ...
Silverman Judith Maxwell - - 2010
We investigated the properties of leishmania exosomes with respect to influencing innate and adaptive immune responses. Exosomes from Leishmania donovani modulated human monocyte cytokine responses to IFN-γ in a bimodal fashion by promoting IL-10 production and inhibiting that of TNF-α. Moreover, these vesicles were inhibitory with respect to cytokine responses ...
Banerjee Rajdeep - - 2011
Visceral leishmaniasis, which is caused by Leishmania donovani, is one of the major health problems of the Indian subcontinent. Infected hosts have been reported to have impaired lymphoproliferation. However, the fate of anergic cells is still elusive. In the present investigation, L. donovani-infected hamsters were used to study the mechanism ...
Passero Luiz Felipe Domingues - - 2010
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of immunization with soluble amastigote (AmaAg) and promastigote (ProAg) antigens from Leishmania (Viannia) shawi on the course of infection in BALB/c mice. After immunization with AmaAg, the challenged group showed greater lesion size and parasite load in the skin and lymph nodes, ...
Carvalho Luis - - 2010
Tafenoquine (TFQ), an 8-aminoquinoline analogue of primaquine, which is currently under clinical trial (phase IIb/III) for the treatment and prevention of malaria, may represent an alternative treatment for leishmaniasis. In this work, we have studied the mechanism of action of TFQ against Leishmania parasites. TFQ impaired the overall bioenergetic metabolism ...
Canlas Judith - - 2010
Herbal preparations derived from various species and parts of Echinacea (Asteraceae) have been advocated for various medical applications, as a result of the many antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities attributed to them. In order to investigate their effects on parasites, four preparations of Echinacea, with distinct chemical compositions, were evaluated for ...
Díaz Yira Rosalba - - 2010
T cell differentiation determines susceptibility and resistance to experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, yet mixed T1/Th2 responses characterize the clinical spectrum of human infection with Leishmania (Viannia) species. To discern the interrelationship of T cell differentiation and outcome of human infection, we examined factors that regulate T cell differentiation and Th1/Th2 cytokine ...
Paila Yamuna Devi - - 2010
Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by an obligate intra-macrophage protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. The molecular mechanisms involved in internalization of Leishmania are still poorly understood. Amphotericin B and its formulations are considered as the best existing drugs against visceral leishmaniasis and are being increasingly used. The reason for ...
Guimarães Leda R C - - 2010
The antiproliferative effect of julocrotine, an alkaloid isolated from Croton pullei var. glabrior (Euphorbiaceae), was studied in the macrophage amastigote and promastigote stages of the protozoan Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. Julocrotine showed a dose-dependent effect against the amastigote and promastigote forms, where 79 μM ...
Wilkins-Rodríguez Arturo A - - 2010
In mammalian hosts, Leishmania parasites are obligatory intracellular organisms that invade macrophages (M phi) and dendritic cells (DC). In M phi, the production of nitric oxide (NO) catalyzed by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated as a major defense against Leishmania infection. The modulation of this microbicidal ...
Raman Vanitha S - - 2010
Therapy of intracellular pathogens can be complicated by drug toxicity, drug resistance, and the need for prolonged treatment regimens. One approach that has shown promise is immunotherapy. Leishmaniasis, a vector-borne disease ranked among the six most important tropical infectious diseases by the World Health Organization, has been treated clinically with ...
Luz Kleber Giovanni - - 2010
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease with a complex immune response in different organs. This pattern of organ-specific immune response has never been evaluated in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the in situ immune response in duodenal biopsies on patients with VL. ...
Martín-Quintal Zhelmy - - 2010
The in vitro leishmanicidal effect of (3S)-16,17-didehydrofalcarinol (1) isolated from Tridax procumbens whole plant against Leishmania mexicana, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (chiclero's ulcer) in the New World, was investigated. This oxylipin showed significant in vitro activity against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. mexicana. Its inhibitory effect on ...
Bhattacharya Parna - - 2010
Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by severe immunosuppression of the host cell, resulting in loss of the proinflammatory response. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is involved in myriad disease forms, including visceral leishmaniasis. During Leishmania donovani infection, the parasite modulates TLR2 to suppress interleukin 12 production, indicating the possible involvement of TLR2 ...
Stäger Simona - - 2010
The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, has evolved several strategies to interfere with the immune system and establish persistent infections that are potentially lethal. In this article, we discuss two mechanisms of immune evasion adopted by the parasite: the induction of immune suppressive IL-10 responses ...
Matte Christine - - 2010
The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis, is renowned for its capacity to sabotage macrophage functions and signaling pathways stimulated by activators such as gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Our knowledge of the strategies utilized by L. donovani to impair macrophage responsiveness to IFN-gamma remains fragmentary. In the ...
Gluenz Eva E Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, - - 2010
During a complex digenetic life cycle flagellated Leishmania parasites alternate between promastigote and amastigote forms which differ significantly in cellular morphology and flagellum length. Recent studies have provided important new insights into mechanisms by which Leishmania regulate expression of genes required for flagellum assembly, and mechanisms used to modify flagellum ...
Delgado-Domínguez J - - 2010
Leishmania are protozoan parasites that infect macrophages and their survival is partially achieved through inhibition of the cellular oxidative burst by parasite lipophosphoglycan (LPG). PKCalpha is the predominant PKC isoenzyme required for macrophage oxidative burst, yet it is not known if different susceptibility of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to Leishmania ...
Chowdhury Kaustav Dutta - - 2010
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a vital role in maintaining the survivability of circulating erythrocytes. Here we have investigated whether NO depletion associated with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is responsible for the reduced survival of erythrocytes observed during the disease. Infected hamsters were treated with standard anti-leishmanial sodium stibogluconate (SAG) and NO ...
Moreira Pamela Rodrigues Reina - - 2010
The present study aimed to estimate the cell response and parasite load in the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), comparing these findings with the clinical staging of the disease. From the necropsy, 33 dogs were classified as symptomatic (S), asymptomatic (A), or oligosymptomatic (O). Cytology and ...
de-Campos S N - - 2010
We have recently introduced a macaque (Macaca mulatta) model of Leishmania braziliensis-induced chronic granulomatous cutaneous lesions affecting the nasal mucosa. Using an L. braziliensis strain that produces self-healing dermal lesions in macaques, here we characterises the systemic and local cell-mediated immune responses that led to controlled growth of granulomas in ...
Reybier Karine - - 2010
The physiological changes caused by external stimuli can be employed as parameters to study pathogen infection in cells and the effect of drugs. Among analytical methods, impedance is potentially useful to give insight into cellular behavior by studying morphological changes, alterations in the physiological state, production of charged or redox ...
Sen Rupashree - - 2010
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the protozoan Leishmania sp., affects 500000 people annually, with the Indian subcontinent contributing a significant proportion of these cases. Emerging refractoriness to conventional antimony therapy has emphasised the need for safer yet effective antileishmanial drugs. Artemisinin, a widely used antimalarial, demonstrated anti-promastigote activity and the ...
Abu-Dayyeh Issa - - 2010
Leishmania alternates between two morphologically different stages, promastigotes and amastigotes. While the majority of reports focused on how the promastigote form can alter macrophage (Mphi) signaling and function, fewer reports investigated signaling alterations mediated by amastigotes, and there is a lack of comparative studies. In this study, we performed a ...
Kar Susanta - - 2010
The role of phosphatases in the impairment of MAPK signaling, which is directly responsible for Leishmania-induced macrophage dysfunction, is still poorly understood. Gene expression profiling revealed that Leishmania donovani infection markedly up-regulated the expression of three phosphatases: MKP1, MKP3, and PP2A. Inhibition of these phosphatases prior to infection points toward ...
Phillips Rebecca R Centre for Immunology and Infection, Hull York Medical School and Department of Biology, University of York, York, United - - 2010
Highly phagocytic macrophages line the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen and the lymph node subcapsular sinus. Although these macrophages have been attributed with a variety of functions, including the uptake and clearance of blood and lymph-borne pathogens, little is known about the effector mechanisms they employ after pathogen uptake. ...
Wanderley Jo?o Luiz M - - 2010
Different death-styles have been described in unicellular organisms. In most cases they evolve with phenotypic features similar to apoptotic death of animal cells, such as phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, hinting that similar mechanisms operate in both situations. However, the biochemical pathways underlying ...
Kumar Rajesh - - 2010
We have established Leishmania tropica as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the region of India where the disease is endemic. The association between localized and circulating levels of immune-determinants in CL patients was evaluated. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed up-regulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-8, ...
Lapara Nicholas J NJ - - 2010
Chronic inflammation activated by macrophage innate pathogen recognition receptors such as TLR4 can lead to a range of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, Crohn's disease, arthritis and cancer. Unlike many microbes, the kinetoplastid protozoan pathogen Leishmania has been shown to avoid and even actively suppress host inflammatory cytokine responses, such as ...
de Moura Tatiana R - - 2010
During blood feeding, sand flies inject Leishmania parasites in the presence of saliva. The types and functions of cells present at the first host-parasite contact are critical to the outcome on infection and sand fly saliva has been shown to play an important role in this setting. Herein, we investigated ...
Bhardwaj Suvercha - - 2010
The protozoan parasite Leishmania spp. exists as extracellular promastigotes in its vector whereas it resides and replicates as amastigotes within the macrophages of its mammalian host. As a survival strategy, Leishmania modulates macrophage functions directly or indirectly. The direct interference includes prevention of oxidative burst and the effector functions that ...
Cummings Hannah E - - 2010
Cytokines play a critical role in shaping the host immune response to Leishmania infection and directing the development of protective and non-protective immunities during infection. Cytokines exert their biological activities through the activation and translocation of transcription factors into the nucleus whether they drive the expression of specific cytokine-responsive genes. ...
Mejia J Santiago - - 2010
Visceral Leishmaniasis is a serious human disease transmitted, in the New World, by Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Natural resistance to Leishmania transmission in residents of endemic areas has been attributed to the acquisition of immunity to sand fly salivary proteins. One theoretical way to accelerate the acquisition of this immunity ...
Al-Mutairi Mashael S - - 2010
In this study we generated a novel dual specific phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) deletion mouse using a targeted deletion strategy in order to examine the role of MAP kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2) in immune responses. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a rapid, time and concentration-dependent increase in MKP-2 protein expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages ...
Contreras Irazú - - 2010
Leishmania parasites have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to subvert macrophage immune responses by altering the host cell signal transduction machinery, including inhibition of JAK/STAT signalling and other transcription factors such as AP-1, CREB and NF-κB. AP-1 regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and nitric oxide production. Herein we show that upon Leishmania infection, ...
Beattie Lynette L Centre for Immunology and Infection, Hull York Medical School and Department of Biology, University of York, York, - - 2010
Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPalpha) and its cognate ligand CD47 have been documented to have a broad range of cellular functions in development and immunity. Here, we investigated the role of SIRPalpha-CD47 signalling in invariant NKT (iNKT) cell responses. We found that CD47 was required for the optimal production of ...
Lecoeur Hervé - - 2010
Topical therapy is an attractive approach for the treatment of Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). WR279396, an expanded-spectrum aminoglycoside ointment, is now in phase 3 trials. Because the application of a cream is easier than the injection of pentavalent antimony, many patients with CL will likely be treated with WR279396 ...
Amaral Joana F - - 2010
The immature immune system requires constant stimulation by foreign antigens during the early stages of life to develop properly and to create efficient immune responses against later infections. We have previously shown that intake of antigenic dietary protein is critical for inducing maturation of the immune system as well as ...
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