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Zhang Jianke - - 2011
RIP1 is an adaptor serine/threonine kinase associated with the signaling complex of death receptors (DRs) including Fas, TNFR1, and TRAIL-Rs which can initiate apoptosis. While DRs are dispensable throughout development, RIP1 deletion results in perinatal lethality. The developmental defect caused by absence of RIP1 remains unexplained. In previous studies, RIP1-deficient ...
Temajo Norbert O - - 2011
An autoimmune disease (AD) occurs in a situation where an individual's protective immune system attacks and destroys the individual's own tissues and organ(s), causing a recognizable syndrome(s). The viruses feature in the triggering of autoimmune diseases in genetically primed individuals through generating a viral group of regulatory immediate early proteins ...
Connelley Timothy K - - 2011
Polymorphism of immunodominant CD8(+) T cell epitopes can facilitate escape from immune recognition of pathogens, leading to strain-specific immunity. In this study, we examined the TCR β-chain (TRB) diversity of the CD8(+) T cell responses of cattle against two immunodominant epitopes from Theileria parva (Tp1(214-224) and Tp2(49-59)) and investigated the ...
Beham Alexander W - - 2011
Macrophages play a central role in host defense against mycobacterial infection and anti- TNF therapy is associated with granuloma disorganization and reactivation of tuberculosis in humans. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) αβ based recombinatorial immune receptor in subpopulations of human and mouse ...
Wang Ruiqing - - 2011
Survival of CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) thymocytes plays a critical role in shaping the peripheral T cell repertoire. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of DP thymocyte lifespan remain poorly understood. In this work, we demonstrate that T cell factor (TCF)-1 regulates DP thymocyte survival by upregulating RORγt. Microarray analysis ...
Seidl Alexander - - 2011
The parasitic gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces massive expansion of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the lung and small intestine. Th2 cells are a major source of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, two cytokines that appear essential for rapid worm expulsion. It is unclear whether all Th2 cells induced during ...
Dopfer Elaine Pashupati - - 2011
In the current issue of Immunity, Martínez-Martín et al. (2011) describe the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) as a site of clathrin-independent T cell receptor (TCR) internalization and trogocytosis. Further, they identify small Rho GTPases TC21 and RhoG as key mediators of these processes.
Joyce Sebastian - - 2011
NKT cells that express the semi-invariant TCR are innate-like lymphocytes whose functions are regulated by self and foreign glycolipid ligands presented by the Ag-presenting, MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. Activation of NKT cells in vivo results in rapid release of copious amounts of effector cytokines and chemokines with which they ...
Sauter Kristin A D - - 2011
Anthracyclines including doxorubicin and daunorubicin are commonly used for the treatment of both hematologic and solid tumors. Dose related adverse effects often limit the effectiveness of anthracyclines in chemotherapy. Drug-related systemic inflammation mediated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) has been implicated in contributing to these adverse effects. The molecular mechanisms underlying anthracycline-mediated ...
Zhou Zhixia - - 2011
Certain glycolipid antigens for natural killer T (NKT) cells can direct the overall cytokine balance of the immune response. However, the molecular mechanism of Th1 or Th2-baised cytokine secretion by NKT cells is still unknown. Previously, we synthesized iGb3 analogues by introducing a hydroxyl group at C4 on the ceramide ...
Guazzone V A - - 2011
The maturation state of dendritic cells (DC) is regarded as a control point for the induction of peripheral tolerance or autoimmunity. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) serves as a model to investigate inflammatory-based testicular impairment, which ranks as a significant cause of male infertility. This work aimed to determine whether DC ...
Uckun Fatih M - - 2011
We present previously unknown evidence that the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein BIP/HSPA5, also known as glucose regulated protein (GRP)78, serving as a pivotal component of the pro-survival axis of the unfolded protein response (UPR) signalling network, is abundantly expressed in relapsed B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and contributes to ...
Brem Elizabeth A - - 2011
Bcl-2 proteins represent a rheostat that controls cellular viability. Obatoclax, a BH3-mimetic, has been designed to specifically target and counteract anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. We evaluated the biological effects of obatoclax on the anti-tumour activity of rituximab and chemotherapy agents. Obatoclax induced cell death of rituximab/chemotherapy-sensitive (RSCL), -resistant cell lines (RRCL) ...
Akbar S M F - - 2011
Summary.  Restoration of host immunity has been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) after treatment with lamivudine; however, the underlying mechanisms of this treatment have not been determined. This study examined the role of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC) in restoration of host immunity. Circulating DC were isolated from ...
Prisciandaro Luca D - - 2011
Although chemotherapy remains the current best practice for the treatment of neoplasia, the severity of its associated side-effects continues to impact detrimentally on the quality of life. Mucositis can affect both the oral cavity and intestine, and represents one of the most common side-effects of chemotherapy. It is characterized by ...
Grabski Elena - - 2011
Lentiviral gene transfer vectors are suitable for genetically modifying non-cycling primary human cells. In this study, we analyzed transduced human dendritic cells (DC) generated by the use of three different GFP-encoding lentiviral vectors, HIV-2 ROD A Δenv-GFP (ROD A), SIVsmm PBj ΔE EGFP (PBj), and SIVmac ΔE EGFP (SIVmac). CD14(+) ...
Grimnes Sverre - - 2011
For a long time, DC conductance has been the most important parameter in electrodermal routine measurements. However, DC current flow polarizes the electrodes, electrolyzes the skin, disturbs the measurement of conductance by possible varying electromotive forces (EMFs) in the circuit, and impedes the registration of the skin endosomatic DC potential. ...
McDonnell Alison M - - 2011
The immune system plays an important role in the surveillance of neoplastic cells by eliminating them before they manifest as full-blown cancer. Despite this, tumors do develop in the presence of a functioning immune system. Conventional chemotherapy and its ability to directly kill tumor cells is one of the most ...
Bjørgo Elisa - - 2011
The cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is strongly involved in the regulation and modulation of immune responses, and cAMP is the most potent and acute inhibitor of T-cell activation. Thus, cAMP levels in the cell must be tightly regulated. Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) provide the only mechanism for degrading ...
van Kooten Cees - - 2011
Dendritic cells (DCs) have a central role in immune regulation and serve as an essential link between innate and adaptive immunity. Their broad range of powerful immune stimulatory as well as regulatory functions has made DCs a target for vaccine development strategies. One approach to promote the tolerogenicity of DCs ...
Orabona Ciriana - - 2011
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an ancestral enzyme that, initially confined to the regulation of tryptophan availability in local tissue microenvironments, is now considered to play a wider role that extends to homeostasis and plasticity of the immune system. Thus, IDO biology has many implications for many aspects of immunopathology, including ...
Carreño Leandro J - - 2011
Autoimmune diseases develop as a result of an unbalanced adaptive immunity that targets self-antigens and causes destruction of healthy host tissues. Maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance to self- antigens is mainly mediated by dendritic cells (DCs), professional antigen-presenting cells that modulate the activation of T cells. Due to their key ...
Shimamura Michio - - 2011
We have previously shown that invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR(+) (Vα19i T) cells suppress the disease progress in some models for organ specific autoimmune diseases and type IV allergy that deteriorate along with decline to excess in Th1- or Th17- immunity. In this study, we examined the effects of over-generation of Vα19i ...
Svajger Urban - - 2010
Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute a unique set of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), equipped with the potential to initiate strong immune responses as well as to critically regulate immunity. Tolerogenic or "alternatively activated" DCs show remarkable properties in regulating immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, tolerogenic DCs are now ...
Xuan Nguyen Thi - - 2010
Thymol is a component of several plants with antimicrobial activity. Little is known about the effects of thymol on immune cells of the host. This study addressed the effects of thymol on dendritic cells (DCs), regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis were ...
Kikuchi T - - 2010
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that periodontal infections increase atherosclerosis risk. Periodontitis patients have elevated levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) reactive not only with numerous periodontal organisms but also with minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL). Dendritic cells (DCs) reside in arterial walls and accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions. The ability of anti-PC ...
Remer Katharina A - - 2010
Dendritic cell (DC)-mediated vaccination against Leishmania major induces a parasite-specific T helper 1 (Th1) response and long-lasting protective immunity in susceptible mice. As the cytokine interleukin-12 required for induction of this Th1 response is not derived from the transferred DC, but has to be produced by the vaccinated host, we ...
Yu Huiming - - 2011
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder in which anti-platelet antibodies induce platelet destruction owing to an imbalanced immune response. Several studies have established that B cells play an important role in the production of anti-platelet antibodies and that dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune ...
Wu Gregory F - - 2011
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS), is dependent upon the activation and effector functions of autoreactive CD4 T cells. Multiple interactions between CD4 T cells and major histocompatibility class II (MHCII)+ antigen presenting cells (APCs) must occur in both the periphery and central ...
Kundu Gitanjali G Department of Immunology & Microbiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, - - 2011
Candida albicans produces an immunomodulatory oxylipin from arachidonic acid that is structurally identical to host prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). In terms of host immune responses, PGE₂ can promote Th2 responses, which are non-protective against fungal infections. We investigated the effect of host or fungal PGE₂ on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell ...
Liu Xingguang - - 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of immunity, including the lymphocyte development and differentiation, and inflammatory cytokine production. Dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in linking innate and adaptive immune responses. However, few miRNAs have been found to regulate the innate response and APC function of DCs to date. ...
Kou Peng Meng - - 2011
Macrophages (Mϕ) and dendritic cells (DCs) are critical antigen presenting cells that play pivotal roles in host responses to biomaterial implants. Although Mϕs have been widely studied for their roles in the inflammatory responses against biomaterials, the roles that DCs play in the host responses toward implanted materials have only ...
Kou Peng Meng - - 2010
Macrophages (Mφ) and dendritic cells (DCs) are critical antigen presenting cells that play pivotal roles in host responses to biomaterial implants. Although Mφs have been widely studied for their roles in the inflammatory responses against biomaterials, the roles that DCs play in the host responses toward implanted materials have only ...
Pulecio Julian - - 2010
The immune synapse (IS) forms as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells interact in lymph nodes during initiation of adaptive immunity. Factors that contribute to the formation and maintenance of IS stability and function have been mostly studied in T cells, whereas little is known about events occurring during synapse ...
Walseng Even - - 2010
The expression and turnover of MHC class II-peptide complexes (pMHC-II) on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential for their ability to activate CD4 T cells efficiently. The half-life of surface pMHC-II is significantly greater in activated (mature) DCs than in resting (immature) DCs, but the molecular mechanism leading ...
Farag Mohamed M S - - 2010
Eradication of chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, marked by HBs seroconversion, is very rarely achieved by treatment with nucleoside and nucleotide analogs. Therapeutic cell based approaches, like interferon therapy, have a higher chance of seroconversion. Dendritic cells (DC) are key players in the cellular immune response and have been ...
Wang Xue - - 2010
In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of five prosthodontic materials on the L929 cell line were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoli-umbromide) assay. The cells were treated with eluates resin (RE), pressable ceramics (PC), Co-Cr alloy-porcelain (CC), Ni-Cr alloy-porcelain (NC), and diatomite ceramics ...
Harada Yui - - 2010
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in maintaining the immune system. Although DC-based cancer immunotherapy has been suggested as a potential treatment for various kinds of malignancies, clinical efficacies have been still unsatisfactory. To improve the clinical outcome of DC-based cancer immunotherapy, we are now focusing on 1) increase ...
Choi Yun - - 2010
Dendritic cells (DC) are critical for priming adaptive immune responses to foreign antigens. However, the feasibility of harnessing these cells in vivo to optimize the antitumor effects has not been fully explored. The authors investigated a novel therapeutic approach that involves delivering synergistic signals that both recruit and expand DC ...
Bühligen Johannes - - 2010
Following antigen contact, maturation and migration of DCs into lymphatic tissues are crucial to the developing immune response or maintenance of tolerance. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) is generated during apoptosis of cells and acts as a "find-and-eat-me" signal thought to prevent autoimmunity. Moreover, LysoPC can activate PKCδ and initiates a signaling cascade ...
Davies Julie M - - 2010
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling shapes dendritic cell (DC) responses by inducing co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and cytokine secretion while TLR regulatory proteins inhibit this process. We aimed to determine if gene expression of TLRs and TLR regulatory proteins underpins the functionally different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responses of DCs from murine Peyer's patches ...
Kato Tomonori - - 2010
We recently demonstrated highly efficient antitumor immunity against dermal tumors of B16F10 murine melanoma with the use of dendritic cells (DCs) activated by replication-competent, as well as nontransmissible-type, recombinant Sendai viruses (rSeV), and proposed a new concept, "immunostimulatory virotherapy," for cancer immunotherapy. However, there has been little information on the ...
Watowich Stephanie S - - 2010
Understanding the diversification of dendritic cell (DC) lineages is one of the last frontiers in mapping the developmental hierarchy of the hematopoietic system. DCs are a vital link between the innate and adaptive immune responses; thus, elucidating their developmental pathways is crucial for insight into the generation of natural immunity ...
Wu Li - - 2010
The signaling pathway of the cytokine Flt3L in dendritic cells (DCs) is poorly defined. In this issue of Immunity, Sathaliyawala et al. (2010) report that the kinase mTOR functions as a mediator of Flt3L signaling in the development and homeostasis of DCs, particularly of the CD8(+) and CD103(+) DCs.
Cheong Cheolho - - 2010
Dendritic cells (DCs), critical antigen-presenting cells for immune control, normally derive from bone marrow precursors distinct from monocytes. It is not yet established if the large reservoir of monocytes can develop into cells with critical features of DCs in vivo. We now show that fully differentiated monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) develop ...
Rouzaut Ana - - 2010
Migration of DC into lymphatic vessels ferries antigenic cargo and pro-inflammatory stimuli into the draining LN. Given that tissues under the influence of viral infections produce type I IFN, it is conceivable that these cytokines enhance DC migration in order to facilitate an antiviral immune response. Cultured lymphatic endothelium monolayers ...
Jones Stephen C - - 2010
The most effective immunological adjuvants contain microbial products, such as TLR agonists, which bind to conserved pathogen recognition receptors. These activate dendritic cells (DCs) to become highly effective APCs. We assessed whether TLR ligand-treated DCs can enhance the otherwise defective response of aged naive CD4 T cells. In vivo administration ...
Lauterbach Henning - - 2010
Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly IC), a double-stranded RNA, is an effective adjuvant in vivo. IFN-λs (also termed IL-28/29) are potent immunomodulatory and antiviral cytokines. We demonstrate that poly IC injection in vivo induces large amounts of IFN-λ, which depended on hematopoietic cells and the presence of TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3), IRF3 ...
Kou Peng Meng - - 2011
Dendritic cells (DCs) play pivotal roles in responding to foreign entities during the innate immune response and in initiating effective adaptive immunity as well as maintaining immune tolerance. The sensitivity of DCs to foreign stimuli also makes them useful cells to assess the inflammatory response to biomaterials. Elucidating material property-DC ...
Bañón-Rodríguez Inmaculada - - 2011
In immature dendritic cells (DCs) podosomes form and turn over behind the leading edge of migrating cells. The Arp2/3 complex activator Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) localises to the actin core of forming podosomes together with WASP-Interacting Protein (WIP). A second weaker Arp2/3 activator, cortactin, is also found at podosomes where ...
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