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Shah Jyotsna J Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, - - 2014
Objective This study aims to identify the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates in Canadian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Study Design This retrospective analysis included preterm infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation and admitted to 29 NICUs in the Canadian Neonatal Network during the years 2010 and ...
Vachharajani A A Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine and St Louis Children's Hospital, Saint Louis, MO, - - 2014
Objective:The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines address imaging after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants >2 months of age. We sought to determine the frequency of upper urinary tract anomalies (hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)) in hospitalized premature infants with UTI.Study design:We retrospectively reviewed the electronic ...
Bertelli Claire C Laboratory of Microbial Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, - - 2014
Administration of probiotics to premature newborns prevents necrotizing enterocolitis and reduces all cause mortality. In our hospital, we documented two cases of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis bacteremia in newborns receiving probiotics. By comparative genomics, we confirmed that the strains isolated from each patient originated from the probiotics.
Cooper Natalie A M NA aWomen's Health Research Unit, The Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University bBarts and the London School of Medicine, London, - - 2014
The aim of this review was to evaluate recently published review articles which examine the use of nutritional supplements to prevent preterm birth (PTB) by modifying vaginal bacteria. Probiotics, vitamin D and vitamin C were all identified as nutritional supplements that have the potential to alter bacterial flora and consequently ...
Martinez Elena E 1Pediatric Emergency Department, Cruces University Hospital; 2University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain; 3Department of Microbiology, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Spain.4Department of Neuropediatrics, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, - - 2014
Classical criteria differ on when to perform cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in infants less than 90 days of age with fever without a source (FWS). Our objectives were to analyze the prevalence and microbiology of bacterial meningitis in this group and its prevalence in relation to clinical and laboratory risk ...
Alfelali Mohammad M National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (NCIRS), The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine in Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the ...
Davis Nicole L NL aDepartment of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina bDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina cDepartment of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA dDivision of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Parktown, South Africa eUniversity of North Carolina, UNC Project, Lilongwe, Malawi fDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine; Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina gGlobal Women's Health Division, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology; Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina hDivision of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2014
Estimate association between postpartum antiretroviral adherence and breast milk HIV-1 transmission. Prospective cohort study. Mother-infant pairs were randomized after delivery to immediately begin receiving 28 weeks of either triple maternal antiretrovirals (zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine, nelfinavir, or lopinavir-ritonavir) or daily infant nevirapine as part of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and ...
Repa Andreas A Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, - - 2014
BackgroundSpecific probiotics prevent NEC. A mixture of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (Infloran) was highly effective in Asian very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We analyzed the effect of Infloran on NEC, NEC severity and the influence of enteral feedings (breast milk vs. formula) on NEC prevention in a cohort of European ...
Dong Ying Y Department of Paediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2014
The incidence of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) is inversely related to the degree of maturity and varies geographically from 0.61% to 14.2% among hospitalised newborns. Epidemiological data on very low birth weight infants shows that the predominant pathogens of neonatal LOS are coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Gram-negative bacilli and fungi. ...
Nylund Lotta L Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, Finland; Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Division of Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Helsinki, - - 2014
The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were characterized. Further, the changes in intestinal microbiota composition ...
Loeffelholz Michael J MJ Departments of Pathology, - - 2014
Current molecular diagnostic methods have detected rhinovirus RNA in a high proportion of asymptomatic infants and children, raising the question of the clinical significance of these findings. This study investigates the prevalence of prolonged rhinovirus RNA presence in the upper respiratory tract of infants during the first year of life. ...
Meganck V V Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Calf diarrhoea causes substantial economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Neonatal calves are particularly sensitive to infections with enteropathogens. The present study focused on prevention against the main infectious causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea i.e. Escherichia coli, rota- and coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Dairy herds (n=24) with a high percentage ...
Chernikova Diana A DA Computational Genetics Laboratory, Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Sciences, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that maternal complications significantly affect gut colonization patterns in very low birth weight infants. Methods: 49 serial stool samples were obtained weekly from 9 extremely premature infants enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from stool samples was ...
Usin María Matilde MM Department B of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, National University of - - 2014
Abstract Objective: to relate the periodontal condition with the presence of periodontal bacteria in pregnant that had babies with preterm delivery or/and low weight at birth (PTLBW). Methods: We recruited 134 pregnant women without systemic diseases attending at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Room, from Maternal Provincial Hospital, Córdoba, Argentine. Pregnant ...
Holton Thérèse A TA UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research/School of Medicine and Medical Sciences/UCD Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory, University College Dublin , Dublin 4, Republic of - - 2014
Little is known about the digestive process in infants. In particular, the chronological activity of enzymes across the course of digestion in the infant remains largely unknown. To create a temporal picture of how milk proteins are digested, enzyme activity was compared between intact human milk samples from three mothers ...
Hamer Davidson H DH 1Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA 2Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA 3Global Development Division, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA 4Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia 5Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan 6Child Health Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh 7Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India 8Department of Pediatrics, Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uría", La Paz, Bolivia 9Department of Microbiology, All India Institute for Medical Sciences, Delhi, India 10Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa 11Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, All India Institute for Medical Sciences, Delhi, India 12Department of Neonatology, Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh 13Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Materno Infantil, La Paz, Bolivia 14Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan 15Sick Kids Center for Global Child Health, Toronto, Canada 16School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana 17World Health Organization Southeast Asian Regional Office, Delhi, - - 2014
Neonatal illness is a leading cause of death worldwide; sepsis is one of the main contributors. The etiologies of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia in developing countries have not been well characterized. Infants <2 months of age brought with illness to selected health facilities in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ghana, India, Pakistan and South ...
Zbinden Andrea A Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Background: The use of probiotics as prophylaxis for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is being increasingly practised. Objective: We report, for the first time, a case series of 3 preterm, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants who developed bacteremia with Bifidobacterium longum on probiotic therapy with Infloran® containing viable B. longum. Methods: ...
Li Yuefeng Y Department of Neonatology, Baoan Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Shenzhen 518133, - - 2014
Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen. As no routine screening is performed during pregnancy, neonates and infants are at high risk for C. trachomatis infection. The objective of this study was to investigate the morbidity, clinical characteristics and genotype distribution of C. trachomatis pneumonia in infants less than ...
Pacheco Alline R AR Department of Viticulture and Enology and Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; email: - - 2014
Human milk is a complete source of nourishment for the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding not only sustains the infant's development but also guides the proliferation of a protective intestinal microbiota. Among the many components of milk that modulate the infant gut microbiota, the milk glycans, which comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and ...
Athalye-Jape Gayatri G From the Department of Neonatal Paediatrics, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (GA-J, SR, and SP); the Department of Neonatal Paediatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia (GA-J, SR, and SP); the Centre for Neonatal Research and Education, School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (GA-J, SR, and SP); the Department of Neonatal Paediatrics, Nepean Hospital, Sydney, Australia (GD); and Nepean Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia - - 2014
The optimization of enteral nutrition is a priority in preterm neonates worldwide. Probiotics are known to improve gut maturity and function in preterm neonates. To our knowledge, previous systematic reviews have not adequately assessed the effects of probiotic supplementation on enteral nutrition in preterm neonates. We assessed the evidence on ...
Walker Allan A Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, - - 2014
Initial bacterial colonization of the gut is a vital component of the development of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly mucosal immune protection, during the neonatal period. Newborn infants in their protected intrauterine environment are suddenly thrust into a highly contaminated extrauterine state. Although mucosal host defenses have developed in utero during ...
Wei Sung-Hsi - - 2014
We report 2 cases of neonatal Legionella infection associated with aspiration of contaminated water used in hospitals to make infant formula. The molecular profiles of Legionella strains isolated from samples from the infants and from water dispensers were indistinguishable. Our report highlights the need to consider nosocomial legionellosis among neonates ...
Rodríguez Juan M JM Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Food Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain - - 2014
Human milk is a source of bacteria to the infant gut; however, the origin of milk bacteria, as well as their impact on neonatal gut microbiota establishment, remains largely unknown. In the past years, results provided by different research groups suggest that certain bacteria from the maternal gastrointestinal tract could ...
Elayappen Avanikkha A Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, - - 2014
Introduction: Purpura fulminans (PF) is a skin manifestation due to hemorrhagic infarction caused by intravascular thrombosis secondary to bacterial infections or deficiency of anticoagulants such as protein C and protein S. Neonatal PF is a rare but potentially disabling disorder associated with a high mortality and severe long term morbidity in ...
Newburg David S DS Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Infants begin acquiring intestinal microbiota at parturition. Initial colonization by pioneer bacteria is followed by active succession toward a dynamic ecosystem. Keystone microbes engage in reciprocal transkingdom communication with the host that is essential for human homeostasis and health; therefore these bacteria should be considered mutualists rather than commensals. This ...
Lee Seung Joo SJ Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, South - - 2014
In this era of increasing bacterial resistance to antimicrobial therapy, probiotics have great potential and yet they are a harmless alternative approach. This study is a prospective randomized uncontrolled trial to investigate the preventive effect of probiotic prophylaxis in infants with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and frequently recurring urinary tract ...
James Adam T AT Department of Paediatrics, The Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, - - 2014
The transitional circulation and its effect on myocardial performance are poorly understood in preterm infants. We assessed myocardial performance in infants less than 29weeks gestation in the first 48h of life using a comprehensive echocardiographic assessment. Infants <29weeks gestation were prospectively enrolled. Small for gestation, infants on inotropes and/or inhaled ...
Day J B JB U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD, - - 2014
To develop a rapid detection procedure for Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce using a macrophage-based enrichment protocol and real-time PCR. A macrophage cell culture system was employed for the isolation and enrichment of L. monocytogenes from infant formula and lettuce for subsequent identification using real-time PCR. Macrophage monolayers ...
Arboleya Silvia S Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, - - 2014
To assess the establishment of the intestinal microbiota in very low birthweight preterm infants and to evaluate the impact of perinatal factors, such as delivery mode and perinatal antibiotics. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence-based microbiota analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the establishment of the intestinal ...
Mugambi Mary N - - 2014
This study assessed how the food industry applies the knowledge and evidence gained from synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics research in infants, on the general paediatric population. This study also explored: what happens after the clinical trials using infant formula are completed, data is published or remains unpublished; the effectiveness and ...
Unger Sharon S Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
The microbiome, of which the bacterial component alone (microbiota), is estimated to include 10 times more cells than human cells of the body, blooms immediately after birth and evolves in composition and complexity throughout childhood. The gut microbiome has a profound impact on gastrointestinal tract development, maintenance of mucosal surface ...
Ringe Hannelore H Pediatric Intensive Care, and - - 2014
Infant botulism is an acute life-threatening condition and diagnosis is frequently delayed. Therefore, the best time window to administer specific antibodies, at present the only etiology-based therapy, is often missed, entailing long periods of hospitalization in the PICU. Here we present a 3-month-old boy with infant botulism and respiratory failure, ...
Houghteling Pearl D PD *Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, 114 16th Street (114-3505), Charlestown, MA 02129-4404, USA †University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, - - 2014
Microbial colonization of the infant occurs during a critical time window for immune and gastrointestinal development. Infant colonization sets the stage for the adult microbiome. This review is a broad survey of the factors affecting infant colonization and the downstream effects on gastrointestinal health and disease. Major topics affecting colonization ...
Day J B JB U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740, USA. Electronic address: - - 2015
Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay ...
Robinson Daniel T DT Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, - - 2014
Components of diet, including the total amounts and specific types of fat, affect the composition of the intestinal microbiome in both animal models and cohort studies of humans. Amounts of total fat and specific fatty acids (FA) are some of the most variable nutritional components of breast milk. Evaluations of ...
Underwood Mark A MA 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, USA [2] Foods for Health Institute, University of California Davis, Davis, California, - - 2014
Oligosaccharides are abundant in human milk. Production of these highly diverse structures requires significant energy expenditure by the mother and yet these human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) offer no direct nutritive value to her infant. A primary function of HMOs is to shape the infant's intestinal microbiota with life-long consequences. Bifidobacterium ...
De Leoz Maria Lorna Arao - - 2014
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play a key role in shaping and maintaining a healthy infant gut microbiota. This paper demonstrates the potential of combining recent advances in glycomics and genomics to correlate abundances of fecal microbes and fecal HMOs. Serial fecal specimens from two healthy breast-fed infants were analyzed by ...
Dutta Sourabh S Departments of Pediatrics and *Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Correspondence to: Dr Sourabh Dutta, Additional Professor, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160 012, India. - - 2014
To study intestinal colonization patterns in very low birth weight infants in the first week of life in a neonatal intensive care unit. Meconium/stool specimens were obtained on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 from 38 very low-birth-weight infants in a level III neonatal intensive care unit. On day 1, ...
Hickey L L Department of Neonatal Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; School of Medicine & Medical Science, University College Dublin, Ireland; Neonatal Services, Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study aimed to assess probiotic cross-colonization between infants in a neonatal unit where probiotics were being administered to preterm infants during a clinical trial. We tested stool samples from all infants present in the unit at two time points; the first was during the trial and the second was ...
Levasseur Kelly Anne KA From the *Wayne State University, Children's Hospital of Michigan, and †Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, - - 2014
The main objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of return visits (RVs) in well-appearing infants to an urban emergency department (ED) who were evaluated for serious bacterial infection (SBI) at their index ED visit. We conducted a retrospective chart review on infants aged 90 days and younger ...
Longini Mariangela M Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena , Siena , Italy - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To investigate changes in global metabolic profile between: 1 - breast milk and formula milk, 2 - breast milk from mothers delivering at different gestational age (GA) collected within one week from delivery, and then week by week until term equivalent age. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was ...
Lee Anne Cc AC Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
Inadequate illness recognition and access to antibiotics contribute to high case fatality from infections in young infants (<2 months) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to address three questions regarding access to treatment for young infant infections in LMICs: (1) Can frontline health workers accurately diagnose possible bacterial ...
Stulberg Debra B DB The University of Chicago, - - 2014
In "Colicky baby? Here's a surprising remedy" (J Fam Pract. 2011;60:34-36), we summarized a 2010 double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) that found the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 reduced daily crying time in colicky, exclusively breastfed infants. A recently published RCT of the same probiotic by Sung et al adds ...
Bridgman Sarah L - - 2014
Probiotic products that may modify the intestinal microbiota are becoming increasingly available and known to consumers due to their potential to prevent or treat many pediatric health conditions. As scientific knowledge of the health benefits of probiotics increases, it is important to identify factors that may prevent their successful integration ...
Ozdemir R R Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, - - 2014
Objective:The present study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and views of the Muslim religious officers regarding infant feeding, breast milk, wet nursing, milk kinship and human milk banks (HMBs).Study Design:A total of 401 religious officers were included in the study. Participants included 355 community service religious officers and 46 ...
Stiverson J J Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State - - 2014
The objective of this study was to systematically assess the bifidogenic effect of three commonly used prebiotic products using in vitro cultures of infant fecal samples. Fresh stool samples collected from six term infants each exclusively fed human milk (n=3) or infant formula (n=3) at 28 days of age were ...
Gorissen D M W DM Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Evidence is mounting that progressive westernization and allergic disease are associated with disturbance of the intestinal microbial balance. This includes altered early colonization patterns and reduced bacterial diversity. In 2009 we reported results of early and long-term administration of selected probiotics to high-risk infants. This article is protected by copyright. ...
Sarkar Siddhartha Sean SS Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
Background We hypothesized that maternal intrapartum antibiotic treatment delays the growth of the organism in the blood culture obtained during the work-up for infants with suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS). Methods Single center, retrospective review of infants with blood culture-proven EOS over 13.5 years period. EOS was defined by isolation of a pathogen ...
Basu S S Division of Bacteriology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P33, CIT Road, Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata, 700010, India, - - 2014
Colonization of the neonatal gut takes place immediately after birth. Bacteria that get colonized are considered to be "normal" flora derived principally from the mother and the immediate environment. However, for some neonates, the colonization of the gut, particularly with potential pathogens, may lead to subsequent infections or sepsis. The ...
Yang B B College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the existence and characteristics of Salmonella enterica in dried milk-related infant foods. Twenty-four (3.4%) of 705 samples, including 5 (2.0%) of 246 powdered infant formula, 18 (4.0%) of 445 infant rice cereal, and 1 (7.1%) of 14 other infant foods, were positive ...
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