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Le Doare Kirsty K Imperial College London, Department of Paediatrics, St. Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK; Wellcome Trust Centre for Global Health Research, Norfolk Place, London, UK; MRC Unit, Vaccinology Theme, Atlantic Road, Fajara, Gambia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Invasive Group-B streptococcal (GBS) disease is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. GBS colonises the maternal rectum and vagina and transmission of bacteria from a colonized mother to her infant at birth is an important risk factor for GBS disease. GBS disease has also been associated with ...
Reikie Brian A BA 1Division of Infectious & Immunological Diseases, and Centre for Understanding and Preventing Infections in Children, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V5Z 4H4, Canada 2Immunology Unit, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, NHLS and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 3Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, NHLS and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 4Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 5Leaders in Medicine Program, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 4N1, - - 2014
Early in life HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared to HIV-unexposed (UE) infants. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their increased risk, we contrasted innate immune development between HEU and UE infants in a developing world setting, ...
Zhang Lei L Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, - - 2014
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is of high prevalence in China. Mother-to-infant transmission is the major route for HBV transmission and subsequent chronicity. This study aimed to investigate current HBsAg-positive rate among pregnant women and immunoprophylaxis outcome in China. Multicenter prospective study was conducted in 10 centers. From 2008 to ...
McDonald Suzanna L - - 2014
Vitamin A supplementation significantly reduces all-cause mortality when given between 6-59 months of age, but has a null or detrimental effect when given between 1-5 months. Studies of neonatal vitamin A supplementation conducted across Africa and South Asia have produced conflicting findings. These age-pattern variations might result from immunological interactions ...
Winkler Beate B Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Children's Hospital, Joseph-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080, Würzburg, - - 2014
Breast-feeding (BF) versus formula-feeding (FF) may be a factor for the development and differentiation of T-cell subsets and cytokine production in infancy and childhood. We therefore investigated T-cell subpopulations and their cytokine production by flow cytometry as well as cytokine levels in serum samples in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants and ...
Groer Maureen M 1University of South Florida College of Nursing, Tampa, FL, - - 2014
Background:There has been a recent increase in availability of banked donor milk for feeding of preterm infants. This milk is pooled from donations to milk banks from carefully screened lactating women. The milk is then pasteurized by the Holder method to remove all microbes. The processed milk is frozen, banked, ...
Ward Tonya L TL Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, - - 2014
Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a pattern recognition receptor and Toll-like co-receptor observed in human milk (5-26μg/mL) and other bodily fluids such as blood (3μg/mL). The most well defined role of sCD14 is to recognize lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria and signal an immune response through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Previous research ...
Albokrinov Andrew A AA From the Regional Children's Clinic Hospital, Lviv, - - 2014
Thoracolumbar paravertebral block (PVB) is one method of providing regional anaesthesia for abdominal wall surgery in children. It is common practice when performing a PVB for abdominal wall anaesthesia to inject a certain volume of local anaesthetic solution in the paravertebral space at several levels. This increases the duration of ...
Ahlfeld Shawn K SK Developmental Biology and Neonatal Medicine Program, HB Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, - - 2014
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of extreme prematurity and is defined clinically by dependence on supplemental oxygen due to impaired gas exchange. Optimal gas exchange is dependent on the development of a sufficient surface area for diffusion. In the mammalian lung, rapid acquisition of distal lung surface ...
Romano-Keeler Joann J Department of Pediatrics; Vanderbilt University; Nashville, TN - - 2014
Fecal sampling is widely utilized to define small intestinal tissue-level microbial communities in healthy and diseased newborns. However, this approach may lead to inaccurate assessments of disease or therapeutics in newborns because of the assumption that the taxa in the fecal microbiota are representative of the taxa present throughout the ...
Davidson Autumn P AP Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Small Animal Clinic, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Pet Care Veterinary Hospital, East Campus, 2425 Mendocino Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95403, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Prudent veterinary intervention in the prenatal, parturient, and postpartum periods can increase neonatal survival by controlling or eliminating factors contributing to puppy morbidity and mortality. Postresuscitation or within the first 24 hours of a natural delivery, a complete physical examination should be performed by a veterinarian, technician, or knowledgeable breeder. Adequate ...
Chahroudi Ann A Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of - - 2014
Mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT) of HIV is a serious global health concern, with over 300,000 children newly infected in 2011. SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) results in similar rates of MTIT to that of HIV in humans. In contrast, SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs) rarely results in MTIT. The ...
Longo Stefania S Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) is usually defined as impaired growth and development of the fetus and/or its organs during gestation. Infants are defined small for gestational age (SGA), following IUGR, when the birth weight is below the 10th percentile. Pre-natal congenital infections caused by T. gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes ...
Chaves Sandra S SS 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 2Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 3Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 4Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, CO 5Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 6Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, MI 7Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 8Oregon Public Health Division, Portland, OR 9Utah Department of Health, Salt Lake City, UT 10New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, NM 11Rhode Island Department of Health, Providence, RI 12Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, MN 13Emerging Infections Program, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 14California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland, CA 15Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School, of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 16Monroe County, Department of Public Health, Rochester, NY 17Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, MD 18Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, - - 2014
Little information is available describing the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of those <12 months hospitalized with influenza, particularly at a population level. We used population-based, laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization surveillance data from 2003-2012 seasons to describe the impact of influenza by age category (<3, 3 to <6 and 6 to <12 ...
Groome Michelle J MJ Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Box 90753, Bertsham, 2013, Gauteng, South - - 2014
To investigate the effect of abstention from breastfeeding, for an hour before and after each vaccination, on the immune responses of infants to two doses of rotavirus vaccine. In Soweto, South Africa, mother-infant pairs who were uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled as they presented for the "6-week" ...
Gephart Sheila M SM College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson (Dr Gephart); and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Arizona (Ms - - 2014
It is well known that the immune response is blunted and underdeveloped in the premature infant, but human milk supports the infant's growth, function, and effectiveness. Thus, own mother's colostrum (OMC) administered oropharyngeally has potential to deliver oral immune therapy (C-OIT) even before enteral feedings have begun. Colostrum interacts with ...
Pifko Elysha E Resident Physician (Pifko), Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellow (Price), Pediatric Emergency Medicine Attending Physician (Sterner), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, - - 2014
Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores and leads to a life-threatening descending motor weakness and flaccid paralysis in infant children. This disease presents with symptoms such as constipation, weakness, and hypotonia and can lead to respiratory failure. Botulism immune globulin (BIG) was created to treat ...
Penders John J Department of Medical Microbiology; School for Nutrition, Toxicology, and Metabolism; Maastricht University Medical Centre; Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology; School for Public Health and Primary Care; Maastricht University; Maastricht, the - - 2014
There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the infant intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of allergic diseases. To date there are, however, still no definite bacterial taxa or particular subsets of the microbiota that have been ...
Tobin Nicole H NH Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., MS#51, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, - - 2014
The recent report of an infant that appears to have achieved a "functional cure" of HIV-1 following receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 30 hours of birth raises many questions: was the child infected? Was this result due to unique features of this particular infant's immune system, the immune system of ...
Liao Sui-Ling SL 1Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Taoyuan , - - 2014
G6PD-deficient adults are reported to be susceptible to severe infection, and decreased cytokine responses have been postulated as the underlying mechanism. However, investigating the association of G6PD deficiency and cytokine responses during infancy is lacking. The current study aims to determine whether cytokine responses of tumor necrosis factor ()-α, interleukins ...
Kallapur Suhas G SG Division of Neonatology/Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of - - 2014
Chorioamnionitis is a frequent cause of preterm birth and is associated with an increased risk for injury responses in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and other fetal organs. Chorioamnionitis is a polymicrobial nontraditional infectious disease because the organisms causing chorioamnionitis are generally of low virulence and colonize the amniotic fluid ...
Latuga M Susan MS Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New - - 2014
Breast milk contains a rich microbiota composed of viable skin and non-skin bacteria. The extent of the breast milk microbiota diversity has been revealed through new culture-independent studies using microbial DNA signatures. However, the extent to which the breast milk microbiota are transferred from mother to infant and the function ...
Zagato Elena E Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, - - 2014
The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we ...
P Suryawanshi S Associate Professor, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Incharge & Consultant Neonatologist, Bharati Hospital , Pune-411043, - - 2014
We report a case of a preterm neonate with isolated spontaneous pneumopericardium occurring in the absence of a history of neonatal resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, major lung disease or another air leak. The pneumopericardium was asymptomatic and resolved without the need for aspiration, although the "nitrogen washout" technique was used.
van den Berg Jolice P JP Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Maternal antibodies, transported over the placenta during pregnancy, contribute to the protection of infants from infectious diseases during the first months of life. In term infants, this protection does not last until the first recommended measles-mumps-rubella vaccination at 14 months in the Netherlands, while these viruses still circulate. The aim ...
Ziegler Ekhard E EE Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, - - 2014
Human milk contains numerous immune-protective components that protect the premature infant from sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Because of these protective effects, human milk is the feeding of choice for the premature infant. However, human milk does not provide adequate amounts of most nutrients for premature infants and must therefore be ...
Balloch Anne A *Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, #Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, †Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, ^Menzies School of Health Research, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia, ¥London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, - - 2013
Australian indigenous infants experience the highest incidence of chronic suppurative and acute otitis media in the world with many babies developing disease in the early postnatal period. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of otitis media in this population. Infants are protected against bacterial disease in the first months of ...
Celen Mustafa Kemal MK Mustafa Kemal Celen, Celal Ayaz, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, 21280 Yenişehir, Diyarbakir, - - 2013
To evaluate the effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use during late pregnancy to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in highly viremic mothers. This retrospective study included 45 pregnant patients with hepatitis B e antigen (+) chronic hepatitis B and HBV DNA levels > 10(7) copies/mL who received TDF ...
Imamura Takashi T 1Department of Pediatrics, Takeda General Hospital, Aizu Wakamatsu, - - 2013
The purpose was to review our experiences and determine if applying the sky blue method is reliable in confirming gastric tube (GT) placement in neonates. Methods: The study population consisted of 44 infants (55 placements) who were admitted to the Takeda General Hospital between April 2012 and March 2013 and ...
Kuperman Amir A Pediatric Hematology Clinic and Coagulation Service, Western Galilee Hospital, Naharia, Israel; Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, - - 2013
Pertussis is an important cause of infant death worldwide and continues to be a public health concern even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Severe (critical) pertussis with hyperleukocytosis is a severe form of the disease with up to 80% mortality rate. Attempts have been reported to reduce the white ...
Musallam Nadira - - 2013
We describe an 8-month-old infant with infantile spasms treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) who presented with fatal Legionella pneumophila and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Emphasis is placed on the ensuing immunosuppression and infectious sequelae of ACTH therapy. Given that ACTH therapy may increase the risk of fatal infection, patients undergoing such ...
Fooladi Abbas Ali Imani - - 2013
The prevalence of allergic diseases among infants is increasing particularly in developed countries. Although, the exact reason is not clear yet, one of the most probable explanations is reducing microbial exposure during early life and consequent alteration of gut microbiota. Various factors including delivery mode, infant`s diet, environment and antibiotics ...
Glaser Kirsten - - 2013
Altered neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) function is hypothesized to contribute to the heightened susceptibility to infection and perpetuated inflammation in term and preterm neonates, clinically evident in neonatal sepsis and increased rates of inflammatory disorders. Current data indicate that basal TLR expression in term neonates equals adult expression patterns, while ...
Gregory Katherine E KE W.F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA, - - 2013
Exposure to the immunologic factors found in maternal breast milk has been shown to compensate for the immature immune system that characterizes the preterm infant. Feeding preterm infants with human milk not only provides protection from disease pathogenesis and ensures an optimal source of nutrients in the short term, but ...
Moro Pedro L PL Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Birth Defects Branch, Division of Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Workforce Branch, Office of Public Health Scientific Services, and the Women's Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; and the Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, - - 2013
To characterize maternal and infant outcomes for pregnant women who received live H1N1 influenza vaccine and had no reported adverse events. We identified Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System reports, which described receipt of live H1N1 vaccine during pregnancy without an indication of an adverse event at the time of the ...
Smolen Kinga K - - 2013
Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation ...
Jans Jop - - 2013
RSV infections are a major burden in infants less than 3 months of age. Newborns and infants express a distinct immune system that is largely dependent on innate immunity and passive immunity from maternal antibodies. Antibodies can regulate immune responses against viruses through interaction with Fc gamma receptors leading to enhancement ...
Mejias Asuncion - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune ...
Takcı Sahin S Division of Neonatology Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey - - 2013
Rhesus (Rh) hemolytic disease of the newborn represents a broad spectrum of symptoms in the fetus and newborn, ranging from mild to severe hemolytic anemia and hydrops fetalis. Cholestasis is a common problem in infants with immune hydrops fetalis (IHF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence ...
Frew Paula M - - 2013
Objective: We examined pregnant women's likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed "Contagion" to understand ...
Auger Katherine A - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Recent universal vaccination efforts among children in the United States have markedly changed hospitalization patterns for many vaccine-preventable diseases. Infants with pertussis often require hospitalization to monitor for potentially life-threatening respiratory failure. In 2006, tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination was recommended for universal administration to adolescents, a known source of pertussis ...
Anders Katherine L - - 2013
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, more than one-third of admissions to the two paediatric hospitals are attributable to four infectious syndromes: dengue, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infection, and hand, foot and mouth disease. We have established a large prospective birth cohort study to investigate individual, environmental, virological, and immunological ...
Li Jian - - 2013
To evaluate proportion and predictors of poor response in infants and appraise booster seroprotection, we surveyed 2047 infants in Shanghai and detected antibody to hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen (anti-HBs). Poor responders were randomized into 2 groups, given booster with 5 µg and 10 µg hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), respectively. ...
Civardi Elisa - - 2013
Abstract Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism ...
Pfister K M - - 2013
We report a case of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in an infant whose mother had recurrent HSV-2 infection. In spite of prematurity, severe disseminated infection and hydrops, the infant survived and was neurologically intact. HSV-2-induced NIHF is extremely rare, particularly in the ...
Pesco Pablo - - 2013
Pertussis or whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease that has reemerged in the past decades. A higher morbidity and mortality has been recorded in infants, although cases have also been reported in adolescents and adults. The epidemiological scenario for this condition has urged to review and implement new strategies ...
Takci Sahin - - 2013
We aimed to define the etiologic and prognostic factors in live-born infants with hydrops fetalis (HF) in our tertiary neonatal intensive care unit over a 10-year period. Medical records of newborn infants with HF during 2002-2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data, prenatal interventions, clinical and laboratory findings, outcomes, and the ...
Rafeey Mandana M Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR - - 2013
Human breast milk, the sole source of nutrition during the early neonatal period, is rich in nutrients, hormones, growth factors, and immunoactive molecules, which influence the growth, development, and immune status of the newborn infant. It had long been thought that breast milk is an adequate source of anthracitic activity ...
Koklu Esad - - 2013
Abstract Newborn infants are born with an immature innate immunity. They are less likely to develop anaphylaxis since their immune system is weaker than older infants and children. There are only a few reports of side effects after vitamin K injection in neonates although prophylaxis against hemorrhagic disease of the ...
Moyer Cheryl A - - 2013
To determine whether facility delivery is related to compliance with recommended infant immunizations, particularly those that occur weeks or months after delivery. In a retrospective analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to assess data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) to determine the strongest correlates of facility ...
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