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Walker Allan A Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, - - 2014
Initial bacterial colonization of the gut is a vital component of the development of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly mucosal immune protection, during the neonatal period. Newborn infants in their protected intrauterine environment are suddenly thrust into a highly contaminated extrauterine state. Although mucosal host defenses have developed in utero during ...
Wei Sung-Hsi - - 2014
We report 2 cases of neonatal Legionella infection associated with aspiration of contaminated water used in hospitals to make infant formula. The molecular profiles of Legionella strains isolated from samples from the infants and from water dispensers were indistinguishable. Our report highlights the need to consider nosocomial legionellosis among neonates ...
Day J B JB U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD, - - 2014
To develop a rapid detection procedure for Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce using a macrophage-based enrichment protocol and real-time PCR. A macrophage cell culture system was employed for the isolation and enrichment of L. monocytogenes from infant formula and lettuce for subsequent identification using real-time PCR. Macrophage monolayers ...
Mugambi Mary N - - 2014
This study assessed how the food industry applies the knowledge and evidence gained from synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics research in infants, on the general paediatric population. This study also explored: what happens after the clinical trials using infant formula are completed, data is published or remains unpublished; the effectiveness and ...
Unger Sharon S Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
The microbiome, of which the bacterial component alone (microbiota), is estimated to include 10 times more cells than human cells of the body, blooms immediately after birth and evolves in composition and complexity throughout childhood. The gut microbiome has a profound impact on gastrointestinal tract development, maintenance of mucosal surface ...
Ringe Hannelore H Pediatric Intensive Care, and - - 2014
Infant botulism is an acute life-threatening condition and diagnosis is frequently delayed. Therefore, the best time window to administer specific antibodies, at present the only etiology-based therapy, is often missed, entailing long periods of hospitalization in the PICU. Here we present a 3-month-old boy with infant botulism and respiratory failure, ...
Houghteling Pearl D PD *Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, 114 16th Street (114-3505), Charlestown, MA 02129-4404, USA †University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, - - 2014
Microbial colonization of the infant occurs during a critical time window for immune and gastrointestinal development. Infant colonization sets the stage for the adult microbiome. This review is a broad survey of the factors affecting infant colonization and the downstream effects on gastrointestinal health and disease. Major topics affecting colonization ...
Robinson Daniel T DT Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, - - 2014
Components of diet, including the total amounts and specific types of fat, affect the composition of the intestinal microbiome in both animal models and cohort studies of humans. Amounts of total fat and specific fatty acids (FA) are some of the most variable nutritional components of breast milk. Evaluations of ...
Underwood Mark A MA 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, USA [2] Foods for Health Institute, University of California Davis, Davis, California, - - 2014
Oligosaccharides are abundant in human milk. Production of these highly diverse structures requires significant energy expenditure by the mother and yet these human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) offer no direct nutritive value to her infant. A primary function of HMOs is to shape the infant's intestinal microbiota with life-long consequences. Bifidobacterium ...
De Leoz Maria Lorna Arao - - 2014
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play a key role in shaping and maintaining a healthy infant gut microbiota. This paper demonstrates the potential of combining recent advances in glycomics and genomics to correlate abundances of fecal microbes and fecal HMOs. Serial fecal specimens from two healthy breast-fed infants were analyzed by ...
Levasseur Kelly Anne KA From the *Wayne State University, Children's Hospital of Michigan, and †Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, - - 2014
The main objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of return visits (RVs) in well-appearing infants to an urban emergency department (ED) who were evaluated for serious bacterial infection (SBI) at their index ED visit. We conducted a retrospective chart review on infants aged 90 days and younger ...
Longini Mariangela M Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena , Siena , Italy - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To investigate changes in global metabolic profile between: 1 - breast milk and formula milk, 2 - breast milk from mothers delivering at different gestational age (GA) collected within one week from delivery, and then week by week until term equivalent age. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was ...
Lee Anne Cc AC Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
Inadequate illness recognition and access to antibiotics contribute to high case fatality from infections in young infants (<2 months) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to address three questions regarding access to treatment for young infant infections in LMICs: (1) Can frontline health workers accurately diagnose possible bacterial ...
Stulberg Debra B DB The University of Chicago, - - 2014
In "Colicky baby? Here's a surprising remedy" (J Fam Pract. 2011;60:34-36), we summarized a 2010 double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) that found the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 reduced daily crying time in colicky, exclusively breastfed infants. A recently published RCT of the same probiotic by Sung et al adds ...
Bridgman Sarah L - - 2014
Probiotic products that may modify the intestinal microbiota are becoming increasingly available and known to consumers due to their potential to prevent or treat many pediatric health conditions. As scientific knowledge of the health benefits of probiotics increases, it is important to identify factors that may prevent their successful integration ...
Ozdemir R R Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, - - 2014
Objective:The present study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and views of the Muslim religious officers regarding infant feeding, breast milk, wet nursing, milk kinship and human milk banks (HMBs).Study Design:A total of 401 religious officers were included in the study. Participants included 355 community service religious officers and 46 ...
Stiverson J J Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State - - 2014
The objective of this study was to systematically assess the bifidogenic effect of three commonly used prebiotic products using in vitro cultures of infant fecal samples. Fresh stool samples collected from six term infants each exclusively fed human milk (n=3) or infant formula (n=3) at 28 days of age were ...
Gorissen D M W DM Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Evidence is mounting that progressive westernization and allergic disease are associated with disturbance of the intestinal microbial balance. This includes altered early colonization patterns and reduced bacterial diversity. In 2009 we reported results of early and long-term administration of selected probiotics to high-risk infants. This article is protected by copyright. ...
Sarkar Siddhartha Sean SS Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
Background We hypothesized that maternal intrapartum antibiotic treatment delays the growth of the organism in the blood culture obtained during the work-up for infants with suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS). Methods Single center, retrospective review of infants with blood culture-proven EOS over 13.5 years period. EOS was defined by isolation of a pathogen ...
Basu S S Division of Bacteriology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P33, CIT Road, Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata, 700010, India, - - 2014
Colonization of the neonatal gut takes place immediately after birth. Bacteria that get colonized are considered to be "normal" flora derived principally from the mother and the immediate environment. However, for some neonates, the colonization of the gut, particularly with potential pathogens, may lead to subsequent infections or sepsis. The ...
Yang B B College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the existence and characteristics of Salmonella enterica in dried milk-related infant foods. Twenty-four (3.4%) of 705 samples, including 5 (2.0%) of 246 powdered infant formula, 18 (4.0%) of 445 infant rice cereal, and 1 (7.1%) of 14 other infant foods, were positive ...
Cantey Joseph B JB 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; 2(current address) Center for Perinatal Research, Nationwide Children's Hospital - The Ohio State University, Columbus, - - 2014
Prolonged or unnecessary antibiotic use is associated with adverse outcomes in neonates. Our objectives were to quantify all antibiotic use in a Level III NICU and to identify scenarios where their use could be reduced. Surveillance and evaluation of all antibiotic use provided to every infant admitted to a Level ...
Merglova Vlasta - - 2014
Recently, the dental literature has focused mainly on the microbial colonization of healthy full-term infants and their mothers or caretakers. However, oral microbial acquisition by premature infants has not been adequately investigated, and the correlation between pre-term birth and the presence of cariogenic and periodontal pathogens has not been determined. ...
AlFaleh Khalid K Department of Pediatrics (Division of Neonatology), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. kfaleh@ksu.edu.sa, - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, and enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC ...
McMullen Janet A JA Undergraduate Medical Education Doctor of Medicine - - 2014
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in infants. To use resources optimally, factors contributing to costs through length of stay (LOS) must be identified. This study sought to identify clinical and health system factors associated with long LOS in infants with UTI. Using a case-control ...
Topcuoglu Sevilay S Neonatologist, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children's Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonisation can be controlled with strict adherence to infection control measures. We describe a VRE outbreak coincident with bacterial probiotic trial. Relationship between probiotic and VRE colonisation, and other possible risk factors were investigated. Methods: Two hundred ten infants with gestational age less than ...
Bergmann Henrike H Freelance Scientific - - 2014
Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk ...
Jaeggi Tanja T Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
In-home iron fortification for infants in developing countries is recommended for control of anaemia, but low absorption typically results in >80% of the iron passing into the colon. Iron is essential for growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria. We determined the effect of high and low dose in-home iron ...
Fernandes M M Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
Maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse child outcomes. One potential mechanism is the influence of antenatal depression on the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This can be observed as disturbances in baseline cortisol secretion during childhood. The influence of antenatal depression on infant cortisol reactivity to ...
Sadissou Ibrahim - - 2014
The immunosuppressive properties of HLA-G protein can create a tolerogenic environment that may allow Plasmodium falciparum to avoid host immune responses. There are known associations between high levels of circulating soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) and either parasite or viral infections and it has been suggested that the induction of sHLA-G expression ...
Shen Chanjuan C Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA, - - 2014
A better understanding of immune responses in human infants could lead to more effective immunization and vaccination strategies in early life. Since antibodies are key components of protective vaccine responses, we examined developmental changes in serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in infant rhesus macaques from birth through 6 ...
Gill Christopher John CJ Boston University School of Public Health , Boston, MA , - - 2014
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In populations with limited access to health care, early identification of bacterial infections and initiation of antibiotics by community health workers (CHWs) could be lifesaving. It is unknown whether this strategy would be feasible using traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a cadre ...
Munbilt Daniel D Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, United Kingdom; International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network, of the World Universities Network - - 2014
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to allergic sensitisation and disease. The factors in breast milk which influence these processes are still unclear and under investigation. We know that colostrum and breast milk contain a variety of molecules which can influence immune responses in ...
Oulego-Erroz Ignacio I Department of Pediatrics, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
An ultrasound evaluation of lumbar spine anatomic landmarks relevant for lumbar puncture was performed in 199 newborn infants. Effects of 6 patient positions and gestational age on interspinous process distance, subarachnoid space width, predicted needle entry angle, and needle insertion depth were assessed. Our results identify optimized conditions for lumbar ...
Urwyler Pascal - - 2014
An increase of pertussis cases, especially in young infants and adolescents, has been noted in various countries. Whooping cough is most serious in neonates and young infants in whom it may cause serious complications such as cyanosis, apnoea, pneumonia, encephalopathy and death. To protect newborns and infants too young to ...
Donovan Sharon M SM Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The early postnatal period is a critical window for intestinal and immune maturation. Intestinal development and microbiome diversity and composition differ between breast- (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants. Mechanistic examination into host-microbe relationships in healthy infants has been hindered by ethical constraints surrounding tissue biopsies. Thus, a statistically rigorous analytical ...
Toizumi Michiko M Departments of Pediatric Infectious Diseases andDepartments of Tropical Pediatric Infectious - - 2014
Outbreaks of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) continue to arise in various countries where a rubella-containing vaccine is not included in the national immunization program. After a large-scale rubella outbreak in 2011, CRS cases emerged in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of ...
Healy C Mary CM aDepartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine,bBen Taub General Hospital, cCenter for Vaccine Awareness and Research, Texas Children's Hospital, dUniversity of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, Houston, - - 2014
Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization of infant contacts (cocooning) is recommended by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to prevent infant pertussis. We determined whether implementing a cocooning program at Ben Taub General Hospital (BTGH), Houston, reduced severe pertussis in young infants. Infants ≤ 6 months of age, ...
Tregnaghi Miguel M Centro de Desarrollo de Proyectos Avanzados, Córdoba, - - 2014
This phase III study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, administered with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age. Healthy infants received MenACWY-CRM in a two- or three-dose primary infant series plus a single toddler dose. In addition, a two-dose toddler catch-up series ...
Adam Omer - - 2014
Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS cases among Sudanese infants with congenital eye or heart defects. Between February and September 2010, paired oral fluid and ...
Harrison Denise - - 2014
Early childhood immunizations, although vital for preventative health, are painful and too often lead to fear of needles. Effective pain management strategies during infant immunizations include breastfeeding, sweet solutions, and upright front-to-front holding. However, it is unknown how often these strategies are used in clinical practice. We aimed to review ...
Goo Leslie L 1] Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. [2] Graduate Program in Pathobiology, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
Eliciting protective neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against HIV-1 is daunting because of the extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of HIV-1. Moreover, broad and potent responses are uncommon even during persistent infection, with only a subset of adults developing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that recognize viral variants from different HIV-1 clades. It ...
Hsu Ya-Chi YC Department of Pediatrics, Chiayi Branch, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Chiayi, - - 2014
The primary aim of the study was to investigate the changes in composition of breast milk from mothers with preterm infants (gestation age < 35 weeks) during the first 4-6 weeks of lactation. Breast milk from 17 mothers who had delivered preterm infants was collected longitudinally for 4-6 weeks. Breast milk from 15 ...
Payne Barbara L BL Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, USA; Department of Global Health, University of Washington, - - 2014
In utero exposure to HIV-1 may affect the immune system of the developing child and may induce HIV-1-specific immune responses, even in the absence of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated lymphoproliferative capacity at birth among 40 HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and 10 infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. ...
Akin Ilke Mungan IM Division of Neonatology, School of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, - - 2014
Objective Lactoferrin (LF) is effective in the prevention of sepsis in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are important subsets of T lymphocytes that control pathogen-specific immune responses and are essential for intestinal immune homoeostasis. The aim of the present study is to determine whether oral LF at ...
Wong K K KK Epidemic Intelligence Service assigned to Influenza Division,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, - - 2014
SUMMARY Death certificate reports and laboratory-confirmed influenza deaths probably underestimate paediatric deaths attributable to influenza. Using US mortality data for persons aged <18 years who died during 28 September 2003 to 2 October 2010, we estimated influenza-attributable deaths using a generalized linear regression model based on seasonal covariates, influenza-certified deaths ...
Munoz Flor M FM Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas2Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, - - 2014
Maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine could prevent infant pertussis. To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap immunization during pregnancy and its effect on infant responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. Phase 1-2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical ...
Bardini M M M Tettamanti Research Center; University of Milano Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo, Monza, - - 2014
Distinct from most other acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), infant ALL with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangement, the most common leukemia occurring within the first year of life, might arise without the need for cooperating genetic lesions. Through Ig/TCR rearrangement analysis of MLL-AF4+ infant ALL at diagnosis and xenograft leukemias ...
Dong Ying Y University Children's Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing and Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, - - 2014
Neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a serious problem in neonatal intensive care. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis, have emerged as the predominant pathogen of LOS in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, accounting for up to 77.9% of neonatal LOS in industrialized countries and 46.5% in some developing regions. VLBW ...
Trolice Mark P MP Fertility Center of Assisted Reproduction and Endocrinology, Winter Park, Florida. Electronic address: - - 2014
To report a live birth with IVF from a 46-year-old woman using autologous oocytes. Case report. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility private practice and ambulatory IVF center. One 46-year-old nulligravid woman. IVF with fresh ET. Live birth after IVF. A 46-year-old with antimullerian hormone (AMH) level less than 0.16 conceived through ...
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