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Melville Jacqueline M - - 2013
Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth. The immune systems of preterm infants have ...
van den Berg Jolice P - - 2013
In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS)] in combination with 20% pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on antibody concentrations after DTaP-IPV-Hib ...
Vento Giovanni - - 2013
The immediate effects of exogenous surfactant on lung volume and hemodynamics in preterm infants have been poorly studied. Lung volume, SpO2, perfusion index, regional SO2, transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 were simultaneously monitored and recorded ten minutes after surfactant tracheal instillation in elective HFOV ventilated preterm infants with RDS. Despite ...
Dorélien Audrey M - - 2013
We analyze the impact of birth seasonality (seasonal oscillations in the birth rate) on the dynamics of acute, immunizing childhood infectious diseases. Previous research has explored the effect of human birth seasonality on infectious disease dynamics using parameters appropriate for the developed world. We build on this work by including ...
Libraty Daniel H - - 2013
Infants have long been known to have higher infectious diseases morbidity and mortality and suboptimal vaccination responses compared to older children and adults. A variety of differences in innate and adaptive immune responses have been described between these two groups. We compared Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced production of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, ...
Jenke A C - - 2013
Objective. To describe the development of the gut microbiota in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between April 2008 and December 2009, fecal microflora was prospectively analyzed in fecal samples of all ELBW infants using real-time PCR assays. In addition, fecal inflammatory were measured. ...
Centanni Manuela - - 2013
Co-evolved as an integral component of our immune system, the gut microbiota provides specific immunological services at different ages, supporting the immune education during our infancy and sustaining a well-balanced immunological homeostasis during the course of our life. In order to figure out whether this involves differences in the microbial ...
Hall Caroline B CB Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, - - 2013
Since its discovery in 1955, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has consistently been noted to be the single most important cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants <1 year of age. RSV also causes repeat infections and significant disease throughout life. In addition to the young child, persons with compromised immune, ...
Islami Zia Z Department of Pediatrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, - - 2013
Neurological manifestations of neonatal disorders have various causes, among them neonatal tetanus, albeit rare, is a potentially fatal and preventable disease, which is seen in underdeveloped and developing countries. Although the disease has been eradicated from I.R. Iran, pregnant women immigrating to Iran from neighboring countries, especially from eastern border, ...
Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan J Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences , Christian Medical College , Vellore 632004 , - - 2013
Acquisition of the gastrointestinal microbiota at birth may have long-term health impacts. We longitudinally characterised major microbial communities in the faeces of a cohort of infants using molecular methods. Faecal samples were prospectively obtained at several time points after birth from eighty-three infants. Real-time PCR using SYBR green and primers ...
Miralha Alexandre Lopes - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Describing rates of seroconversion and its associated factors in a series of Brazilian infants following the final dose of the vaccine at 6 months of age. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected after the third dose of the vaccine for the detection of anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies among infants ...
Ritter Marion - - 2012
Serological identification of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) status in children <18 months of age is complicated by the variable persistence of maternal antibodies. As T cells are not passively transferred, we attempted to assess whether CMV-specific cellular immunity may be superior to determine the actual CMV-status; we also performed a functional ...
Tröger Birte B Department of Paediatrics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, - - 2013
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a well-known cause of adverse neonatal outcomes. As it may have an impact on innate immune responses, we aimed to investigate several parameters of the innate immune response in preterm infants of ≤32 weeks gestation who were small for gestational age (SGA). We compared clinical ...
Henkle Emily - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of respiratory illness in infants younger than 6 months of age in developing countries by approximately half. We evaluated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on respiratory illness with fever (RIF) in Bangladeshi infants in the context of a randomized maternal influenza immunization trial. METHODS:: ...
Korpe Poonum S PS Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, - - 2013
In this prospective cohort study, the presence of parasite-specific immunoglobulin A in breast milk was associated with protection of Bangladeshi infants from cryptosporidiosis and amebiasis. Our findings suggest that passive immunity could be harnessed for the prevention of Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium species infection in children living in endemic regions.
Nussbaum Claudia C Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Perinatal Center at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, - - 2013
Attenuation of the immune response contributes to the high rate of neonatal infections, particularly in premature infants. Whereas our knowledge of innate immune functions in mature neonates is growing, little is known about the ontogeny of neutrophil recruitment. We investigated neutrophils and ECs in the course of gestation with respect ...
Amaroli Andrea - - 2012
Studies by researchers worldwide have revealed that, even in industrialised nations, people, infants and the aged in particular, are even more exposed to neurotoxic drugs as a consequence of the increased quantity of pesticide residues in food. This phenomenon, as underlined by The Worldwatch Institute (2006), is linked to the ...
Kwon Hyo Jin - - 2012
A recent resurgence of pertussis has raised public health concerns even in developed countries with high vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of infant pertussis, and to determine the relative importance of household transmission in Korea. The multicenter study was prospectively conducted from ...
Madan Juliette C JC Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03753, USA. - - 2012
Bacterial colonization of the infant intestinal tract begins at birth. We are at the forefront of understanding complex relationships between bacteria and multiple parameters of health of the developing infant. Moreover, the establishment of the microbiome in the critical neonatal period is potentially foundational for lifelong health and disease susceptibility. ...
Ede Linda C - - 2012
The effect of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic on viral epidemiology of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URI and LRI) in healthy infants in the first year of life has not been well studied. A total of 180 healthy infants were enrolled from birth and monitored for occurrences of ...
Kainonen Essi - - 2012
Breast milk provides important maturational stimuli to an infant's developing immune system. However, data concerning the role of breast-feeding in reducing the risk of allergic disease remain contradictory. Previous studies have centred on comparative analyses of breast milk and formula compositions. We chose a slightly different angle, whereby we focused ...
Okada Tadao - - 2012
Biliary atresia (BA) is one of the major hepatobiliary abnormalities in infants and one of the causes of hepatic osteodystrophy. Bone disease may be caused by the malabsorption of calcium and magnesium by vitamin D in hepatobiliary diseases in which bile flow into the intestines is deficient or absent. Bone ...
Baldassarre Maria Elisabetta - - 2012
Allergic colitis (AC) typically develops in the first weeks or months of life and is characterized by the presence of red blood in the stools of healthy breastfed or formula fed infants. In this paper, we describe a case of rectal bleeding in monozygotic preterm twins that was resolved with ...
Healy C Mary - - 2013
Pertussis booster vaccine (Tdap) recommendations assume that pertussis-specific antibodies in women immunized preconception, during, or after previous pregnancies persist at sufficient levels to protect newborn infants. Pertussis-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured by IgG-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in maternal-umbilical cord serum pairs where mothers received Tdap during the prior ...
Ganguli Kriston - - 2012
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition characterized by diffuse intestinal inflammation and necrosis in preterm infants. It is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in the neonatal intensive care unit and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Primary risk factors include prematurity and low birth weight. Although the pathogenesis ...
Chavez-Valdez R - - 2013
Opioids and clonidine, used in for sedation, analgesia and control of opioid withdrawal in neonates, directly or indirectly activate opioid receptors (OPRs) expressed in immune cells. Therefore, our objective is to study how clinically relevant concentrations of different opioids and clonidine change cytokine levels in cultured whole blood from preterm ...
Ahola Kohut Sara - - 2012
Facial expressions during infancy are important to examine, as infants do not have the language skills to describe their experiences. This is particularly vital in the context of pain, where infants depend solely on their caregivers for relief. The objective of the current study was to investigate the development of ...
Derscheid Rachel J - - 2012
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. Many animal models are used to study RSV, but most studies investigate disease in adult animals which does not address the unique physiology and immunology that makes infants more susceptible. The perinatal (preterm and ...
- - 2012
An estimated 25,000 infants are born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women annually in the United States. With no intervention, 40%-90% of these infants will acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Approximately 90% of infected infants develop chronic HBV infection, with a 15%-25% risk for premature death from cirrhosis ...
Fernández Leónides - - 2012
Human milk has been traditionally considered sterile; however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal, mutualistic and/or potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Culture-dependent and -independent techniques have revealed the dominance of staphylococci, streptococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in this biological fluid, and ...
Perin Maria Cristina Abrão Aued - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To compare humoral and cellular immune responses to tetanus booster vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full term and identify factors associated with the humoral response. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on children born prematurely and with a birth weight <1500g and with infants ...
Guo Yan - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) injection during pregnancy and/or after birth is an intervention for preventing mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B (HB) virus. However, varying cost-effectiveness ratios among various HBIG therapies remain unclear. This study explored these differences in cost-effectiveness ratios. METHODS: Four districts in Wuhan, China, were ...
Rath Barbara - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The appropriate management of infants and children with influenza depends on the accurate and timely diagnosis, ideally at the point of care (POC). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of simultaneous RSV/influenza rapid testing with QuickVue™ test strips as well as (the use of) novel, fluorescence-based, rapid influenza antigen testing ...
Sharma Ashish Arunkumar - - 2012
Neonates, particularly those born prematurely, are among the most vulnerable age group for morbidity and mortality due to infections. Immaturity of the innate immune system and a high need for invasive medical procedures in the context of a preterm birth make these infants highly susceptible to common neonatal pathogens. Preterm ...
Ortiz Sylvia - - 2012
The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples of mothers with chronic Chagas disease and their newborn by conventional PCR targeted to minicircle kinetoplastidic DNA (kDNA), and to determine the lineages in mother/newborn pairs of the congenital cases by hybridization assays with ...
Spiegler Juliane - - 2012
The increasing rates of preterm birth among twins implicate that solid data on associated risks and outcomes are required. Assessment of zygosity is often based on clinical criteria (evaluation of placenta; same gender, birth weight discordance as surrogate criteria for monochorionic/monozygotic twins). The aim of this study was to compare ...
Bersani I - - 2012
Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are at high risk to develop a neonatal nosocomial sepsis. The incidence of neonatal nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) is about 20-30%, but a rate of up to 43% has been reported among neonates with a birth weight of 400-750 g. Preventive and treatment strategies ...
Manzolli Patricia - - 2012
The relationship between abuse against women and maternal depression as risk factors for infant morbidity is unclear. To describe the association of prenatal and postnatal abuse against women on infant physical morbidity and examine the potential mediating effect of maternal depression on these associations. Prospective cohort study of 375 women ...
Chow Brian D W - - 2012
Invasive candidiasis is a common problem in premature infants that leads to high morbidity and mortality. Although Candida albicans has historically been the most prominent species involved in these infections and has therefore been the subject of the most study, Candida parapsilosis is increasing in frequency, and neonates are disproportionately ...
Donovan Edward F EF Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative Executive Committee and James M. Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA. - - 2013
Nosocomial [hospital-associated or neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)-associated] infections occur in as many as 10 to 36% of very low-birth-weight infants cared for in NICUs. To determine the potentially avoidable, incremental costs of care associated with NICU-associated bloodstream infections. This retrospective study included all NICU admissions of infants weighing 401 ...
Chaillon Antoine - - 2012
It has been hypothesized that neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) should have broad specificity to be effective in protection against diverse HIV-1 variants. The mother-to-child transmission model of HIV-1 provides the opportunity to examine whether the breadth of maternal NAbs is associated with protection of infants from infection. Samples were obtained at ...
Murata Kenji - - 2012
We report the case of a 6-month-old male infant with bacterial pericarditis due to Lactobacillus iners. Although the culture of pericardial fluid was negative, L. iners was identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction and a subsequent sequence analysis. This weakly pathogenic bacterium could develop a severe ...
Ghekiere Sofie - - 2012
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of known congenital viral infections. Approximately 90% of congenitally infected newborns exhibit no clinical abnormalities at birth. In 5% to 15%, a wide spectrum of clinical signs is present at birth. Ophthalmological signs are seen in a large percentage of symptomatic patients but rarely ...
Adegbola Richard - - 2012
Pregnant women and young infants are at increased risk from influenza. The World Health Organization and public health guidelines from Australia, Canada, and the United States recommend immunizing pregnant women with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. However, there are multiple barriers to the uptake of this recommendation. Additionally, current vaccines are ...
Steinhoff Mark C - - 2012
The well-described burden of influenza morbidity in the pregnant woman and her young infant have led to increasing interest in the use of antenatal immunization to protect both the mother and the infant. In this review, we summarize the recent data on the effect of antenatal influenza infection, and influenza ...
Rasmussen Sonja A - - 2012
Influenza vaccination during pregnancy has been shown to decrease the risk of influenza and its complications among pregnant women and their infants up to 6 months old. To adequately assess the benefits and potential risks that are associated with the use of influenza vaccine during pregnancy, it is necessary to ...
Bottero D - - 2012
SUMMARY We describe nine patients (eight aged <1 year) clinically diagnosed with pertussis yet laboratory-confirmed with Bordetella holmesii infections, a human pathogen normally isolated from blood. Most patients reported cough and cold symptoms. No death was reported. We report B. holmesii isolation in infants with respiratory symptoms in Argentina.
Yasufuku Masao - - 2012
Spontaneous perforation of a choledochal cyst with ensuing pseudocyst formation is a very rare complication. We report the development of a pseudocyst adjacent to a choledochal cyst in a very low-birth-weight infant at 2 months of age. Elective excision of the choledochal cyst and biliary tract reconstruction were successfully performed ...
Del Rosal Teresa - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Ganciclovir treatment in the neonatal period may prevent hearing deterioration in infants with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. However, there are hardly any data regarding antiviral treatment begun beyond the neonatal period. OBJECTIVES: To describe the hearing outcome ...
Bennett Nicholas J - - 2012
To determine the frequency and effects of nosocomial respiratory viral infections (RVIs) in premature neonates, including those who may be asymptomatic. We performed a year-long surveillance for RVIs in infants <33 weeks gestational age admitted to 2 Syracuse neonatal intensive care units. Infants were enrolled within 3 days of neonatal ...
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