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Penders John J Department of Medical Microbiology; School for Nutrition, Toxicology, and Metabolism; Maastricht University Medical Centre; Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology; School for Public Health and Primary Care; Maastricht University; Maastricht, the - - 2014
There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the infant intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of allergic diseases. To date there are, however, still no definite bacterial taxa or particular subsets of the microbiota that have been ...
Tobin Nicole H NH Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., MS#51, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, - - 2014
The recent report of an infant that appears to have achieved a "functional cure" of HIV-1 following receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 30 hours of birth raises many questions: was the child infected? Was this result due to unique features of this particular infant's immune system, the immune system of ...
Liao Sui-Ling SL 1Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Taoyuan , - - 2014
G6PD-deficient adults are reported to be susceptible to severe infection, and decreased cytokine responses have been postulated as the underlying mechanism. However, investigating the association of G6PD deficiency and cytokine responses during infancy is lacking. The current study aims to determine whether cytokine responses of tumor necrosis factor ()-α, interleukins ...
Kallapur Suhas G SG Division of Neonatology/Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of - - 2014
Chorioamnionitis is a frequent cause of preterm birth and is associated with an increased risk for injury responses in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and other fetal organs. Chorioamnionitis is a polymicrobial nontraditional infectious disease because the organisms causing chorioamnionitis are generally of low virulence and colonize the amniotic fluid ...
Latuga M Susan MS Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New - - 2014
Breast milk contains a rich microbiota composed of viable skin and non-skin bacteria. The extent of the breast milk microbiota diversity has been revealed through new culture-independent studies using microbial DNA signatures. However, the extent to which the breast milk microbiota are transferred from mother to infant and the function ...
Zagato Elena E Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, - - 2014
The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we ...
P Suryawanshi S Associate Professor, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Incharge & Consultant Neonatologist, Bharati Hospital , Pune-411043, - - 2014
We report a case of a preterm neonate with isolated spontaneous pneumopericardium occurring in the absence of a history of neonatal resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, major lung disease or another air leak. The pneumopericardium was asymptomatic and resolved without the need for aspiration, although the "nitrogen washout" technique was used.
van den Berg Jolice P JP Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Maternal antibodies, transported over the placenta during pregnancy, contribute to the protection of infants from infectious diseases during the first months of life. In term infants, this protection does not last until the first recommended measles-mumps-rubella vaccination at 14 months in the Netherlands, while these viruses still circulate. The aim ...
Ziegler Ekhard E EE Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, - - 2014
Human milk contains numerous immune-protective components that protect the premature infant from sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Because of these protective effects, human milk is the feeding of choice for the premature infant. However, human milk does not provide adequate amounts of most nutrients for premature infants and must therefore be ...
Wang Shugui S Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Division of Cellular and Molecular Research, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore, - - 2014
Colonizing commensal bacteria after birth are required for the proper development of the gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that bacterial colonization pattern in neonatal gut affects gut barrier function and immune system maturation. Studies on the development of faecal microbiota in infants showed that the neonatal gut was first colonized ...
Libraty Daniel H DH Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans. A MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was previously associated with symptomatic dengue compared to non-dengue causes of acute febrile illnesses in infants. We measured circulating levels of soluble (s)MICB in the sera of infants ...
Ackermann Mark R - - 2014
Preterm birth is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The pathogenesis underlying this is not fully understood, and in vivo studies are needed to better clarify essential cellular features and molecular mechanisms. Such studies include analysis of lung tissue from affected human infants and various ...
Forsberg Anna A Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation, Division of Clinical Immunology, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, - - 2014
Mice models indicate that intact Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling may be essential for the allergy protective effects of diverse bacterial exposure observed in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri from pregnancy week 36 and to the infant through the first year of life decreased the ...
Urbaniak Camilla C Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, ON N6A 4V2, Canada ; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, - - 2014
Human milk is an important source of bacteria for the developing infant and has been shown to influence the bacterial composition of the neonatal gut, which in turn can affect disease risk later in life. Human milk is also an important source of nutrients, influencing bacterial composition but also directly ...
Lanari Marcello M 0000-0002-2586-314X Pediatrics and Neonatology Unit, Imola Hospital, Via Montericco 4, 40026 Imola, - - 2014
Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- ...
Prince Lynne R LR Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, United - - 2014
The etiology of persistent lung inflammation in preterm infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is poorly characterized, hampering efforts to stratify prognosis and treatment. Airway macrophages are important innate immune cells with roles in both the induction and resolution of tissue inflammation. To investigate airway innate immune cellular ...
Gilbert Scott F SF Department of Biology, Swarthmore College Swarthmore, PA, USA ; Biotechnology Institute, University of Helsinki Helsinki, - - 2014
This essay plans to explore, expand, and re-tell the human birth narrative. Usually, human birth narratives focus on the origins of a new individual, focusing on the mother and fetus. This essay discusses birth as the origin of a new community. For not only is the eukaryotic body being reproduced, ...
Turroni Francesca F Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre and Department of Microbiology, Bioscience Institute, National University of Ireland Cork, - - 2014
Bifidobacteria are considered dominant and for this reason key members of the human gut microbiota, particularly during the first one to two years following birth. A substantial proportion of the bifidobacterial population in the intestine of infants belong to the Bifidobacterium bifidum taxon, whose members have been shown to display ...
Zaher Manal Mohamed - - 2014
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is common in infants with variable clinical presentation including varied gastrointestinal manifestation. Cow's milk protein allergy chiefly, involving occurs in children below the age of 3 years, successful therapy depends on completely eliminating cow's milk proteins (CMP) from the child's diet. Ideally, with the replacement ...
Brower-Sinning Rachel R Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Previous studies of infant fecal samples have failed to clarify the role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC. We sought to characterize bacterial communities within intestinal tissue resected from infants with and without NEC. 26 intestinal samples were resected from 19 infants, including 16 NEC samples and 10 ...
van de Heijning Bert J M BJ Nutricia Research, Early Life Nutrition, P.O. Box 80141, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2014
Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow's milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the ...
Fouhy Fiona F Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
The infant gut microbiota develops rapidly during the first 2 years of life, acquiring microorganisms from diverse sources. During this time, significant opportunities exist for the infant to acquire antibiotic resistant bacteria, which can become established and constitute the infant gut resistome. With increased antibiotic resistance limiting our ability to ...
Simone Marta M 0000-0001-7924-1461 Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Viale G. Campi 183, 41125 Modena, - - 2014
Infant colic is a common gastrointestinal disorder of newborns, mostly related to imbalances in the composition of gut microbiota and particularly to the presence of gas-producing coliforms and to lower levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Probiotics could help to contain this disturbance, with formulations consisting of Lactobacillus strains being the ...
Munyaka Peris Mumbi PM Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Immunology and Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg, MB , Canada ; Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg, MB , - - 2014
Postnatal maturation of immune regulation is largely driven by exposure to microbes. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest source of microbial exposure, as the human gut microbiome contains up to 10(14) bacteria, which is 10 times the number of cells in the human body. Several studies in recent years have ...
Urwyler Pascal - - 2014
An increase of pertussis cases, especially in young infants and adolescents, has been noted in various countries. Whooping cough is most serious in neonates and young infants in whom it may cause serious complications such as cyanosis, apnoea, pneumonia, encephalopathy and death. To protect newborns and infants too young to ...
Sadissou Ibrahim - - 2014
The immunosuppressive properties of HLA-G protein can create a tolerogenic environment that may allow Plasmodium falciparum to avoid host immune responses. There are known associations between high levels of circulating soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) and either parasite or viral infections and it has been suggested that the induction of sHLA-G expression ...
Sung Valerie V Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
Infant colic, or excessive crying of unknown cause in infants less than 3 months old, is common and burdensome. Its aetiology is undetermined, and consensus on its management is still lacking. Recent studies suggest a possible link between infant colic and gut microbiota, indicating probiotics to be a promising treatment. However, ...
Salazar Nuria N Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Villaviciosa, - - 2014
The intestinal microbiome is defined as the assembly of genomes from microorganisms inhabiting the gut. This microbial ecosystem regulates important functions of the host and its correct composition and functionality is essential for a "healthy status." Metagenomic studies have highlighted variations of the intestinal microbiota as a function of age ...
Balloch Anne A *Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, #Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, †Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, ^Menzies School of Health Research, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia, ¥London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, - - 2013
Australian indigenous infants experience the highest incidence of chronic suppurative and acute otitis media in the world with many babies developing disease in the early postnatal period. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of otitis media in this population. Infants are protected against bacterial disease in the first months of ...
Celen Mustafa Kemal MK Mustafa Kemal Celen, Celal Ayaz, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, 21280 Yenişehir, Diyarbakir, - - 2013
To evaluate the effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use during late pregnancy to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in highly viremic mothers. This retrospective study included 45 pregnant patients with hepatitis B e antigen (+) chronic hepatitis B and HBV DNA levels > 10(7) copies/mL who received TDF ...
Imamura Takashi T 1Department of Pediatrics, Takeda General Hospital, Aizu Wakamatsu, - - 2013
The purpose was to review our experiences and determine if applying the sky blue method is reliable in confirming gastric tube (GT) placement in neonates. Methods: The study population consisted of 44 infants (55 placements) who were admitted to the Takeda General Hospital between April 2012 and March 2013 and ...
Kuperman Amir A Pediatric Hematology Clinic and Coagulation Service, Western Galilee Hospital, Naharia, Israel; Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, - - 2013
Pertussis is an important cause of infant death worldwide and continues to be a public health concern even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Severe (critical) pertussis with hyperleukocytosis is a severe form of the disease with up to 80% mortality rate. Attempts have been reported to reduce the white ...
Musallam Nadira - - 2013
We describe an 8-month-old infant with infantile spasms treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) who presented with fatal Legionella pneumophila and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Emphasis is placed on the ensuing immunosuppression and infectious sequelae of ACTH therapy. Given that ACTH therapy may increase the risk of fatal infection, patients undergoing such ...
Fooladi Abbas Ali Imani - - 2013
The prevalence of allergic diseases among infants is increasing particularly in developed countries. Although, the exact reason is not clear yet, one of the most probable explanations is reducing microbial exposure during early life and consequent alteration of gut microbiota. Various factors including delivery mode, infant`s diet, environment and antibiotics ...
Glaser Kirsten - - 2013
Altered neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) function is hypothesized to contribute to the heightened susceptibility to infection and perpetuated inflammation in term and preterm neonates, clinically evident in neonatal sepsis and increased rates of inflammatory disorders. Current data indicate that basal TLR expression in term neonates equals adult expression patterns, while ...
Gregory Katherine E KE W.F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA, - - 2013
Exposure to the immunologic factors found in maternal breast milk has been shown to compensate for the immature immune system that characterizes the preterm infant. Feeding preterm infants with human milk not only provides protection from disease pathogenesis and ensures an optimal source of nutrients in the short term, but ...
Moro Pedro L PL Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Birth Defects Branch, Division of Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Workforce Branch, Office of Public Health Scientific Services, and the Women's Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; and the Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, - - 2013
To characterize maternal and infant outcomes for pregnant women who received live H1N1 influenza vaccine and had no reported adverse events. We identified Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System reports, which described receipt of live H1N1 vaccine during pregnancy without an indication of an adverse event at the time of the ...
Smolen Kinga K - - 2013
Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation ...
Jans Jop - - 2013
RSV infections are a major burden in infants less than 3 months of age. Newborns and infants express a distinct immune system that is largely dependent on innate immunity and passive immunity from maternal antibodies. Antibodies can regulate immune responses against viruses through interaction with Fc gamma receptors leading to enhancement ...
Mejias Asuncion - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune ...
Takcı Sahin S Division of Neonatology Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey - - 2013
Rhesus (Rh) hemolytic disease of the newborn represents a broad spectrum of symptoms in the fetus and newborn, ranging from mild to severe hemolytic anemia and hydrops fetalis. Cholestasis is a common problem in infants with immune hydrops fetalis (IHF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence ...
Frew Paula M - - 2013
Objective: We examined pregnant women's likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed "Contagion" to understand ...
Auger Katherine A - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Recent universal vaccination efforts among children in the United States have markedly changed hospitalization patterns for many vaccine-preventable diseases. Infants with pertussis often require hospitalization to monitor for potentially life-threatening respiratory failure. In 2006, tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination was recommended for universal administration to adolescents, a known source of pertussis ...
Anders Katherine L - - 2013
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, more than one-third of admissions to the two paediatric hospitals are attributable to four infectious syndromes: dengue, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infection, and hand, foot and mouth disease. We have established a large prospective birth cohort study to investigate individual, environmental, virological, and immunological ...
Li Jian - - 2013
To evaluate proportion and predictors of poor response in infants and appraise booster seroprotection, we surveyed 2047 infants in Shanghai and detected antibody to hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen (anti-HBs). Poor responders were randomized into 2 groups, given booster with 5 µg and 10 µg hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), respectively. ...
Civardi Elisa - - 2013
Abstract Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism ...
Pfister K M - - 2013
We report a case of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in an infant whose mother had recurrent HSV-2 infection. In spite of prematurity, severe disseminated infection and hydrops, the infant survived and was neurologically intact. HSV-2-induced NIHF is extremely rare, particularly in the ...
Pesco Pablo - - 2013
Pertussis or whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease that has reemerged in the past decades. A higher morbidity and mortality has been recorded in infants, although cases have also been reported in adolescents and adults. The epidemiological scenario for this condition has urged to review and implement new strategies ...
Takci Sahin - - 2013
We aimed to define the etiologic and prognostic factors in live-born infants with hydrops fetalis (HF) in our tertiary neonatal intensive care unit over a 10-year period. Medical records of newborn infants with HF during 2002-2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data, prenatal interventions, clinical and laboratory findings, outcomes, and the ...
Rafeey Mandana M Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR - - 2013
Human breast milk, the sole source of nutrition during the early neonatal period, is rich in nutrients, hormones, growth factors, and immunoactive molecules, which influence the growth, development, and immune status of the newborn infant. It had long been thought that breast milk is an adequate source of anthracitic activity ...
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