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Claure Nelson - - 2013
Premature infants show a characteristic respiratory instability that is reflected in fluctuations in ventilation and gas exchange. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Automatic modes of respiratory support have been developed to address these limitations. This article describes ...
Sudfeld Christopher R - - 2013
Immunization and nutritional interventions are mainstays of child health programs in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few published data on their interaction exist. HIV-exposed infants (uninfected) enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of multivitamins (vitamin B-complex, C and E) conducted in Tanzania were sampled for assessment of measles IgG quantity and avidity ...
Ward Tonya L - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten ...
Zhang Lei - - 2013
Abstract Objective: This study was designed to explore if hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be transmitted via breast milk through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), and assay the immunoprophylaxis efficacy after passive-active immunization. Methods: From year 2008 to 2012, 67720 pregnant women were screened and 1186 HBsAg-carrier mothers and their infants aged ...
Kaur Ishminder - - 2013
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on infants of mothers delivering at an inner-city hospital in October, 2009 where postpartum maternal Tdap vaccination had been initiated in May, 2008. We compared mothers and infants in a Tdap intervention group discharged July 2008 (n=250) with a pre-Tdap control group discharged July ...
Battersby Anna J - - 2013
Invasive sepsis in the newborn period is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The infant immune system undoubtedly differs intrinsically from the mature adult immune system. Current understanding is that the newborn infant immune system displays a range of competencies and is developing rather than deficient. The ...
Granier Audrey - - 2013
Infant formulae have been shown to influence the development of the gut microbiota. Besides the probiotic- and prebiotic-containing formulae, fermented milk-based infant formulae offer an additional means for modulation of gut immunity and/or gut microbiota. These formulae are produced by the fermentation of cows' milk with specific lactic acid bacteria ...
Pletsch Donna D Donna Pletsch, RN, MN, Clinical Educator, Neonatal - - 2013
Early breast milk, known as colostrum ("liquid gold") provides immune benefits to infants, offering potential risk reduction for nosocomial infection (NI) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal emergency. Provision of colostrum is recognized as oral immune therapy (OIT) and is valuable to all NICU infants unable to feed orally. ...
Pan Calvin Q - - 2013
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite appropriate passive and active immunization, perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) still occurs to 5%-10% of infants born to women with high levels of viremia who test positive for the HB e antigen (HBeAg). We evaluate the effects of caesarean section delivery on perinatal transmission ...
Ismail Intan H - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: The overall beneficial effects of breastfeeding for infants have been well documented, but its role in allergy prevention is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between breast milk immunomodulatory factors and subsequent development of eczema and atopic sensitization in the first year of life. METHODS: Day 7 and 28 ...
Namachivayam Kopperuncholan K Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2013
Human milk contains substantial amounts of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, particularly the isoform TGF-β2. We previously showed in preclinical models that enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study we hypothesized that premature infants remain at higher risk of ...
Frydman Rene - - 2013
The number of live births from IVM oocytes has been increasing over the past two decades. Data concerning the health of IVM infants are reported by the authors of this Views and Reviews.
Cheang H K - - 2013
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the immune response in infants who received the three-shot hepatitis B vaccine in Malaysia. Methods: Consecutive infants born between March 2002 and April 2010 who received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine at a community clinic in Malaysia were enrolled in the study. Screening ...
Rana A A Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tribhuwan University Teaching - - 2013
Introduction: Multicenter surveillance has been carried out on maternal near-miss in the hospitals with sentinel units. Near-miss is recognized as the predictor of level of care and maternal death. Reducing Maternal Mortality Ratio is one of the challenges to achieve Millennium Development Goal. The objective was to determine the frequency ...
- - 2013
Infection with rubella virus during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Serious manifestations of CRS include deafness, cataracts, cardiac defects, mental retardation, and death. In the last major rubella epidemic in the United States, during 1964-1965, an estimated 12.5 million rubella virus infections ...
Zhang Qi - - 2013
Neonates and infants, due to the immaturity in their adaptive immunity, are thought to depend largely on the innate immune system for protection against bacterial infection. However, the innate immunity-mediated antimicrobial response in neonates and infants is incompletely characterized. Here, we report that infant mice were more susceptible to microbial ...
Mehler K - - 2013
A late preterm infant was born 4.5 h after intraamniotic injection of 90 mg of Toluidine blue to confirm premature rupture of membranes. Due to the fetal exposition to the dye, the entire body of the patient was blue stained and the baby suffered from methemoglobinemia, Heinz' body positive hemolytic ...
Allee Joy I - - 2013
A 2 month old, 51 kg female infant underwent neuraxial anesthesia for repair of a right inguinal hernia. After two unsuccessful attempts at obtaining free-flowing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the L3-L4 lumbar interspace with a 25-gauge (G) neonatal spinal needle, clear CSF was obtained using a Quincke 22-G needle. After ...
Saitoh Aya - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To determine if providing perinatal immunization education positively changes the immunization status of infants, influences the infant immunization knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of mothers and affects the intent to vaccinate children in Japan where immunization education is limited. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from three sites in Tokyo, Japan ...
Xu Z W - - 2013
SUMMARY This study examined the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles in Wenzhou, China. From 2000 to 2010, a total of 13271 measles cases were reported in Wenzhou, with epidemics occurring every 3-4 years. Forty-five per cent of the cases were aged <1 year and 27·2% were aged >14 years. ...
Patience Sara - - 2013
There has been a lot of public health interest in vitamin D since the documented resurgence of rickets in children, the identification of widespread vitamin D deficiency and the growing understanding of the role vitamin D plays in the immune system. Some people are at greater risk of vitamin D ...
Gray Charmaine - - 2013
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) that is unresponsive to conventional treatment is uncommon. In this situation, additional therapeutic options are limited and management is challenging. We describe the case of a 10-week-old infant that developed life-threatening ITP that was unresponsive to immunoglobulin and corticosteroids that was successfully managed with the monoclonal ...
Campbell Lauren - - 2013
Although previous research has examined the relationships between caregiver proximal soothing and infant pain, there is a paucity of work taking infant age into account, despite the steep developmental trajectory that occurs across the infancy period. Moreover, no studies have differentially examined the relationships between caregiver proximal soothing and initial ...
Wen Wan-Hsin - - 2013
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunoprophylaxis reduces but does not completely eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. This prospective study aims to assess the rate and risk factors of maternally transmitted HBV infection. METHODS: We enrolled 303 mother-infant pairs with positive maternal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) under current immunization program. Maternal ...
O'Connor Thomas G TG Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. - - 2013
Prenatal anxiety has been linked with altered immune function in offspring in animal studies, but the relevance for human health is unknown. We examined prenatal maternal anxiety as a predictor of adaptive immunity in infants at 2 and 6 months of age as part of a prospective longitudinal study. The ...
Nieves Delma - - 2013
We analyzed data from 10 young infants who received exchange blood transfusions for management of severe pertussis. Our data are insufficient to address efficacy of the procedure, but our data, as well as previous reports in the literature, indicate that if the procedure is to be successful, it should be ...
Ichikawa T - - 2013
BACKGROUNDS: Levels of maternal antibodies decrease more quickly in preterm than term infants, leaving them unprotected against measles. To protect premature infants from measles, an early vaccination trial was investigated. METHODS: Changes in the serum measles neutralization test (NT) antibody titer were examined in 152 infants (average gestational period of ...
Wynn J L - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Sepsis in older children and adults modifies immune system function. We compared serotype-specific antibody responses to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g,VLBWs) with and without blood stream infection (BSI) during their birth hospitalization.STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for the Neonatal Research Network ...
Celik Istemi Han IH Division of Neonatology, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Mersin Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 33240 Mersin, Turkey. - - 2013
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a serious global health problem. During the course of HBV vaccination, we observed C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation in term infants without sepsis. Therefore, we prospectively studied interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CRP responses to HBV immunization. In 70 healthy term infants without signs and ...
Hak Eelko - - 2013
Since implementation of infant immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), increased rates of pneumococcal pneumonia have been reported among adults. Using a cohort of mother-infant pairs identified from the General Practice Research Database in the UK we found that from 2006 to 2010 the annual incidence rate of pneumococcal ...
Russell Elizabeth S ES Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7295, - - 2013
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 subtype C can occur in utero, intrapartum, or via breast milk exposure. While not well understood, there are putative differences in the mechanisms involved with the distinct routes of vertical HIV transmission. Here, we address the question of whether specific viral characteristics are common to variants ...
Matamoros Sebastien - - 2013
Throughout the human lifetime, the intestinal microbiota performs vital functions, such as barrier function, metabolic reactions, trophic effects, and maturation of the host's innate and adaptive immune responses. Development of the intestinal microbiota in infants is characterized by rapid and large changes in microbial abundance, diversity, and composition. These changes ...
Meregaglia Michela - - 2013
Pertussis incidence in Piemonte (Italy) is now at the lowest level ever reached (0.85 per 100,000 in 2010) but the disease is still endemic in infants (54 per 100,000 in 2005-2010). Parental "cocoon" immunization has been proposed in some countries (i.e. United States, France) as a measure to protect newborns ...
Jeppesen Dorthe Lisbeth - - 2013
Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared to a cohort of 47 term, ...
Vanden Driessche Koen - - 2013
One of the challenges faced by the infant immune system is learning to distinguish the myriad of foreign but nonthreatening antigens encountered from those expressed by true pathogens. This balance is reflected in the diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines by both innate and adaptive immune cells in the infant. A ...
Canani Roberto Berni - - 2013
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with about 80% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of four years. However, recent studies suggest that the natural history of CMA ...
Power Coombs Melanie R - - 2013
Preterm infants are especially susceptible to late-onset sepsis that is often due to Gram-positive bacterial infections resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Herein, we will describe neonatal innate immunity to Staphylococcus spp. comparing differences between preterm and full-term newborns with adults. Newborn innate immunity is distinct demonstrating diminished skin integrity, ...
Melville Jacqueline M - - 2013
Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth. The immune systems of preterm infants have ...
van den Berg Jolice P - - 2013
In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS)] in combination with 20% pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on antibody concentrations after DTaP-IPV-Hib ...
Vento Giovanni - - 2013
The immediate effects of exogenous surfactant on lung volume and hemodynamics in preterm infants have been poorly studied. Lung volume, SpO2, perfusion index, regional SO2, transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 were simultaneously monitored and recorded ten minutes after surfactant tracheal instillation in elective HFOV ventilated preterm infants with RDS. Despite ...
Dorélien Audrey M - - 2013
We analyze the impact of birth seasonality (seasonal oscillations in the birth rate) on the dynamics of acute, immunizing childhood infectious diseases. Previous research has explored the effect of human birth seasonality on infectious disease dynamics using parameters appropriate for the developed world. We build on this work by including ...
Libraty Daniel H - - 2013
Infants have long been known to have higher infectious diseases morbidity and mortality and suboptimal vaccination responses compared to older children and adults. A variety of differences in innate and adaptive immune responses have been described between these two groups. We compared Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced production of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, ...
Jenke A C - - 2013
Objective. To describe the development of the gut microbiota in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between April 2008 and December 2009, fecal microflora was prospectively analyzed in fecal samples of all ELBW infants using real-time PCR assays. In addition, fecal inflammatory were measured. ...
Centanni Manuela - - 2013
Co-evolved as an integral component of our immune system, the gut microbiota provides specific immunological services at different ages, supporting the immune education during our infancy and sustaining a well-balanced immunological homeostasis during the course of our life. In order to figure out whether this involves differences in the microbial ...
Hall Caroline B CB Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, - - 2013
Since its discovery in 1955, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has consistently been noted to be the single most important cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants <1 year of age. RSV also causes repeat infections and significant disease throughout life. In addition to the young child, persons with compromised immune, ...
Islami Zia Z Department of Pediatrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, - - 2013
Neurological manifestations of neonatal disorders have various causes, among them neonatal tetanus, albeit rare, is a potentially fatal and preventable disease, which is seen in underdeveloped and developing countries. Although the disease has been eradicated from I.R. Iran, pregnant women immigrating to Iran from neighboring countries, especially from eastern border, ...
Miralha Alexandre Lopes - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Describing rates of seroconversion and its associated factors in a series of Brazilian infants following the final dose of the vaccine at 6 months of age. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected after the third dose of the vaccine for the detection of anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies among infants ...
Ritter Marion - - 2012
Serological identification of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) status in children <18 months of age is complicated by the variable persistence of maternal antibodies. As T cells are not passively transferred, we attempted to assess whether CMV-specific cellular immunity may be superior to determine the actual CMV-status; we also performed a functional ...
Tröger Birte B Department of Paediatrics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, - - 2013
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a well-known cause of adverse neonatal outcomes. As it may have an impact on innate immune responses, we aimed to investigate several parameters of the innate immune response in preterm infants of ≤32 weeks gestation who were small for gestational age (SGA). We compared clinical ...
Henkle Emily - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of respiratory illness in infants younger than 6 months of age in developing countries by approximately half. We evaluated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on respiratory illness with fever (RIF) in Bangladeshi infants in the context of a randomized maternal influenza immunization trial. METHODS:: ...
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