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Urbaniak Camilla C Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, ON N6A 4V2, Canada ; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, - - 2014
Human milk is an important source of bacteria for the developing infant and has been shown to influence the bacterial composition of the neonatal gut, which in turn can affect disease risk later in life. Human milk is also an important source of nutrients, influencing bacterial composition but also directly ...
Lanari Marcello M 0000-0002-2586-314X Pediatrics and Neonatology Unit, Imola Hospital, Via Montericco 4, 40026 Imola, - - 2014
Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- ...
Prince Lynne R LR Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, United - - 2014
The etiology of persistent lung inflammation in preterm infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is poorly characterized, hampering efforts to stratify prognosis and treatment. Airway macrophages are important innate immune cells with roles in both the induction and resolution of tissue inflammation. To investigate airway innate immune cellular ...
Gilbert Scott F SF Department of Biology, Swarthmore College Swarthmore, PA, USA ; Biotechnology Institute, University of Helsinki Helsinki, - - 2014
This essay plans to explore, expand, and re-tell the human birth narrative. Usually, human birth narratives focus on the origins of a new individual, focusing on the mother and fetus. This essay discusses birth as the origin of a new community. For not only is the eukaryotic body being reproduced, ...
Turroni Francesca F Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre and Department of Microbiology, Bioscience Institute, National University of Ireland Cork, - - 2014
Bifidobacteria are considered dominant and for this reason key members of the human gut microbiota, particularly during the first one to two years following birth. A substantial proportion of the bifidobacterial population in the intestine of infants belong to the Bifidobacterium bifidum taxon, whose members have been shown to display ...
Zaher Manal Mohamed - - 2014
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is common in infants with variable clinical presentation including varied gastrointestinal manifestation. Cow's milk protein allergy chiefly, involving occurs in children below the age of 3 years, successful therapy depends on completely eliminating cow's milk proteins (CMP) from the child's diet. Ideally, with the replacement ...
Brower-Sinning Rachel R Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Previous studies of infant fecal samples have failed to clarify the role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC. We sought to characterize bacterial communities within intestinal tissue resected from infants with and without NEC. 26 intestinal samples were resected from 19 infants, including 16 NEC samples and 10 ...
van de Heijning Bert J M BJ Nutricia Research, Early Life Nutrition, P.O. Box 80141, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2014
Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow's milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the ...
Fouhy Fiona F Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
The infant gut microbiota develops rapidly during the first 2 years of life, acquiring microorganisms from diverse sources. During this time, significant opportunities exist for the infant to acquire antibiotic resistant bacteria, which can become established and constitute the infant gut resistome. With increased antibiotic resistance limiting our ability to ...
Simone Marta M 0000-0001-7924-1461 Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Viale G. Campi 183, 41125 Modena, - - 2014
Infant colic is a common gastrointestinal disorder of newborns, mostly related to imbalances in the composition of gut microbiota and particularly to the presence of gas-producing coliforms and to lower levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Probiotics could help to contain this disturbance, with formulations consisting of Lactobacillus strains being the ...
Munyaka Peris Mumbi PM Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Immunology and Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg, MB , Canada ; Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg, MB , - - 2014
Postnatal maturation of immune regulation is largely driven by exposure to microbes. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest source of microbial exposure, as the human gut microbiome contains up to 10(14) bacteria, which is 10 times the number of cells in the human body. Several studies in recent years have ...
Urwyler Pascal - - 2014
An increase of pertussis cases, especially in young infants and adolescents, has been noted in various countries. Whooping cough is most serious in neonates and young infants in whom it may cause serious complications such as cyanosis, apnoea, pneumonia, encephalopathy and death. To protect newborns and infants too young to ...
Balloch Anne A *Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, #Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, †Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, ^Menzies School of Health Research, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia, ¥London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, - - 2013
Australian indigenous infants experience the highest incidence of chronic suppurative and acute otitis media in the world with many babies developing disease in the early postnatal period. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of otitis media in this population. Infants are protected against bacterial disease in the first months of ...
Celen Mustafa Kemal MK Mustafa Kemal Celen, Celal Ayaz, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, 21280 Yenişehir, Diyarbakir, - - 2013
To evaluate the effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use during late pregnancy to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in highly viremic mothers. This retrospective study included 45 pregnant patients with hepatitis B e antigen (+) chronic hepatitis B and HBV DNA levels > 10(7) copies/mL who received TDF ...
Imamura Takashi T 1Department of Pediatrics, Takeda General Hospital, Aizu Wakamatsu, - - 2013
The purpose was to review our experiences and determine if applying the sky blue method is reliable in confirming gastric tube (GT) placement in neonates. Methods: The study population consisted of 44 infants (55 placements) who were admitted to the Takeda General Hospital between April 2012 and March 2013 and ...
Kuperman Amir A Pediatric Hematology Clinic and Coagulation Service, Western Galilee Hospital, Naharia, Israel; Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, - - 2013
Pertussis is an important cause of infant death worldwide and continues to be a public health concern even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Severe (critical) pertussis with hyperleukocytosis is a severe form of the disease with up to 80% mortality rate. Attempts have been reported to reduce the white ...
Musallam Nadira - - 2013
We describe an 8-month-old infant with infantile spasms treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) who presented with fatal Legionella pneumophila and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Emphasis is placed on the ensuing immunosuppression and infectious sequelae of ACTH therapy. Given that ACTH therapy may increase the risk of fatal infection, patients undergoing such ...
Fooladi Abbas Ali Imani - - 2013
The prevalence of allergic diseases among infants is increasing particularly in developed countries. Although, the exact reason is not clear yet, one of the most probable explanations is reducing microbial exposure during early life and consequent alteration of gut microbiota. Various factors including delivery mode, infant`s diet, environment and antibiotics ...
Glaser Kirsten - - 2013
Altered neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) function is hypothesized to contribute to the heightened susceptibility to infection and perpetuated inflammation in term and preterm neonates, clinically evident in neonatal sepsis and increased rates of inflammatory disorders. Current data indicate that basal TLR expression in term neonates equals adult expression patterns, while ...
Gregory Katherine E KE W.F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA, - - 2013
Exposure to the immunologic factors found in maternal breast milk has been shown to compensate for the immature immune system that characterizes the preterm infant. Feeding preterm infants with human milk not only provides protection from disease pathogenesis and ensures an optimal source of nutrients in the short term, but ...
Moro Pedro L PL Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Birth Defects Branch, Division of Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Workforce Branch, Office of Public Health Scientific Services, and the Women's Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; and the Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, - - 2013
To characterize maternal and infant outcomes for pregnant women who received live H1N1 influenza vaccine and had no reported adverse events. We identified Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System reports, which described receipt of live H1N1 vaccine during pregnancy without an indication of an adverse event at the time of the ...
Smolen Kinga K - - 2013
Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation ...
Jans Jop - - 2013
RSV infections are a major burden in infants less than 3 months of age. Newborns and infants express a distinct immune system that is largely dependent on innate immunity and passive immunity from maternal antibodies. Antibodies can regulate immune responses against viruses through interaction with Fc gamma receptors leading to enhancement ...
Mejias Asuncion - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune ...
Takcı Sahin S Division of Neonatology Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey - - 2013
Rhesus (Rh) hemolytic disease of the newborn represents a broad spectrum of symptoms in the fetus and newborn, ranging from mild to severe hemolytic anemia and hydrops fetalis. Cholestasis is a common problem in infants with immune hydrops fetalis (IHF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence ...
Frew Paula M - - 2013
Objective: We examined pregnant women's likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed "Contagion" to understand ...
Auger Katherine A - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Recent universal vaccination efforts among children in the United States have markedly changed hospitalization patterns for many vaccine-preventable diseases. Infants with pertussis often require hospitalization to monitor for potentially life-threatening respiratory failure. In 2006, tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination was recommended for universal administration to adolescents, a known source of pertussis ...
Anders Katherine L - - 2013
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, more than one-third of admissions to the two paediatric hospitals are attributable to four infectious syndromes: dengue, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infection, and hand, foot and mouth disease. We have established a large prospective birth cohort study to investigate individual, environmental, virological, and immunological ...
Li Jian - - 2013
To evaluate proportion and predictors of poor response in infants and appraise booster seroprotection, we surveyed 2047 infants in Shanghai and detected antibody to hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen (anti-HBs). Poor responders were randomized into 2 groups, given booster with 5 µg and 10 µg hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), respectively. ...
Civardi Elisa - - 2013
Abstract Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism ...
Pfister K M - - 2013
We report a case of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in an infant whose mother had recurrent HSV-2 infection. In spite of prematurity, severe disseminated infection and hydrops, the infant survived and was neurologically intact. HSV-2-induced NIHF is extremely rare, particularly in the ...
Pesco Pablo - - 2013
Pertussis or whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease that has reemerged in the past decades. A higher morbidity and mortality has been recorded in infants, although cases have also been reported in adolescents and adults. The epidemiological scenario for this condition has urged to review and implement new strategies ...
Takci Sahin - - 2013
We aimed to define the etiologic and prognostic factors in live-born infants with hydrops fetalis (HF) in our tertiary neonatal intensive care unit over a 10-year period. Medical records of newborn infants with HF during 2002-2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data, prenatal interventions, clinical and laboratory findings, outcomes, and the ...
Rafeey Mandana M Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR - - 2013
Human breast milk, the sole source of nutrition during the early neonatal period, is rich in nutrients, hormones, growth factors, and immunoactive molecules, which influence the growth, development, and immune status of the newborn infant. It had long been thought that breast milk is an adequate source of anthracitic activity ...
Koklu Esad - - 2013
Abstract Newborn infants are born with an immature innate immunity. They are less likely to develop anaphylaxis since their immune system is weaker than older infants and children. There are only a few reports of side effects after vitamin K injection in neonates although prophylaxis against hemorrhagic disease of the ...
Moyer Cheryl A - - 2013
To determine whether facility delivery is related to compliance with recommended infant immunizations, particularly those that occur weeks or months after delivery. In a retrospective analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to assess data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) to determine the strongest correlates of facility ...
Steinhoff Mark C - - 2013
The strategy of prenatal maternal immunization to protect the pregnant woman and her infant was first used with tetanus toxoid, when it was recognized that young infants had very high rates of tetanus disease, well before the age when infant immunizations are provided. Antenatal immunization has now been recommended and ...
Sainato Rebecca J - - 2013
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic worldwide. Given significant rates of infectivity, all infants born to Hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers need to receive treatment at birth, immunization and post-vaccination serologic testing. However, not all infants complete these requirements. We performed a retrospective review of the management of infants ...
Jost Ted - - 2013
Breast milk has recently been recognized as source of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria. The present study investigated whether viable strains of gut-associated obligate anaerobes are shared between the maternal and neonatal gut ecosystem via breastfeeding. Maternal faeces, breast milk and corresponding neonatal faeces collected from seven mothers-neonate pairs at ...
Serwatowska-Bargieł Agata - - 2013
Preterm infants are very susceptible to infections. Immune response mechanisms in this group of patients and factors that influence cord blood mononuclear cell populations remain poorly understood and are considered insufficient. However, competent immune functions of the cord blood mononuclear cells are also described. The aim of this work was ...
Erdemir Aydin - - 2013
Brain abscesses are uncommon complications of bacterial meningitis or sepsis in neonates and infants. The causative pathogens of brain abscess in newborns are various. Of those, Escherichia coli is rarely seen as a pathogen in brain abscess at this age. Herein we reported brain abscesses in twin infants caused by ...
Isayama Tetsuya - - 2013
Complete congenital heart block (CCHB) accompanied with neonatal lupus erythematosus is caused by an immune reaction between maternal anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and the fetal heart and is generally considered an irreversible process. This reaction mostly occurs before 30 weeks' gestation, especially between the 20th and 24th week. Reported here is an ...
Tan Tina Q - - 2013
In the United States, major epidemics of pertussis or whooping cough have occurred in the last 5 years making this disease a major public health issue. The adolescent and adult populations are the major transmitters of disease to the community. However, these epidemics have had the greatest effect on the ...
Winters Alexandra H AH Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2013
Ureaplasma spp. respiratory tract colonization is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, but differences in host susceptibility have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that variants in genes regulating the innate immune response are associated with altered risk for Ureaplasma spp. respiratory colonization and BPD in preterm ...
Vinikoor-Imler Lisa C - - 2013
Few studies have examined the potential relationship between air pollution and birth defects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) during pregnancy is associated with birth defects among women living throughout North Carolina. Information on maternal and ...
Mialet-Marty Tiphaine - - 2013
Background: The influence of the first immunization on cardiorespiratory (CR) stability in very preterm infants is still a controversial subject. Objectives: To describe the changes induced by immunization on heart and respiratory rate variability (HRV-RRV) and to test a potential association between preimmunization profiles and postimmunization CR events. Methods: Continuous ...
Gotink Mark J - - 2013
Background: The occurrence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SH) is partly attributed to nonhospitalized perinatal care. The Netherlands have a high frequency of home births and nonhospitalized perinatal care, and the incidence of SH is unknown. Objective: To assess the effects of home births and early hospital discharge on the incidence ...
Chitty Helen Elizabeth - - 2013
In the 21st century, neonatal exchange transfusions (ETs) are uncommon procedures usually performed in tertiary neonatal units. As junior clinical staff now lack familiarity with the procedure, it is important to maintain awareness of its complications in order to manage clinical risks and counsel parents appropriately. The study aims to ...
Paksu Muhammet Sükrü - - 2013
Pertussis is one of the leading causes of death that can be prevented by vaccination. More than 600,000 deaths from pertussis occur annually, with a disproportionate number appearing in unvaccinated infants. Pertussis is particularly troublesome because it does not necessarily present itself in its commonly known classical stages. Therefore, in ...
Shrivastava Shikha S Department of Research, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, - - 2013
Humoral immune responses are protective against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We characterized B-cell phenotypic changes in infants of hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers compared with normal and hepatitis B surface antigen negative infants at birth and 1 year after HBV immunization. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive infants had ...
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