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Le Doare Kirsty K Imperial College London, Department of Paediatrics, St. Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK; Wellcome Trust Centre for Global Health Research, Norfolk Place, London, UK; MRC Unit, Vaccinology Theme, Atlantic Road, Fajara, Gambia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Invasive Group-B streptococcal (GBS) disease is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. GBS colonises the maternal rectum and vagina and transmission of bacteria from a colonized mother to her infant at birth is an important risk factor for GBS disease. GBS disease has also been associated with ...
Reikie Brian A BA 1Division of Infectious & Immunological Diseases, and Centre for Understanding and Preventing Infections in Children, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V5Z 4H4, Canada 2Immunology Unit, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, NHLS and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 3Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, NHLS and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 4Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 5Leaders in Medicine Program, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 4N1, - - 2014
Early in life HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared to HIV-unexposed (UE) infants. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their increased risk, we contrasted innate immune development between HEU and UE infants in a developing world setting, ...
Zhang Lei L Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, - - 2014
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is of high prevalence in China. Mother-to-infant transmission is the major route for HBV transmission and subsequent chronicity. This study aimed to investigate current HBsAg-positive rate among pregnant women and immunoprophylaxis outcome in China. Multicenter prospective study was conducted in 10 centers. From 2008 to ...
McDonald Suzanna L - - 2014
Vitamin A supplementation significantly reduces all-cause mortality when given between 6-59 months of age, but has a null or detrimental effect when given between 1-5 months. Studies of neonatal vitamin A supplementation conducted across Africa and South Asia have produced conflicting findings. These age-pattern variations might result from immunological interactions ...
Winkler Beate B Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Children's Hospital, Joseph-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080, Würzburg, - - 2014
Breast-feeding (BF) versus formula-feeding (FF) may be a factor for the development and differentiation of T-cell subsets and cytokine production in infancy and childhood. We therefore investigated T-cell subpopulations and their cytokine production by flow cytometry as well as cytokine levels in serum samples in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants and ...
Derscheid Rachel J RJ Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University , College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, - - 2014
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to ...
Groer Maureen M 1University of South Florida College of Nursing, Tampa, FL, - - 2014
Background:There has been a recent increase in availability of banked donor milk for feeding of preterm infants. This milk is pooled from donations to milk banks from carefully screened lactating women. The milk is then pasteurized by the Holder method to remove all microbes. The processed milk is frozen, banked, ...
Ward Tonya L TL Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, - - 2014
Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a pattern recognition receptor and Toll-like co-receptor observed in human milk (5-26μg/mL) and other bodily fluids such as blood (3μg/mL). The most well defined role of sCD14 is to recognize lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria and signal an immune response through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Previous research ...
Albokrinov Andrew A AA From the Regional Children's Clinic Hospital, Lviv, - - 2014
Thoracolumbar paravertebral block (PVB) is one method of providing regional anaesthesia for abdominal wall surgery in children. It is common practice when performing a PVB for abdominal wall anaesthesia to inject a certain volume of local anaesthetic solution in the paravertebral space at several levels. This increases the duration of ...
Ahlfeld Shawn K SK Developmental Biology and Neonatal Medicine Program, HB Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, - - 2014
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of extreme prematurity and is defined clinically by dependence on supplemental oxygen due to impaired gas exchange. Optimal gas exchange is dependent on the development of a sufficient surface area for diffusion. In the mammalian lung, rapid acquisition of distal lung surface ...
Romano-Keeler Joann J Department of Pediatrics; Vanderbilt University; Nashville, TN - - 2014
Fecal sampling is widely utilized to define small intestinal tissue-level microbial communities in healthy and diseased newborns. However, this approach may lead to inaccurate assessments of disease or therapeutics in newborns because of the assumption that the taxa in the fecal microbiota are representative of the taxa present throughout the ...
Davidson Autumn P AP Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Small Animal Clinic, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Pet Care Veterinary Hospital, East Campus, 2425 Mendocino Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95403, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Prudent veterinary intervention in the prenatal, parturient, and postpartum periods can increase neonatal survival by controlling or eliminating factors contributing to puppy morbidity and mortality. Postresuscitation or within the first 24 hours of a natural delivery, a complete physical examination should be performed by a veterinarian, technician, or knowledgeable breeder. Adequate ...
Chahroudi Ann A Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of - - 2014
Mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT) of HIV is a serious global health concern, with over 300,000 children newly infected in 2011. SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) results in similar rates of MTIT to that of HIV in humans. In contrast, SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs) rarely results in MTIT. The ...
Longo Stefania S Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) is usually defined as impaired growth and development of the fetus and/or its organs during gestation. Infants are defined small for gestational age (SGA), following IUGR, when the birth weight is below the 10th percentile. Pre-natal congenital infections caused by T. gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes ...
Chaves Sandra S SS 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 2Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 3Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 4Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, CO 5Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 6Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, MI 7Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 8Oregon Public Health Division, Portland, OR 9Utah Department of Health, Salt Lake City, UT 10New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, NM 11Rhode Island Department of Health, Providence, RI 12Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, MN 13Emerging Infections Program, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 14California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland, CA 15Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School, of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 16Monroe County, Department of Public Health, Rochester, NY 17Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, MD 18Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, - - 2014
Little information is available describing the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of those <12 months hospitalized with influenza, particularly at a population level. We used population-based, laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization surveillance data from 2003-2012 seasons to describe the impact of influenza by age category (<3, 3 to <6 and 6 to <12 ...
Groome Michelle J MJ Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Box 90753, Bertsham, 2013, Gauteng, South - - 2014
To investigate the effect of abstention from breastfeeding, for an hour before and after each vaccination, on the immune responses of infants to two doses of rotavirus vaccine. In Soweto, South Africa, mother-infant pairs who were uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled as they presented for the "6-week" ...
Gephart Sheila M SM College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson (Dr Gephart); and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Arizona (Ms - - 2014
It is well known that the immune response is blunted and underdeveloped in the premature infant, but human milk supports the infant's growth, function, and effectiveness. Thus, own mother's colostrum (OMC) administered oropharyngeally has potential to deliver oral immune therapy (C-OIT) even before enteral feedings have begun. Colostrum interacts with ...
Pifko Elysha E Resident Physician (Pifko), Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellow (Price), Pediatric Emergency Medicine Attending Physician (Sterner), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, - - 2014
Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores and leads to a life-threatening descending motor weakness and flaccid paralysis in infant children. This disease presents with symptoms such as constipation, weakness, and hypotonia and can lead to respiratory failure. Botulism immune globulin (BIG) was created to treat ...
Penders John J Department of Medical Microbiology; School for Nutrition, Toxicology, and Metabolism; Maastricht University Medical Centre; Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology; School for Public Health and Primary Care; Maastricht University; Maastricht, the - - 2014
There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the infant intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of allergic diseases. To date there are, however, still no definite bacterial taxa or particular subsets of the microbiota that have been ...
Tobin Nicole H NH Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., MS#51, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, - - 2014
The recent report of an infant that appears to have achieved a "functional cure" of HIV-1 following receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 30 hours of birth raises many questions: was the child infected? Was this result due to unique features of this particular infant's immune system, the immune system of ...
Liao Sui-Ling SL 1Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Taoyuan , - - 2014
G6PD-deficient adults are reported to be susceptible to severe infection, and decreased cytokine responses have been postulated as the underlying mechanism. However, investigating the association of G6PD deficiency and cytokine responses during infancy is lacking. The current study aims to determine whether cytokine responses of tumor necrosis factor ()-α, interleukins ...
Kallapur Suhas G SG Division of Neonatology/Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of - - 2014
Chorioamnionitis is a frequent cause of preterm birth and is associated with an increased risk for injury responses in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and other fetal organs. Chorioamnionitis is a polymicrobial nontraditional infectious disease because the organisms causing chorioamnionitis are generally of low virulence and colonize the amniotic fluid ...
Latuga M Susan MS Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New - - 2014
Breast milk contains a rich microbiota composed of viable skin and non-skin bacteria. The extent of the breast milk microbiota diversity has been revealed through new culture-independent studies using microbial DNA signatures. However, the extent to which the breast milk microbiota are transferred from mother to infant and the function ...
Zagato Elena E Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, - - 2014
The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we ...
P Suryawanshi S Associate Professor, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Incharge & Consultant Neonatologist, Bharati Hospital , Pune-411043, - - 2014
We report a case of a preterm neonate with isolated spontaneous pneumopericardium occurring in the absence of a history of neonatal resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, major lung disease or another air leak. The pneumopericardium was asymptomatic and resolved without the need for aspiration, although the "nitrogen washout" technique was used.
van den Berg Jolice P JP Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Maternal antibodies, transported over the placenta during pregnancy, contribute to the protection of infants from infectious diseases during the first months of life. In term infants, this protection does not last until the first recommended measles-mumps-rubella vaccination at 14 months in the Netherlands, while these viruses still circulate. The aim ...
Ziegler Ekhard E EE Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, - - 2014
Human milk contains numerous immune-protective components that protect the premature infant from sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Because of these protective effects, human milk is the feeding of choice for the premature infant. However, human milk does not provide adequate amounts of most nutrients for premature infants and must therefore be ...
Wang Shugui S Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Division of Cellular and Molecular Research, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore, - - 2014
Colonizing commensal bacteria after birth are required for the proper development of the gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that bacterial colonization pattern in neonatal gut affects gut barrier function and immune system maturation. Studies on the development of faecal microbiota in infants showed that the neonatal gut was first colonized ...
Libraty Daniel H DH Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans. A MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was previously associated with symptomatic dengue compared to non-dengue causes of acute febrile illnesses in infants. We measured circulating levels of soluble (s)MICB in the sera of infants ...
Ackermann Mark R - - 2014
Preterm birth is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The pathogenesis underlying this is not fully understood, and in vivo studies are needed to better clarify essential cellular features and molecular mechanisms. Such studies include analysis of lung tissue from affected human infants and various ...
Forsberg Anna A Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation, Division of Clinical Immunology, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, - - 2014
Mice models indicate that intact Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling may be essential for the allergy protective effects of diverse bacterial exposure observed in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri from pregnancy week 36 and to the infant through the first year of life decreased the ...
Urbaniak Camilla C Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, ON N6A 4V2, Canada ; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, - - 2014
Human milk is an important source of bacteria for the developing infant and has been shown to influence the bacterial composition of the neonatal gut, which in turn can affect disease risk later in life. Human milk is also an important source of nutrients, influencing bacterial composition but also directly ...
Lanari Marcello M 0000-0002-2586-314X Pediatrics and Neonatology Unit, Imola Hospital, Via Montericco 4, 40026 Imola, - - 2014
Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- ...
Prince Lynne R LR Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, United - - 2014
The etiology of persistent lung inflammation in preterm infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is poorly characterized, hampering efforts to stratify prognosis and treatment. Airway macrophages are important innate immune cells with roles in both the induction and resolution of tissue inflammation. To investigate airway innate immune cellular ...
Gilbert Scott F SF Department of Biology, Swarthmore College Swarthmore, PA, USA ; Biotechnology Institute, University of Helsinki Helsinki, - - 2014
This essay plans to explore, expand, and re-tell the human birth narrative. Usually, human birth narratives focus on the origins of a new individual, focusing on the mother and fetus. This essay discusses birth as the origin of a new community. For not only is the eukaryotic body being reproduced, ...
Turroni Francesca F Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre and Department of Microbiology, Bioscience Institute, National University of Ireland Cork, - - 2014
Bifidobacteria are considered dominant and for this reason key members of the human gut microbiota, particularly during the first one to two years following birth. A substantial proportion of the bifidobacterial population in the intestine of infants belong to the Bifidobacterium bifidum taxon, whose members have been shown to display ...
Zaher Manal Mohamed - - 2014
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is common in infants with variable clinical presentation including varied gastrointestinal manifestation. Cow's milk protein allergy chiefly, involving occurs in children below the age of 3 years, successful therapy depends on completely eliminating cow's milk proteins (CMP) from the child's diet. Ideally, with the replacement ...
Brower-Sinning Rachel R Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Previous studies of infant fecal samples have failed to clarify the role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC. We sought to characterize bacterial communities within intestinal tissue resected from infants with and without NEC. 26 intestinal samples were resected from 19 infants, including 16 NEC samples and 10 ...
van de Heijning Bert J M BJ Nutricia Research, Early Life Nutrition, P.O. Box 80141, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2014
Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow's milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the ...
Fouhy Fiona F Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
The infant gut microbiota develops rapidly during the first 2 years of life, acquiring microorganisms from diverse sources. During this time, significant opportunities exist for the infant to acquire antibiotic resistant bacteria, which can become established and constitute the infant gut resistome. With increased antibiotic resistance limiting our ability to ...
Simone Marta M 0000-0001-7924-1461 Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Viale G. Campi 183, 41125 Modena, - - 2014
Infant colic is a common gastrointestinal disorder of newborns, mostly related to imbalances in the composition of gut microbiota and particularly to the presence of gas-producing coliforms and to lower levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Probiotics could help to contain this disturbance, with formulations consisting of Lactobacillus strains being the ...
Balloch Anne A *Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, #Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, †Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, ^Menzies School of Health Research, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia, ¥London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, - - 2013
Australian indigenous infants experience the highest incidence of chronic suppurative and acute otitis media in the world with many babies developing disease in the early postnatal period. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of otitis media in this population. Infants are protected against bacterial disease in the first months of ...
Celen Mustafa Kemal MK Mustafa Kemal Celen, Celal Ayaz, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, 21280 Yeni┼čehir, Diyarbakir, - - 2013
To evaluate the effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use during late pregnancy to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in highly viremic mothers. This retrospective study included 45 pregnant patients with hepatitis B e antigen (+) chronic hepatitis B and HBV DNA levels > 10(7) copies/mL who received TDF ...
Imamura Takashi T 1Department of Pediatrics, Takeda General Hospital, Aizu Wakamatsu, - - 2013
The purpose was to review our experiences and determine if applying the sky blue method is reliable in confirming gastric tube (GT) placement in neonates. Methods: The study population consisted of 44 infants (55 placements) who were admitted to the Takeda General Hospital between April 2012 and March 2013 and ...
Kuperman Amir A Pediatric Hematology Clinic and Coagulation Service, Western Galilee Hospital, Naharia, Israel; Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, - - 2013
Pertussis is an important cause of infant death worldwide and continues to be a public health concern even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Severe (critical) pertussis with hyperleukocytosis is a severe form of the disease with up to 80% mortality rate. Attempts have been reported to reduce the white ...
Musallam Nadira - - 2013
We describe an 8-month-old infant with infantile spasms treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) who presented with fatal Legionella pneumophila and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Emphasis is placed on the ensuing immunosuppression and infectious sequelae of ACTH therapy. Given that ACTH therapy may increase the risk of fatal infection, patients undergoing such ...
Fooladi Abbas Ali Imani - - 2013
The prevalence of allergic diseases among infants is increasing particularly in developed countries. Although, the exact reason is not clear yet, one of the most probable explanations is reducing microbial exposure during early life and consequent alteration of gut microbiota. Various factors including delivery mode, infant`s diet, environment and antibiotics ...
Glaser Kirsten - - 2013
Altered neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) function is hypothesized to contribute to the heightened susceptibility to infection and perpetuated inflammation in term and preterm neonates, clinically evident in neonatal sepsis and increased rates of inflammatory disorders. Current data indicate that basal TLR expression in term neonates equals adult expression patterns, while ...
Gregory Katherine E KE W.F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA, - - 2013
Exposure to the immunologic factors found in maternal breast milk has been shown to compensate for the immature immune system that characterizes the preterm infant. Feeding preterm infants with human milk not only provides protection from disease pathogenesis and ensures an optimal source of nutrients in the short term, but ...
Moro Pedro L PL Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Birth Defects Branch, Division of Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects & Developmental Disabilities, the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Workforce Branch, Office of Public Health Scientific Services, and the Women's Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; and the Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, - - 2013
To characterize maternal and infant outcomes for pregnant women who received live H1N1 influenza vaccine and had no reported adverse events. We identified Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System reports, which described receipt of live H1N1 vaccine during pregnancy without an indication of an adverse event at the time of the ...
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