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Cantey Joseph B JB 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; 2(current address) Center for Perinatal Research, Nationwide Children's Hospital - The Ohio State University, Columbus, - - 2014
Prolonged or unnecessary antibiotic use is associated with adverse outcomes in neonates. Our objectives were to quantify all antibiotic use in a Level III NICU and to identify scenarios where their use could be reduced. Surveillance and evaluation of all antibiotic use provided to every infant admitted to a Level ...
Merglova Vlasta - - 2014
Recently, the dental literature has focused mainly on the microbial colonization of healthy full-term infants and their mothers or caretakers. However, oral microbial acquisition by premature infants has not been adequately investigated, and the correlation between pre-term birth and the presence of cariogenic and periodontal pathogens has not been determined. ...
AlFaleh Khalid K Department of Pediatrics (Division of Neonatology), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. kfaleh@ksu.edu.sa, - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, and enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC ...
McMullen Janet A JA Undergraduate Medical Education Doctor of Medicine - - 2014
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in infants. To use resources optimally, factors contributing to costs through length of stay (LOS) must be identified. This study sought to identify clinical and health system factors associated with long LOS in infants with UTI. Using a case-control ...
Bode Lars - - 2014
Human milk is the optimal source of nutrition for the nursing infant. Classically, the nutrients (water, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals) were studied as the critical components of milk serving the growth needs of the infant for optimum growth. However, human milk contains factors other than the classically defined ...
Topcuoglu Sevilay S Neonatologist, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children's Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonisation can be controlled with strict adherence to infection control measures. We describe a VRE outbreak coincident with bacterial probiotic trial. Relationship between probiotic and VRE colonisation, and other possible risk factors were investigated. Methods: Two hundred ten infants with gestational age less than ...
Bergmann Henrike H Freelance Scientific - - 2014
Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk ...
Jaeggi Tanja T Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
In-home iron fortification for infants in developing countries is recommended for control of anaemia, but low absorption typically results in >80% of the iron passing into the colon. Iron is essential for growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria. We determined the effect of high and low dose in-home iron ...
Fernandes M M Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
Maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse child outcomes. One potential mechanism is the influence of antenatal depression on the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This can be observed as disturbances in baseline cortisol secretion during childhood. The influence of antenatal depression on infant cortisol reactivity to ...
Shen Chanjuan C Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA, - - 2014
A better understanding of immune responses in human infants could lead to more effective immunization and vaccination strategies in early life. Since antibodies are key components of protective vaccine responses, we examined developmental changes in serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in infant rhesus macaques from birth through 6 ...
Gill Christopher John CJ Boston University School of Public Health , Boston, MA , - - 2014
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In populations with limited access to health care, early identification of bacterial infections and initiation of antibiotics by community health workers (CHWs) could be lifesaving. It is unknown whether this strategy would be feasible using traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a cadre ...
Munbilt Daniel D Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, United Kingdom; International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network, of the World Universities Network - - 2014
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to allergic sensitisation and disease. The factors in breast milk which influence these processes are still unclear and under investigation. We know that colostrum and breast milk contain a variety of molecules which can influence immune responses in ...
Oulego-Erroz Ignacio I Department of Pediatrics, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
An ultrasound evaluation of lumbar spine anatomic landmarks relevant for lumbar puncture was performed in 199 newborn infants. Effects of 6 patient positions and gestational age on interspinous process distance, subarachnoid space width, predicted needle entry angle, and needle insertion depth were assessed. Our results identify optimized conditions for lumbar ...
Donovan Sharon M SM Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The early postnatal period is a critical window for intestinal and immune maturation. Intestinal development and microbiome diversity and composition differ between breast- (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants. Mechanistic examination into host-microbe relationships in healthy infants has been hindered by ethical constraints surrounding tissue biopsies. Thus, a statistically rigorous analytical ...
Toizumi Michiko M Departments of Pediatric Infectious Diseases andDepartments of Tropical Pediatric Infectious - - 2014
Outbreaks of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) continue to arise in various countries where a rubella-containing vaccine is not included in the national immunization program. After a large-scale rubella outbreak in 2011, CRS cases emerged in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of ...
Healy C Mary CM aDepartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine,bBen Taub General Hospital, cCenter for Vaccine Awareness and Research, Texas Children's Hospital, dUniversity of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, Houston, - - 2014
Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization of infant contacts (cocooning) is recommended by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to prevent infant pertussis. We determined whether implementing a cocooning program at Ben Taub General Hospital (BTGH), Houston, reduced severe pertussis in young infants. Infants ≤ 6 months of age, ...
Tregnaghi Miguel M Centro de Desarrollo de Proyectos Avanzados, Córdoba, - - 2014
This phase III study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, administered with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age. Healthy infants received MenACWY-CRM in a two- or three-dose primary infant series plus a single toddler dose. In addition, a two-dose toddler catch-up series ...
Adam Omer - - 2014
Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS cases among Sudanese infants with congenital eye or heart defects. Between February and September 2010, paired oral fluid and ...
Harrison Denise - - 2014
Early childhood immunizations, although vital for preventative health, are painful and too often lead to fear of needles. Effective pain management strategies during infant immunizations include breastfeeding, sweet solutions, and upright front-to-front holding. However, it is unknown how often these strategies are used in clinical practice. We aimed to review ...
Goo Leslie L 1] Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. [2] Graduate Program in Pathobiology, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
Eliciting protective neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against HIV-1 is daunting because of the extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of HIV-1. Moreover, broad and potent responses are uncommon even during persistent infection, with only a subset of adults developing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that recognize viral variants from different HIV-1 clades. It ...
Hsu Ya-Chi YC Department of Pediatrics, Chiayi Branch, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Chiayi, - - 2014
The primary aim of the study was to investigate the changes in composition of breast milk from mothers with preterm infants (gestation age < 35 weeks) during the first 4-6 weeks of lactation. Breast milk from 17 mothers who had delivered preterm infants was collected longitudinally for 4-6 weeks. Breast milk from 15 ...
Payne Barbara L BL Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, USA; Department of Global Health, University of Washington, - - 2014
In utero exposure to HIV-1 may affect the immune system of the developing child and may induce HIV-1-specific immune responses, even in the absence of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated lymphoproliferative capacity at birth among 40 HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and 10 infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. ...
Akin Ilke Mungan IM Division of Neonatology, School of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, - - 2014
Objective Lactoferrin (LF) is effective in the prevention of sepsis in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are important subsets of T lymphocytes that control pathogen-specific immune responses and are essential for intestinal immune homoeostasis. The aim of the present study is to determine whether oral LF at ...
Wong K K KK Epidemic Intelligence Service assigned to Influenza Division,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, - - 2014
SUMMARY Death certificate reports and laboratory-confirmed influenza deaths probably underestimate paediatric deaths attributable to influenza. Using US mortality data for persons aged <18 years who died during 28 September 2003 to 2 October 2010, we estimated influenza-attributable deaths using a generalized linear regression model based on seasonal covariates, influenza-certified deaths ...
Munoz Flor M FM Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas2Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, - - 2014
Maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine could prevent infant pertussis. To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap immunization during pregnancy and its effect on infant responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. Phase 1-2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical ...
Bardini M M M Tettamanti Research Center; University of Milano Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo, Monza, - - 2014
Distinct from most other acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), infant ALL with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangement, the most common leukemia occurring within the first year of life, might arise without the need for cooperating genetic lesions. Through Ig/TCR rearrangement analysis of MLL-AF4+ infant ALL at diagnosis and xenograft leukemias ...
Dong Ying Y University Children's Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing and Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, - - 2014
Neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a serious problem in neonatal intensive care. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis, have emerged as the predominant pathogen of LOS in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, accounting for up to 77.9% of neonatal LOS in industrialized countries and 46.5% in some developing regions. VLBW ...
Trolice Mark P MP Fertility Center of Assisted Reproduction and Endocrinology, Winter Park, Florida. Electronic address: - - 2014
To report a live birth with IVF from a 46-year-old woman using autologous oocytes. Case report. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility private practice and ambulatory IVF center. One 46-year-old nulligravid woman. IVF with fresh ET. Live birth after IVF. A 46-year-old with antimullerian hormone (AMH) level less than 0.16 conceived through ...
Tanticharoenwiwat Pattara - - 2014
Infants who were readmitted with high level of bilirubin (more than 20 mg/dl) should be treated as an acute medical emergency to prevent acute and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy. To determine causes of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, risk factors for exchange transfusion and outcomes of neonate after implementation of the jaundice fast-track ...
Drell Tiina T Institute of Microbiology; University of Tartu; Tartu, Estonia; Centre for Biology of Integrated Systems; Tallinn University of Technology; Tallinn, Estonia; Competence Centre on Reproductive Medicine and Biology; Tartu, - - 2014
An increasing number of studies that are using high-throughput molecular methods are rapidly extending our knowledge of gut microbial colonization in preterm infants whose immaturity and requirement for extensive treatment may result in altered colonization process. We aimed to describe the profile of gut microbiota in 50 extremely low birth ...
Kidzeru Elvis B EB aDivision of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town bDesmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Parow cDivision of Virology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town dNational Health Laboratory Sciences, South Africa eDivision of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa fSeattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. To evaluate whether immune dysfunction contributes to this vulnerability of HEU infants, we conducted a longitudinal, observational cohort study to assess T-cell immune responses to infant vaccines (Mycobacterium bovis BCG and acellular pertussis) and staphylococcal ...
Jones R P RP Healthcare Analysis & Forecasting, Honister Walk, Camberley GU15 1RQ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
In early 2012 deaths (all-cause mortality) in England and Wales showed an unexpected and unexplained increase which continued for 18months before abating. The highest percentage increase in deaths was noted to be for neurological degenerations (mainly dementia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's). This study seeks to understand why increased deaths should focus on ...
Le Doare Kirsty K Imperial College London, Department of Paediatrics, St. Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK; Wellcome Trust Centre for Global Health Research, Norfolk Place, London, UK; MRC Unit, Vaccinology Theme, Atlantic Road, Fajara, Gambia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Invasive Group-B streptococcal (GBS) disease is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. GBS colonises the maternal rectum and vagina and transmission of bacteria from a colonized mother to her infant at birth is an important risk factor for GBS disease. GBS disease has also been associated with ...
Reikie Brian A BA 1Division of Infectious & Immunological Diseases, and Centre for Understanding and Preventing Infections in Children, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V5Z 4H4, Canada 2Immunology Unit, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, NHLS and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 3Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, NHLS and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 4Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital and Stellenbosch University, PO 19063, Tygerberg 7505 South Africa 5Leaders in Medicine Program, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 4N1, - - 2014
Early in life HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared to HIV-unexposed (UE) infants. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their increased risk, we contrasted innate immune development between HEU and UE infants in a developing world setting, ...
Zhang Lei L Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, - - 2014
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is of high prevalence in China. Mother-to-infant transmission is the major route for HBV transmission and subsequent chronicity. This study aimed to investigate current HBsAg-positive rate among pregnant women and immunoprophylaxis outcome in China. Multicenter prospective study was conducted in 10 centers. From 2008 to ...
McDonald Suzanna L - - 2014
Vitamin A supplementation significantly reduces all-cause mortality when given between 6-59 months of age, but has a null or detrimental effect when given between 1-5 months. Studies of neonatal vitamin A supplementation conducted across Africa and South Asia have produced conflicting findings. These age-pattern variations might result from immunological interactions ...
Winkler Beate B Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Children's Hospital, Joseph-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080, Würzburg, - - 2014
Breast-feeding (BF) versus formula-feeding (FF) may be a factor for the development and differentiation of T-cell subsets and cytokine production in infancy and childhood. We therefore investigated T-cell subpopulations and their cytokine production by flow cytometry as well as cytokine levels in serum samples in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants and ...
Derscheid Rachel J RJ Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University , College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, - - 2014
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to ...
Groer Maureen M 1University of South Florida College of Nursing, Tampa, FL, - - 2014
Background:There has been a recent increase in availability of banked donor milk for feeding of preterm infants. This milk is pooled from donations to milk banks from carefully screened lactating women. The milk is then pasteurized by the Holder method to remove all microbes. The processed milk is frozen, banked, ...
Ward Tonya L TL Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, - - 2014
Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a pattern recognition receptor and Toll-like co-receptor observed in human milk (5-26μg/mL) and other bodily fluids such as blood (3μg/mL). The most well defined role of sCD14 is to recognize lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria and signal an immune response through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Previous research ...
Albokrinov Andrew A AA From the Regional Children's Clinic Hospital, Lviv, - - 2014
Thoracolumbar paravertebral block (PVB) is one method of providing regional anaesthesia for abdominal wall surgery in children. It is common practice when performing a PVB for abdominal wall anaesthesia to inject a certain volume of local anaesthetic solution in the paravertebral space at several levels. This increases the duration of ...
Ahlfeld Shawn K SK Developmental Biology and Neonatal Medicine Program, HB Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, - - 2014
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of extreme prematurity and is defined clinically by dependence on supplemental oxygen due to impaired gas exchange. Optimal gas exchange is dependent on the development of a sufficient surface area for diffusion. In the mammalian lung, rapid acquisition of distal lung surface ...
Romano-Keeler Joann J Department of Pediatrics; Vanderbilt University; Nashville, TN - - 2014
Fecal sampling is widely utilized to define small intestinal tissue-level microbial communities in healthy and diseased newborns. However, this approach may lead to inaccurate assessments of disease or therapeutics in newborns because of the assumption that the taxa in the fecal microbiota are representative of the taxa present throughout the ...
Davidson Autumn P AP Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Small Animal Clinic, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Pet Care Veterinary Hospital, East Campus, 2425 Mendocino Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95403, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Prudent veterinary intervention in the prenatal, parturient, and postpartum periods can increase neonatal survival by controlling or eliminating factors contributing to puppy morbidity and mortality. Postresuscitation or within the first 24 hours of a natural delivery, a complete physical examination should be performed by a veterinarian, technician, or knowledgeable breeder. Adequate ...
Chahroudi Ann A Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of - - 2014
Mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT) of HIV is a serious global health concern, with over 300,000 children newly infected in 2011. SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) results in similar rates of MTIT to that of HIV in humans. In contrast, SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs) rarely results in MTIT. The ...
Longo Stefania S Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) is usually defined as impaired growth and development of the fetus and/or its organs during gestation. Infants are defined small for gestational age (SGA), following IUGR, when the birth weight is below the 10th percentile. Pre-natal congenital infections caused by T. gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes ...
Chaves Sandra S SS 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 2Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 3Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 4Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, CO 5Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 6Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, MI 7Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 8Oregon Public Health Division, Portland, OR 9Utah Department of Health, Salt Lake City, UT 10New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, NM 11Rhode Island Department of Health, Providence, RI 12Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, MN 13Emerging Infections Program, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 14California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland, CA 15Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School, of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 16Monroe County, Department of Public Health, Rochester, NY 17Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, MD 18Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, - - 2014
Little information is available describing the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of those <12 months hospitalized with influenza, particularly at a population level. We used population-based, laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization surveillance data from 2003-2012 seasons to describe the impact of influenza by age category (<3, 3 to <6 and 6 to <12 ...
Groome Michelle J MJ Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Box 90753, Bertsham, 2013, Gauteng, South - - 2014
To investigate the effect of abstention from breastfeeding, for an hour before and after each vaccination, on the immune responses of infants to two doses of rotavirus vaccine. In Soweto, South Africa, mother-infant pairs who were uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled as they presented for the "6-week" ...
Gephart Sheila M SM College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson (Dr Gephart); and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Arizona (Ms - - 2014
It is well known that the immune response is blunted and underdeveloped in the premature infant, but human milk supports the infant's growth, function, and effectiveness. Thus, own mother's colostrum (OMC) administered oropharyngeally has potential to deliver oral immune therapy (C-OIT) even before enteral feedings have begun. Colostrum interacts with ...
Pifko Elysha E Resident Physician (Pifko), Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellow (Price), Pediatric Emergency Medicine Attending Physician (Sterner), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, - - 2014
Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores and leads to a life-threatening descending motor weakness and flaccid paralysis in infant children. This disease presents with symptoms such as constipation, weakness, and hypotonia and can lead to respiratory failure. Botulism immune globulin (BIG) was created to treat ...
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