Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1581
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Smith Linda B LB Psychological and Brain Sciences, Program in Cognitive Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recent theory and experiments offer a new solution regarding how infant learners may break into word learning by using cross-situational statistics to find the underlying word-referent mappings. Computational models demonstrate the in-principle plausibility of this statistical learning solution and experimental evidence shows that infants can aggregate and make statistically appropriate ...
Ferguson Brock B Northwestern University, Department of Psychology, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Fluent speakers' representations of verbs include semantic knowledge about the nouns that can serve as their arguments. These "selectional restrictions" of a verb can in principle be recruited to learn the meaning of a novel noun. For example, the sentence He ate the carambola licenses the inference that carambola refers ...
Khu Melanie M Department of Psychology, University of Calgary Calgary, AB, - - 2014
The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants' transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit ...
Wu Rachel R Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester Rochester, NY, - - 2014
Social attention cues (e.g., head turning, gaze direction) highlight which events young infants should attend to in a busy environment and, recently, have been shown to shape infants' likelihood of learning about objects and events. Although studies have documented which social cues guide attention and learning during early infancy, few ...
Bock Joerg - - 2013
Work in various animal models has demonstrated that cognitive training in infancy has a greater effect on adult cognitive performance than pretraining in adulthood. Since the underlying synaptic mechanisms are unclear, the aim of this study was to test the working hypothesis that associative training "preshapes" synaptic circuits in the ...
Okumura Yuko - - 2013
Social learning enables infants to acquire information, especially through communication. However, it is unknown whether humans are the prime source of information for infant learning. Here we report that humans have a powerful influence on infants' object learning compared with nonhuman agents (robots). Twelve-month-old infants were shown videos in which ...
Vlach Haley A HA Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States. - - 2013
Infants are able to map linguistic labels to referents in the world by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across learning events, a behavior often termed cross-situational statistical learning. This study builds upon existing research by examining infants' developing ability to aggregate and retrieve word-referent pairings over time. 16- and 20-month-old infants (N=32) ...
Rovee-Collier Carolyn - - 2013
Rovee-Collier, C., Mitchell, K. & Hsu-Yang, V. (2013). Effortlessly strengthening infant memory: Associative potentiation of new learning. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 54, 4-9. We recently discovered that young infants learn a new association better in the presence of a prior association than when they learn it alone - a phenomenon ...
Graf Estes Katharine K Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95618, USA. - - 2013
This research investigates how early learning about native language sound structure affects how infants associate sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (19-month-olds) were presented with bisyllabic labels with high or low phonotactic probability (i.e., sequences of frequent or infrequent phonemes in English). The labels were produced with the predominant ...
Sloutsky Vladimir M VM Department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States. - - 2013
Many objects and events can be categorized in different ways, and learning multiple categories in parallel often requires flexibly attending to different stimulus dimensions in different contexts. Although infants and young children often exhibit poor attentional control, several theoretical proposals argue that such flexibility can be achieved without selective attention. ...
Rodie M E - - 2012
Prolonged jaundice (PJ) in healthy term neonates is common and frequently benign. It can, however, be the earliest manifestation of underlying liver disease. Its management requires a balanced approach, avoiding over-investigation of well babies while ensuring the early identification of those with pathology. Currently marked heterogeneity exists in the assessment ...
Guddat Saskia S - - 2012
Proof of live birth is of major importance in suspected neonaticide cases. Although not without controversy the lung flotation test is the main method used to asses this in different jurisdictions worldwide. The present study examines the usefulness of postmortem multislice computed tomography (pmMSCT) in the detection of live birth ...
Sira Mostafa Mohamed - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA) can be challenging as its histopathologic features overlap with those of other pediatric cholestatic liver diseases. We aimed to study the diagnostic value of hepatic CD56 immunostaining in the differentiation of BA from other causes of neonatal cholestasis. METHODS: Hepatic CD56 immunostaining was ...
Shteyer Eyal - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Distinguishing biliary atresia (BA) from other causes of neonatal cholestasis (NC) is challenging. Continuous BreathIDC-Methacetin breath test (MBT, Exalenz Ltd.) is a novel method that determine liver function. Methacetin is metabolized uniquely by the liver and CO2 is measured passively, through a nasal canula in the exhaled breath. AIM:: ...
Paul Siba Prosad - - 2012
Jaundice is common in neonates and is often the reason for a parent to consult a community midwife or health visitor. It is known that up to 40 per cent of breastfed infants are jaundiced at 14 days of age and a proportion of these infants are referred to paediatric ...
Vande Loock Kim - - 2012
Newborns have to cope with hypoxia during delivery and a sudden increase in oxygen at birth. Oxygen will partly be released as reactive oxygen species having the potential to cause damage to DNA and proteins. In utero, increase of most (non)-enzymatic antioxidants occurs during last weeks of gestation, making preterm ...
Valentine Christina J - - 2012
Dietary DHA (22:6n-3) is a long-chain PUFA that has provocative effects on inflammatory signal events that could potentially affect preterm infant health. It is well known that the essential fatty acid of the (n-3) series; α-linolenic acid (18:3n:3) can be desaturated and elongated in the liver endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisome ...
Sant'Anna Ana M G A AM Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3H 1P3, Canada. - - 2012
To describe the authors' experience with the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach and use of fish oil emulsion (FOE) in the management of infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). Between August 2006 and June 2009, four cases of SBS and severe PNALD were managed ...
Moritoki Yoshinobu - - 2012
We report the case of a newborn infant with cloacal exstrophy. On the 16th day after birth, complete primary exstrophy repair was performed. The bladder tissue obtained during surgery contained collagen tissue and a little smooth muscle, as well as a few neuron cells and kit-positive interstitial cells in the ...
Zani Augusto - - 2012
Infants with biliary atresia (BA) develop a degree of hepatic fibrosis as a consequence of their cholangiopathy. Some of them present clinically evident ascites that might predispose to inguinal hernias. We aimed to investigate whether infants with BA have a higher incidence of inguinal hernias. Single-center retrospective review of all ...
Koseesirikul Photchanaphorn - - 2012
Objective:  To determine the incidence and risk factors of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in neonates. Materials and Methods:  A 1-year prospective cohort study was carried out at the NICU and sick neonatal wards, Chiang Mai University Hospital. Newborns of >1000 g, receiving >7 days of parenteral nutrition (PN), were ...
Oliveira Lívia Ferreira - - 2012
Quantify steatosis, fibrosis, and focuses of extramedullary erythropoiesis (ER) in the liver and report it to the causes of death in the perinatal. Morphologic analysis of steatosis', percentage of fibrosis, and ER of 467 perinatal autopsies. Cases with hypoxia/perinatal anoxia and ascending infection showed higher percentage of fibrosis. The number ...
Behr Gerald G - - 2012
The association between liver infantile hemangioma and mesenchymal hamartoma is rare. This communication reports the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 3 infants with concurrent liver hemangioma and mesenchymal hamartoma. We conducted a comprehensive search of the database of our Vascular Anomalies Center over the past 12 years (1999-2010) for ...
Aiad Hayam Abdel Samie - - 2012
Aiad HAS, Kandil MAH, Samaka RM, Sultan MM, Badr MT, Nada GEM. The role of ck7, ki-67, cd34 and vimentin in the differentiation between biliary atresia and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis in egyptian cholestatic neonates. APMIS 2012; 120: 529-38. The differentiation between biliary atresia (BA) and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH) is ...
Graf Estes Katharine - - 2012
The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker's voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types ...
Lara-Díaz Víctor Javier - - 2011
ABSTRACT A 29 weeks' gestational age newborn, the product of a multiple gestation, was found to have a round mass in the umbilical cord; the resected lesion was an ectopic liver tissue (3 × 2 cm). She also had an imperforated hymen; otherwise, no other abnormalities were seen. The infant survived. ...
Cakir Murat - - 2011
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a relatively rare condition in neonates, and early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the treatable conditions. Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is a rare clinical condition that is clinically defined as severe neonatal liver disease associated with hepatic and extrahepatic iron deposition in a distribution similar ...
Hendriks Angélique W - - 2011
Recently we found that adult children whose mothers had had a right-arm preference for holding infants have a reduced left bias for recognising faces, suggesting that they are less well right-hemisphere lateralised for perceiving faces. One possible explanation of this finding is that early visual exposure to faces is suboptimal ...
Sundaram Shikha S - - 2011
To characterize infants aged ≤ 90 days enrolled in an international, multicenter, prospective registry of children aged < 18 years with acute liver failure (ALF). The Pediatric Acute Liver Failure (PALF) Study Group collects prospective data on children from birth to 18 years. We analyzed data from infants aged ≤ ...
Tronick Ed - - 2011
We argue that infant meaning-making processes are a central mechanism governing both typical and pathological outcomes. Infants, as open dynamic systems, must constantly garner information to increase their complexity and coherence. They fulfill this demand by making nonverbal "meaning"-affects, movements, representations-about themselves in relation to the world and themselves into ...
Wang Su-hua - - 2011
How do infants select and use information that is relevant to the task at hand? Infants treat events that involve different spatial relations as distinct, and their selection and use of object information depends on the type of event they encounter. For example, 4.5-month-olds consider information about object height in ...
Provasi Joëlle - - 2011
The present study was the first to investigate infants' ability to discriminate time using a bisection task that has been extensively used with animals and human adults. Infants aged 4 months were presented with two standard auditory signals, one short (S = 500 ms) and one long (L = 1,500 ...
Schachner Adena - - 2011
Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this ...
de Campos Ana Carolina - - 2011
Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between such an intrinsic factor, Down syndrome, and extrinsic factors, such as different object properties. Seven infants with Down syndrome and ...
Silva Fernanda P S - - 2011
It has been found that objects influence the adjustments to reaching of breastfeeding infants, however, it has not been investigated whether these adjustments change in older infants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the size and rigidity of objects influence the proximal and distal adjustments to reaching ...
de Toledo Aline Martins AM Department of Physiotherapy, Neuropediatrics Section, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil. - - 2011
The authors aimed to investigate proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior and grasping in 5-, 6-, and 7-month-old preterm infants. Nine low-risk preterm and 10 full-term infants participated. Both groups showed the predominance of unimanual reaching, an age-related increase in the frequency of vertical-oriented and open hand movement, and ...
Hsu Vivian C - - 2010
The time window construct describes when and how an earlier experience will be enduring. According to the construct, there is a limited period after an event occurs, or time window, in which a second event can retrieve and be integrated with the memory of the first event. The construct also ...
Miller Joseph M - - 2010
To design and evaluate a new infant keratometer that incorporates an unobstructed view of the infant with both eyes (open-field design). The design of the open-field infant keratometer is presented, and details of its construction are given. The design incorporates a single-ring keratoscope for measurement of corneal astigmatism over a ...
Woods Rebecca J - - 2010
Infants' ability to represent objects has received significant attention from the developmental research community. With the advent of eye-tracking technology, detailed analysis of infants' looking patterns during object occlusion have revealed much about the nature of infants' representations. The current study continues this research by analyzing infants' looking patterns in ...
Gliga Teodora T Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, UK. - - 2010
Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz) oscillatory activity over the visual cortex ...
Mather Emily - - 2011
ABSTRACTStudies report that infants as young as 1 ; 3 to 1 ; 5 will seek out a novel object in response to hearing a novel label (e.g. Halberda, 2003; Markman, Wasow & Hansen, 2003). This behaviour is commonly known as the 'mutual exclusivity' response (Markman, 1989; 1990). However, evidence ...
Gredebäck Gustaf - - 2010
Two- to 8-month-old infants interacted with their mother or a stranger in a prospective longitudinal gaze following study. Gaze following, as assessed by eye tracking, emerged between 2 and 4 months and stabilized between 6 and 8 months of age. Overall, infants followed the gaze of a stranger more than ...
Sato Yutaka - - 2010
Infants' speech perception abilities change through the first year of life, from broad sensitivity to a wide range of speech contrasts to becoming more finely attuned to their native language. What remains unclear, however, is how this perceptual change relates to brain responses to native language contrasts in terms of ...
Turati Chiara - - 2010
Holistic face processing was investigated in newborns, 3-month-old infants, and adults through a modified version of the composite face paradigm and the recording of eye movements. After familiarization to the top portion of a face, participants (N = 70) were shown 2 aligned or misaligned faces, 1 of which comprised ...
Moriceau Stephanie - - 2010
Here we review the neurobiology of infant odor learning in rats, and discuss the unique role of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in the learning necessary for the developing rat. During the first 9 postnatal (PN) days, infants readily learn odor preferences, while aversion and fear learning are attenuated. Such ...
Southgate Victoria - - 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated infants' pragmatic abilities for resolving the referential ambiguity of non-verbal communicative gestures, and for inferring the intended meaning of a communicator's utterances. These abilities are difficult to reconcile with the view that it is not until around 4 years that children can reason about the internal ...
Libertus Melissa E - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination ...
van Wermeskerken Margot - - 2011
The present study examined 7- to 11-month-old infants' anticipatory and reactive reaching for temporarily occluded objects. Infants were presented with laterally approaching objects that moved at different velocities (10, 20, and 40cm/s) in different occlusion situations (no-, 20cm-, and 40cm-occlusion), resulting in occlusion durations ranging between 0 and 4s. Results ...
Kondaurova Maria V - - 2011
The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), ...
Slater Alan M - - 2010
After a brief familiarization period to either one or two toys 5-month-olds gave a clear preference for perceptually novel displays, suggesting that replicable findings of greater looking at an unexpected arithmetic outcome in addition/subtraction experiments cannot easily be attributed to simple familiarity preferences.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >