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Results 401 - 450 of 1594
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Rennels Jennifer L - - 2008
Parents of 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-month-olds used two scales we developed to provide information about their infants' facial experience with familiar and unfamiliar individuals during one week. Results showed large discrepancies in the race, sex, and age of faces that infants experience during their first year with the majority ...
Masur Elise Frank - - 2008
Twenty mother-infant dyads (10 boys, 10 girls) were videotaped longitudinally at ages 10, 13, 17, and 21 months during in-home free play and bath sessions. Mothers' and infants' responses to their partners' naturally occurring action and vocal/verbal imitations were described, and relations to infants' imitation rates and vocabularies were examined. ...
Byrd Dani D Department of Linguistics, University of Southern California, 3601 Watt Way, GFS 301, Los Angeles, California 90089-1693, USA. - - 2008
This study evaluates the effects of phrase boundaries on the intra- and intergestural kinematic characteristics of blended gestures, i.e., overlapping gestures produced with a single articulator. The sequences examined are the juncture geminate [d(#)d], the sequence [d(#)z], and, for comparison, the singleton tongue tip gesture in [d(#)b]. This allows the ...
Flom Ross - - 2008
Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation ...
Lee Guo-She - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) is defined as the power ratio of low frequency to high frequency energy obtained by dividing the voice spectrum with a specific cutoff frequency. In a previous study, VLHR correlated significantly with nasalance and perceptual rating of hypernasality for a ...
Thuerauf Norbert N Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. - - 2008
An earlier study in humans comparing the olfactory sensitivity of both nostrils revealed a small but significant advantage of the right nostril for detection and for olfactory quality discrimination. However lateralization was not evaluated for the perception of odor intensity and hedonic evaluation (pleasantness/unpleasantness). Thus we investigated lateralization of olfactory ...
Tronchin Lamberto - - 2008
Athanasius Kircher, Jesuit, was born in Geisa, Thuringen, in 1608. He spent a large amount of his life in Rome, where he died in 1680. He was active in many different topics, ranging from geology to philosophy. He was the author of many books at his time, among all the ...
Mixdorff Hansjörg - - 2008
The authors examine the connection between the fundamental frequency (f0) contour and the segmental grid, employing the Fujisaki model for decomposing an f0 contour into phrase and accent components. As shown in earlier work by the first author, accent commands are closely connected with the accented syllables of the constituent ...
Polka Linda - - 2008
Recently Polka and Rvachew (in press) found that 6- to 8-month-old infants discriminated a native contrast("bu" - "gu") when familiarized and tested with syllables presented in quiet, but not when familiarized with syllables mixed with a competing noise, even when testing was conducted in quiet. Because the competing noise (segments ...
Lynch A - - 2008
Adult hand preference emerges from complex developmental changes in arm and hand use during childhood. Recent reports have highlighted the importance of understanding arm and hand use during the first year of life including the period before reach onset. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that significant right-left differences exist ...
Cardillo Gina C - - 2008
It has been proposed that infant-directed speech (IDS) increases the discriminability of phonetic categories by exaggerating the acoustic differences between phonetic units (Kuhl et al., 1997, Science). However, reports show conflicting results on whether this principle holds for consonants. The current study measured English p b t d in both ...
Shi Rushen - - 2008
This study examines the role of functional morphemes in the earliest stage of lexical development. Recent research showed that prelinguistic infants can perceive functional morphemes. We inquire whether infants use frequent functors to segment potential word forms. French-learning 8-month-olds were familiarized to two utterance types: a novel noun following a ...
Tamis-LeMonda Catherine S - - 2008
The social cognition and perception-action literatures are largely separate, both conceptually and empirically. However, both areas of research emphasize infants' emerging abilities to use available information--social and perceptual information, respectively--for making decisions about action. Borrowing methods from both research traditions, this study examined whether 18-month-old infants incorporate both social and ...
Sundara Megha - - 2008
With increasing experience listening to language, infants' sensitivity to the patterns of their native language becomes more specialized. In monolingual, hearing infants, this tuning-in into the native language has been demonstrated in an elegant experiment. Hayashi et al. (2001) tested Japanese-learning infants between 4 and 14 months on their preference ...
Green Jordan R - - 2008
Although a growing body of literature suggests a principal role for observational learning in the acquisition of speech, the facial movements of infant directed speech (IDS) have rarely been studied. Identifying both the auditory and visual features of IDS is an essential step toward understanding the contribution of environmental stimulation ...
Bohn Ocke-Schwen - - 2008
Previous infant vowel discrimination studies (Polka & Bohn, 2003) have shown that babies are perceptually biased to favor vowels with more extreme articulations such that a change from a more peripheral vowel ("natural reference vowel" - NRV) to a vowel located more centrally in the vowel space is less discriminable ...
Goldstein Michael H - - 2008
Infants' prelinguistic vocalizations are rarely considered relevant for communicative development. As a result, there are few studies of mechanisms underlying developmental changes in prelinguistic vocal production. Here we report the first evidence that caregivers' speech to babbling infants provides crucial, real-time guidance to the development of prelinguistic vocalizations. Mothers of ...
Imada Toshiaki - - 2008
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a safe, noninvasive method for studying the developing brain by offering reliable localization of the brain regions activated during speech processing. However technical challenges make recording awake infants difficult. The small size of the infant head in the adult-sized helmet results in a low signal-to-noise ratio. Head ...
Nazzi Thierry - - 2008
Speech segmentation skills develop in infancy and are influenced by many phonological properties of the native language and, in particular, the prosodic structure of the infant's native language. Studies using the HPP task show that American English infants appear to favor a stress-based procedure (Jusczyk et al., 1999) whereas Parisian ...
Nizami Iftikhar - - 2008
In JASA (97, 1995), Wong & Norwich presented a Weber-fraction equation derived from McConville, Norwich, & Abel (Int J Biomed Comput 27, 1991). The latter modeled two-alternative forced-choice discrimination between stimuli of identical spectra and identical durations "t" but differing intensities I and I+DeltaI. Discrimination depended on DeltaH(I,t), the change ...
Hojen Anders - - 2008
At the onset of word learning around the age of 12 months, infants are highly capable of perceiving native phonological distinctions. However, required to make word-object associations, infants sometimes fail to perceive certain phonological distinctions. The present study used an inter-modal preferential looking technique to examine Danish 20-month-olds' sensitivity to ...
Polka Linda - - 2008
Speech segmentation skills emerging in infancy are influenced by the infant's native language. English infants favor a stress-based strategy (Jusczyk et al., 1999) whereas French infants favor a syllable-based strategy (Nazzi et al., 2006). Cross-linguistic findings from our lab, based on between group comparisons, show that monolingual 8-month-olds learning either ...
Cheries Erik W - - 2008
A critical challenge for visual perception is to represent objects as the same persisting individuals over time and motion. Across several areas of cognitive science, researchers have identified cohesion as among the most important theoretical principles of object persistence: An object must maintain a single bounded contour over time. Drawing ...
Vaish Amrisha - - 2008
There is ample empirical evidence for an asymmetry in the way that adults use positive versus negative information to make sense of their world; specifically, across an array of psychological situations and tasks, adults display a negativity bias, or the propensity to attend to, learn from, and use negative information ...
Buttelmann David D Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. - - 2008
G. Gergely, H. Bekkering, and I. Király (2002) showed that 14-month-old infants imitate rationally, copying an adult's unusual action more often when it was freely chosen than when it was forced by some constraint. This suggests that infants understand others' intentions as rational choices of action plans. It is important ...
Senju Atsushi - - 2008
Humans are extremely sensitive to ostensive signals, like eye contact or having their name called, that indicate someone's communicative intention toward them [1-3]. Infants also pay attention to these signals [4-6], but it is unknown whether they appreciate their significance in the initiation of communicative acts. In two experiments, we ...
Marquis Alexandra - - 2008
It has been observed that children's early vocabulary is dominated by nouns, with verbs being much delayed. The current study investigated if this delay is related to infants' failure to segment verb forms. Using a preferential looking procedure, French-learning preverbal infants were tested on novel verbs segmentation. Infants at the ...
Hayden Angela - - 2008
Prior research indicates that, like adults, infants use enclosed regions to group elements. It is not clear whether infants or adults can use regions that have to be inferred from illusory contours to group elements. We examined whether 3- to 4-month-olds use illusory regions to group elements and generalize this ...
Keil Frank C - - 2008
The more carefully we look, the more impressive the repertoire of infant concepts seems to be. Across a wide range of tasks, infants seem to be using concepts corresponding to surprisingly high-level and abstract categories and relations. It is tempting to try to explain these abilities in terms of a ...
Southgate Victoria V Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK. - - 2008
Previous work has shown that gamma-band electroencephalogram oscillations recorded over the posterior cortex of infants play a role in maintaining object representations during occlusion. Although it is not yet known what kind of representations are reflected in these oscillations, behavioral data suggest that young infants maintain spatiotemporal (but not featural) ...
Wilcox Teresa T Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, 4235 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA. - - 2008
There is evidence for developmental hierarchies in the type of information to which infants attend when reasoning about objects. Investigators have questioned the origin of these hierarchies and how infants come to identify new sources of information when reasoning about objects. The goal of the present experiments was to shed ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2008
This study investigates infants' processing of emotional expressions in combination with referential eye gaze cues. In experiment 1, 7-month-old infants' neural responses to fearful and neutral faces, which were looking at a novel object, were assessed. Infants' attention, as indexed by the negative central component of the event-related potential, was ...
Reid Vincent M - - 2008
This study investigates how human infants process and interpret human movement. Neural correlates to the perception of (i) possible biomechanical motion, (ii) impossible biomechanical motion and (iii) biomechanically possible motion but nonhuman 'corrupted' body schema were assessed in infants of 8 months. Analysis of event-related potentials resulting from the passive ...
Dolata Jill K - - 2008
Vocal babbling involves production of rhythmic sequences of a mouth close-open alternation giving the perceptual impression of a sequence of consonant-vowel syllables. Petitto and co-workers have argued vocal babbling rhythm is the same as manual syllabic babbling rhythm, in that it has a frequency of 1 cycle per second. They ...
Franklin A - - 2008
Both adults and infants are faster at discriminating between two colors from different categories than two colors from the same category, even when between- and within-category chromatic separation sizes are equated. For adults, this categorical perception (CP) is lateralized; the category effect is stronger for the right visual field (RVF)-left ...
Swaab Roderick I - - 2008
Based on the recently proposed Interactive Model of Identity Formation, we examine how top-down deductive and bottom-up inductive identity formations influence intentions and behaviour in multiparty negotiations. Results show that a shared identity can be deduced from the social context through recognition of superordinate similarities. However, shared identities can also ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2008
There has been a recent surge of interest in the question of how infants respond to the social attributes of race and gender information in faces. This work has demonstrated that by 3 months of age, infants will respond preferentially to same-race faces and faces depicting the gender of the ...
Mitchell Jolyon P - - 2008
The laboratory evaluation of inhalers with facemasks for patient interface is so complex that testing without a facemask is generally undertaken, a practice that has been advocated in one standard. However, the facemask itself can profoundly influence medication delivery. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to establish the ...
Wellman Henry M - - 2008
This research examines whether there are continuities between infant social attention and later theory of mind. Forty-five children were studied as infants and then again as 4-year-olds. Measures of infant social attention (decrement of attention during habituation to displays of intentional action) significantly predicted later theory of mind (false-belief understanding). ...
Cordes Sara - - 2008
This study investigates the ability of 6-month-old infants to attend to the continuous properties of a set of discrete entities. Infants were habituated to dot arrays that were constant in cumulative surface area yet varied in number for small (< 4) or large (> 3) sets. Results revealed that infants ...
Sundara Megha - - 2008
Previous studies indicate that the discrimination of native phonetic contrasts in infants exposed to two languages from birth follows a different developmental time course from that observed in monolingual infants. We compared infant discrimination of dental (French) and alveolar (English) place variants of /d/ in three groups differing in language ...
Southgate Victoria - - 2008
Human infants readily interpret the actions of others in terms of goals, but the origins of this important cognitive skill are keenly debated. We tested whether infants recognize others' actions as goal-directed on the basis of their experience with carrying out and observing goal-directed actions, or whether their perception of ...
Gliga Teodora T Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK. - - 2008
There is now general consensus that infants can use several different visual properties as the basis for categorization. Nonetheless, little is known about when and whether infants can be guided by contextual information to select the relevant properties from amongst those available to them. We show here that by 10 ...
Heron Michelle - - 2008
Previous research has demonstrated discrimination of scrambled from typical human body shapes at 15-18 months of age [Slaughter, V., & Heron, M. (2004). Origins and early development of human body knowledge. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69]. In the current study 18-, 24- and 30-month-old infants ...
Kärtner Joscha - - 2008
In this study we analyzed similarities and differences in the contingency experiences of 159 three-month-olds from 6 sociocultural contexts. Across contexts, caretakers responded with similar overall contingency levels, vocalizations provided the dominant response as well as the most salient signal, and there was a relative signal-response correspondence. With two exceptions, ...
Fernandes Daniel L A - - 2008
An electronic nose based on acoustic wave sensors has been developed to detect spoilt fruit. Different varieties of fruits, edible and rotten, were analysed. Starting from six sensors, the minimum number of sensors capable of discriminating between spoiled and unspoiled fruit was found. The discrimination capability of the sensor array ...
Fichtel Claudia - - 2008
The production of vocalizations in nonhuman primates is predominantly innate, whereas learning influences the usage and comprehension of vocalizations. In this study, I examined the development of alarm call recognition in free-ranging infant Verreaux's sifakas. Specifically, I investigated their ability to recognize conspecific alarm calls as well as those of ...
Sambeth Anke - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral experiments show that infants use both prosodic and statistical cues in acquiring language. However, it is not yet clear whether these prosodic and statistical tools are already present at birth. METHODS: We recorded brain responses of sleeping newborns to natural sounds rich in prosody, namely singing and continuous ...
Gervain Judit - - 2008
Learning word order is one of the earliest feats infants accomplish during language acquisition [Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.]. Two theories have been proposed to account for this fact. Constructivist/lexicalist theories [Tomasello, M. (2000). Do young children have adult syntactic competence? ...
Smith Marshall E - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We measured the effects of cricotracheal resection on the adult female voice. METHODS: Voice recordings of 14 women (mean age, 53 years; range, 35 to 69 years) who underwent cricotracheal resection for chronic airway obstruction associated with idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis were acquired before and after surgery. The recordings were ...
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