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Results 351 - 400 of 1581
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Schlottmann Anne - - 2009
Four experiments with 202 8- to 10-month-old infants studied their sensitivity to causation-at-a-distance in schematic events seen as goal-directed action and reaction by adults and whether this depends on attributes associated with animate agents. In Experiment 1, a red square moved toward a blue square without making contact; in "reaction" ...
Fagan Mary K - - 2009
This study measured longitudinal change in six parameters of infant utterances (i.e. number of sounds, CV syllables, supraglottal consonants, and repetitions per utterance, temporal duration, and seconds per sound), investigated previously unexplored characteristics of repetition (i.e. number of vowel and CV syllable repetitions per utterance) and analyzed change in vocalizations ...
Robitzer Mike - - 2008
Ca-alginate materials were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at different steps of conversion from gel to aerogel in order to determine the relation between the polymer organization at the nanoscale in the gels and the final dry aerogel. In all cases, i.e. before and after the different exchanges of ...
Swingley Daniel - - 2008
Psychologists have known for over 20 years that infants begin learning their language's speech sound categories during the first 12 months of life. This fact has dominated researchers' thinking about how language acquisition begins, although the relevance of this learning to the child's progress in language acquisition has never been ...
Cristià Alejandrina - - 2008
Previous work suggests that learning to perceive speech categories in infancy may be influenced by the distributions of acoustic cues that underlie them. However, studies on this topic have focused on distributions of single cues, especially voice onset time (VOT), whereas natural phonetic categories are typically defined according to multiple ...
Topál József J Research Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1132, Hungary. - - 2008
Having repeatedly retrieved an object from a location, human infants tend to search the same place even when they observe the object being hidden at another location. This perseverative error is usually explained by infants' inability to inhibit a previously rewarded search response or to recall the new location. We ...
Lenzi D - - 2009
During the first year of life, exchanges and communication between a mother and her infant are exclusively preverbal and are based on the mother's ability to understand her infant's needs and feelings (i.e., empathy) and on imitation of the infant's facial expressions; this promotes a social dialog that influences the ...
Durand Karine - - 2008
Although much is known about the development of object exploration during infancy, it remains to be understood whether and how olfaction can influence infants' interactions with novel objects. To address these issues, sixteen infants aged 7-15 months were videotaped during two consecutive 5-min free play sessions with a scented or ...
Yato Yuko - - 2008
This study investigated developmental changes in infant responses to maternal still-face (SF) situations. Infants (21 males and 25 females) of Japanese mothers were observed in a face-to-face SF paradigm, comprising four phases (normal/SF/normal/SF), at two infant ages (4 and 9 months). The infants' facial expression, gaze direction, and vocalization were ...
Sanefuji Wakako - - 2008
Human infants show a preference for individuals who are similar to them. Using point-light displays of human walkers and crawlers as stimuli, we examined whether infants' preference for the motions of crawling and walking changes between, before, and after the onset of bipedal walking. The results show that crawling and ...
Massimi Paola - - 2008
The proper function of the Scribble tumour suppressor complex is dependent upon the correct localisation of its components. Previously we observed dynamic relocalisation of the hDlg component under conditions of osmotic stress. We now show that the other two components of the complex, hScrib and Hugl-1 display similar patterns of ...
Messinger Daniel S - - 2008
To better understand early positive emotional expression, automated software measurements of facial action were supplemented with anatomically based manual coding. These convergent measurements were used to describe the dynamics of infant smiling and predict perceived positive emotional intensity. Over the course of infant smiles, degree of smile strength varied with ...
Van Herwegen Jo - - 2008
Previous studies have suggested that typically developing 6-month-old infants are able to discriminate between small and large numerosities. However, discrimination between small numerosities in young infants is only possible when variables continuous with number (e.g. area or circumference) are confounded. In contrast, large number discrimination is successful even when variables ...
Furrer Stephanie D - - 2008
We examined the influence of prior exposure to specific animal properties on 15-month-old infants' inductive generalization. Using picture books, 29 infants were trained on properties linked in a congruent or incongruent manner with four animal categories. A generalized imitation task was then administered to assess patterns of property extension for ...
Carlsson Jakob - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIM: Within the first days of life infants can already recognize their mother. This ability is based on several sensory mechanisms and increases during the first year of life, having its most crucial phase between 6 and 9 months when cortical circuits develop. The underlying cortical structures that are involved ...
Hall D Geoffrey - - 2008
Infants watched an experimenter retrieve a stuffed animal from an opaque box and then return it. This happened twice, consistent with either 1 animal appearing on 2 occasions or 2 identical-looking animals each appearing once. The experimenter labeled each object appearance with a different novel label. After infants retrieved 1 ...
Johnson Scott P - - 2008
Adults have little difficulty perceiving objects as complete despite occlusion, but newborn infants perceive moving partly occluded objects solely in terms of visible surfaces. The developmental mechanisms leading to perceptual completion have never been adequately explained. Here, the authors examine the potential contributions of oculomotor behavior and motion sensitivity to ...
Perone Sammy - - 2008
The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event ...
Soska Kasey C - - 2008
Three-dimensional (3D) object completion was investigated by habituating 4- and 6-month-old infants (n= 24 total) with a computer-generated wedge stimulus that pivoted 15 degrees , providing only a limited view. Two displays, rotating 360 degrees , were then shown: a complete, solid volume and an incomplete, hollow form composed only ...
Yoon Jennifer M D - - 2008
Human teaching, a highly specialized form of cooperative information transmission, depends not only on the presence of benevolent communicators in the environment, but also on the preparedness of the students to learn from communication when it is addressed to them. We tested whether 9-month-old human infants can distinguish between communicative ...
Chen Li-Mei - - 2009
Early prosodic development (f0 variation) was systematically measured in Mandarin-learning infants at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations of twenty-four infants aged 0 ; 7 to 1 ; 6 were recorded in 45-minute sessions. The speech production of twenty-four caregivers was also audio-recorded during caregiver-infant natural ...
Liszkowski Ulf - - 2008
In the current study we investigated whether 12-month-old infants gesture appropriately for knowledgeable versus ignorant partners, in order to provide them with needed information. In two experiments we found that in response to a searching adult, 12-month-olds pointed more often to an object whose location the adult did not know ...
Király Ildikó - - 2009
This study demonstrated selective "rational" imitation in infants in two testing conditions: in the presence or absence of the model during the response phase. In the study, 14-month-olds were more likely to imitate a tool-use behavior when a prior failed attempt emphasized the logical reason and relevance of introducing this ...
Karch Dominik - - 2008
This article introduces a method to capture the movements of the upper and the lower limb of infants using an electromagnetic tracking system and to reliably calculate the segmental kinematics. Analysis of the spontaneous movements of infants is important e.g. in the context of the "General Movement Analysis", which aims ...
Reilly Kevin J KJ Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2009
The present investigation was designed to study the modulation of abdomen and rib cage movements during vocalization over a period of development associated with rapid decreases in the compliance of the chest wall. Rib cage and abdominal kinematics were recorded during spontaneous vocalizations in 7- and 11-month old infants. Principal ...
He Chao - - 2009
Previous studies have reported two types of event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses in infants to infrequent auditory changes: a broad discriminative positivity in younger infants and a negativity resembling adult mismatch negativity (MMN) in older infants. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive discriminative slow wave and the ...
Shimada Y - - 2008
Many adults may have lower subjective feelings of familiarity toward infants' vocalizations since infants' sounds are different from those of adults. However, mothers frequently exposed to infants' vocalizations may be more familiar and less averse. To test this hypothesis, 21 mothers (M age = 31.1 yr., SD = 4.3) of ...
Lee Soyoung - - 2008
Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more use of mid and ...
Bania Amanda E - - 2009
Nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were tested for their ability to assemble or disassemble the appropriate tool to obtain a food reward from two different apparatus. In its deconstructed form, the tool functioned as a probe for one apparatus. In its constructed form, the tool functioned as a hook, appropriate for ...
Pulverman Rachel - - 2008
Do 14- to 17-month-olds notice the paths and manners of motion events? English- and Spanish-learning infants were habituated to an animated motion event including a manner (e.g., spinning) and a path (e.g., over). They were then tested on four types of events that changed either the manner, the path, both, ...
Kotwica Kathleen A - - 2008
Expression of multiple object management skills (manual acquisition and storage of objects) was examined longitudinally at 7, 9, 11, and 13 months for 38 infants (19 females) whose hand use preference was either stable (consistently right or left across the ages) or nonstable (either no hand-use preference exhibited or inconsistent ...
Gava Lucia - - 2008
Many studies have shown that newborns prefer (e.g. Goren, Sarty & Wu, 1975; Valenza, Simion, Macchi Cassia & Umiltà, 1996) and recognize (e.g. Bushnell, Say & Mullin, 1989; Pascalis & de Schonen, 1994) faces. However, it is not known whether, at birth, faces are still preferred and recognized when some ...
Daum Moritz M - - 2008
Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of ...
Hamlin J Kiley - - 2008
In the current study, we tested whether 7-month-old infants would selectively imitate the goal-relevant aspects of an observed action. Infants saw an experimenter perform an action on one of two small toys and then were given the opportunity to act on the toys. Infants viewed actions that were either goal-directed ...
Teinonen Tuomas T Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. - - 2008
Previous research has shown that infants match vowel sounds to facial displays of vowel articulation [Kuhl, P. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1982). The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science, 218, 1138-1141; Patterson, M. L., & Werker, J. F. (1999). Matching phonetic information in lips and voice is robust ...
Adolph Karen E - - 2008
Locomotion-moving the body from place to place-is one of infants' greatest achievements. In addition to conquering gravity, infants must cope with variable and novel constraints on balance and propulsion. At the same time that they are learning to move, changes in infants' bodies, skills, and environments change the biomechanical constraints ...
Newman George E - - 2008
The currency of our visual experience consists not only of visual features such as color and motion, but also seemingly higher-level features such as causality--as when we see two billiard balls collide, with one causing the other to move. One of the most important and controversial questions about causal perception ...
Rennels Jennifer L - - 2008
Parents of 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-month-olds used two scales we developed to provide information about their infants' facial experience with familiar and unfamiliar individuals during one week. Results showed large discrepancies in the race, sex, and age of faces that infants experience during their first year with the majority ...
Masur Elise Frank - - 2008
Twenty mother-infant dyads (10 boys, 10 girls) were videotaped longitudinally at ages 10, 13, 17, and 21 months during in-home free play and bath sessions. Mothers' and infants' responses to their partners' naturally occurring action and vocal/verbal imitations were described, and relations to infants' imitation rates and vocabularies were examined. ...
Byrd Dani - - 2008
This study evaluates the effects of phrase boundaries on the intra- and intergestural kinematic characteristics of blended gestures, i.e., overlapping gestures produced with a single articulator. The sequences examined are the juncture geminate [d(#)d], the sequence [d(#)z], and, for comparison, the singleton tongue tip gesture in [d(#)b]. This allows the ...
Flom Ross - - 2008
Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation ...
Lee Guo-She - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) is defined as the power ratio of low frequency to high frequency energy obtained by dividing the voice spectrum with a specific cutoff frequency. In a previous study, VLHR correlated significantly with nasalance and perceptual rating of hypernasality for a ...
Thuerauf Norbert N Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. - - 2008
An earlier study in humans comparing the olfactory sensitivity of both nostrils revealed a small but significant advantage of the right nostril for detection and for olfactory quality discrimination. However lateralization was not evaluated for the perception of odor intensity and hedonic evaluation (pleasantness/unpleasantness). Thus we investigated lateralization of olfactory ...
Tronchin Lamberto - - 2008
Athanasius Kircher, Jesuit, was born in Geisa, Thuringen, in 1608. He spent a large amount of his life in Rome, where he died in 1680. He was active in many different topics, ranging from geology to philosophy. He was the author of many books at his time, among all the ...
Mixdorff Hansjörg - - 2008
The authors examine the connection between the fundamental frequency (f0) contour and the segmental grid, employing the Fujisaki model for decomposing an f0 contour into phrase and accent components. As shown in earlier work by the first author, accent commands are closely connected with the accented syllables of the constituent ...
Polka Linda - - 2008
Recently Polka and Rvachew (in press) found that 6- to 8-month-old infants discriminated a native contrast("bu" - "gu") when familiarized and tested with syllables presented in quiet, but not when familiarized with syllables mixed with a competing noise, even when testing was conducted in quiet. Because the competing noise (segments ...
Lynch A - - 2008
Adult hand preference emerges from complex developmental changes in arm and hand use during childhood. Recent reports have highlighted the importance of understanding arm and hand use during the first year of life including the period before reach onset. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that significant right-left differences exist ...
Cardillo Gina C - - 2008
It has been proposed that infant-directed speech (IDS) increases the discriminability of phonetic categories by exaggerating the acoustic differences between phonetic units (Kuhl et al., 1997, Science). However, reports show conflicting results on whether this principle holds for consonants. The current study measured English p b t d in both ...
Shi Rushen - - 2008
This study examines the role of functional morphemes in the earliest stage of lexical development. Recent research showed that prelinguistic infants can perceive functional morphemes. We inquire whether infants use frequent functors to segment potential word forms. French-learning 8-month-olds were familiarized to two utterance types: a novel noun following a ...
Tamis-LeMonda Catherine S - - 2008
The social cognition and perception-action literatures are largely separate, both conceptually and empirically. However, both areas of research emphasize infants' emerging abilities to use available information--social and perceptual information, respectively--for making decisions about action. Borrowing methods from both research traditions, this study examined whether 18-month-old infants incorporate both social and ...
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