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Results 351 - 400 of 1596
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Shuwairi Sarah M - - 2009
Can infants use interposition and line junction cues to infer three-dimensional (3D) structure? Previous work has shown that in a task that required 4-month-olds to discriminate between static two-dimensional (2D) pictures of possible and impossible cubes, infants exhibited a spontaneous preference for displays of the impossible cube but left open ...
Brandone Amanda C AC Department of Psychology, University of Michigan. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2009
At what age do infants understand that goals exist independently of the actions that result from them? Exploring infants' understanding of failed intentional actions-when the goal of the action is unfulfilled and thus not apparent in the actor's movements-is a critical step in answering this question. Using a visual habituation ...
Háden Gábor P - - 2009
The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that ...
Hansen Jonas Kjeldbjerg - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Infantile masturbation is considered a variant of normal behaviour. The abrupt and spontaneous onset, altered sensorium and autonomic phenomena during episodes may suggest an epileptic fit. Therefore, children with infantile masturbation are often admitted to hospital and undergo unnecessary tests. The purpose of the present study was to provide ...
Trehub Sandra E - - 2009
Listeners may favour particular rhythms because of their degree of conformity to culture-specific expectations or because of perceptual constraints that are apparent early in development. In two experiments we examined adults' and 6-month-old infants' detection of subtle rhythmic and melodic changes to two sequences of tones, a conventional rhythm that ...
Friedrich Manuela - - 2009
The early acquisition of native language prosody is assumed to ease infants' language development. In a longitudinal setting we investigated whether the early processing of native and non-native language word stress patterns is associated with children's subsequent language skills. ERP data of 71 four- and five-month-old infants were retrospectively grouped ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2008
J. Kagan (2008) urges contemporary developmentalists to (a) be cautious when attributing conceptual knowledge to infants based on looking-time performance, (b) constrain their interpretation of infant performance with multiple methodologies, and (c) reconsider the possibility that qualitative development may be the path by which perceptual infants become conceptual adults. This ...
Song Hyun-joo - - 2008
Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events ...
Brand Rebecca J - - 2008
In two studies, we investigated infants' preference for infant-directed (ID) action or 'motionese' (Brand, Baldwin & Ashburn, 2002) relative to adult-directed (AD) action. In Study 1, full-featured videos were shown to 32 6- to 8-month-olds, who demonstrated a strong preference for ID action. In Study 2, infants at 6-8 months ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2008
Three- to 4-month-old female and male human infants were administered a two-dimensional mental-rotation task similar to those given to older children and adults. Infants were familiarized with the number 1 (or its mirror image) in seven different rotations between 0 degrees and 360 degrees, and then preference-tested with a novel ...
Soderstrom Melanie - - 2008
The current study examines the syntactic and prosodic characteristics of the maternal speech to two infants between six and ten months. Consistent with previous work, we find infant-directed speech to be characterized by generally short utterances, isolated words and phrases, and large numbers of questions, but longer utterances are also ...
Cordes Sara - - 2008
We review recently published papers that have contributed to our understanding of how the preverbal infant represents number, area and time. We review evidence that infants rely on two distinct systems to represent number nonverbally and highlight the similarities in the ratio-dependent discrimination of number, time and area. Contrary to ...
Moore David S - - 2008
A sex difference on mental-rotation tasks has been demonstrated repeatedly, but not in children less than 4 years of age. To demonstrate mental rotation in human infants, we habituated 5-month-old infants to an object revolving through a 240 degrees angle. In successive test trials, infants saw the habituation object or ...
Parlade Meaghan Venezia MV University of Pittsburgh, Infant Communication Lab, Department of Psychology, 210 S. Bouquet Street, 3211 Sennott Square, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. - - 2009
In anticipatory smiles, infants appear to communicate pre-existing positive affect by smiling at an object and then turning the smile toward an adult. We report two studies in which the precursors, development, and consequences of anticipatory smiling were investigated. Study 1 revealed a positive correlation between infant smiling at 6 ...
Song Hyun-Joo HJ Department of Psychology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. - - 2008
Do 18-month-olds understand that an agent's false belief can be corrected by an appropriate, though not an inappropriate, communication? In Experiment 1, infants watched a series of events involving two agents, a ball, and two containers: a box and a cup. To start, agent1 played with the ball and then ...
Schlottmann Anne - - 2009
Four experiments with 202 8- to 10-month-old infants studied their sensitivity to causation-at-a-distance in schematic events seen as goal-directed action and reaction by adults and whether this depends on attributes associated with animate agents. In Experiment 1, a red square moved toward a blue square without making contact; in "reaction" ...
Fagan Mary K - - 2009
This study measured longitudinal change in six parameters of infant utterances (i.e. number of sounds, CV syllables, supraglottal consonants, and repetitions per utterance, temporal duration, and seconds per sound), investigated previously unexplored characteristics of repetition (i.e. number of vowel and CV syllable repetitions per utterance) and analyzed change in vocalizations ...
Robitzer Mike - - 2008
Ca-alginate materials were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at different steps of conversion from gel to aerogel in order to determine the relation between the polymer organization at the nanoscale in the gels and the final dry aerogel. In all cases, i.e. before and after the different exchanges of ...
Swingley Daniel - - 2008
Psychologists have known for over 20 years that infants begin learning their language's speech sound categories during the first 12 months of life. This fact has dominated researchers' thinking about how language acquisition begins, although the relevance of this learning to the child's progress in language acquisition has never been ...
Cristià Alejandrina - - 2008
Previous work suggests that learning to perceive speech categories in infancy may be influenced by the distributions of acoustic cues that underlie them. However, studies on this topic have focused on distributions of single cues, especially voice onset time (VOT), whereas natural phonetic categories are typically defined according to multiple ...
Topál József J Research Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1132, Hungary. - - 2008
Having repeatedly retrieved an object from a location, human infants tend to search the same place even when they observe the object being hidden at another location. This perseverative error is usually explained by infants' inability to inhibit a previously rewarded search response or to recall the new location. We ...
Lenzi D - - 2009
During the first year of life, exchanges and communication between a mother and her infant are exclusively preverbal and are based on the mother's ability to understand her infant's needs and feelings (i.e., empathy) and on imitation of the infant's facial expressions; this promotes a social dialog that influences the ...
Durand Karine - - 2008
Although much is known about the development of object exploration during infancy, it remains to be understood whether and how olfaction can influence infants' interactions with novel objects. To address these issues, sixteen infants aged 7-15 months were videotaped during two consecutive 5-min free play sessions with a scented or ...
Yato Yuko - - 2008
This study investigated developmental changes in infant responses to maternal still-face (SF) situations. Infants (21 males and 25 females) of Japanese mothers were observed in a face-to-face SF paradigm, comprising four phases (normal/SF/normal/SF), at two infant ages (4 and 9 months). The infants' facial expression, gaze direction, and vocalization were ...
Sanefuji Wakako - - 2008
Human infants show a preference for individuals who are similar to them. Using point-light displays of human walkers and crawlers as stimuli, we examined whether infants' preference for the motions of crawling and walking changes between, before, and after the onset of bipedal walking. The results show that crawling and ...
Massimi Paola - - 2008
The proper function of the Scribble tumour suppressor complex is dependent upon the correct localisation of its components. Previously we observed dynamic relocalisation of the hDlg component under conditions of osmotic stress. We now show that the other two components of the complex, hScrib and Hugl-1 display similar patterns of ...
Messinger Daniel S - - 2008
To better understand early positive emotional expression, automated software measurements of facial action were supplemented with anatomically based manual coding. These convergent measurements were used to describe the dynamics of infant smiling and predict perceived positive emotional intensity. Over the course of infant smiles, degree of smile strength varied with ...
Van Herwegen Jo - - 2008
Previous studies have suggested that typically developing 6-month-old infants are able to discriminate between small and large numerosities. However, discrimination between small numerosities in young infants is only possible when variables continuous with number (e.g. area or circumference) are confounded. In contrast, large number discrimination is successful even when variables ...
Furrer Stephanie D - - 2008
We examined the influence of prior exposure to specific animal properties on 15-month-old infants' inductive generalization. Using picture books, 29 infants were trained on properties linked in a congruent or incongruent manner with four animal categories. A generalized imitation task was then administered to assess patterns of property extension for ...
Carlsson Jakob - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIM: Within the first days of life infants can already recognize their mother. This ability is based on several sensory mechanisms and increases during the first year of life, having its most crucial phase between 6 and 9 months when cortical circuits develop. The underlying cortical structures that are involved ...
Hall D Geoffrey - - 2008
Infants watched an experimenter retrieve a stuffed animal from an opaque box and then return it. This happened twice, consistent with either 1 animal appearing on 2 occasions or 2 identical-looking animals each appearing once. The experimenter labeled each object appearance with a different novel label. After infants retrieved 1 ...
Johnson Scott P - - 2008
Adults have little difficulty perceiving objects as complete despite occlusion, but newborn infants perceive moving partly occluded objects solely in terms of visible surfaces. The developmental mechanisms leading to perceptual completion have never been adequately explained. Here, the authors examine the potential contributions of oculomotor behavior and motion sensitivity to ...
Soska Kasey C - - 2008
Three-dimensional (3D) object completion was investigated by habituating 4- and 6-month-old infants (n= 24 total) with a computer-generated wedge stimulus that pivoted 15 degrees , providing only a limited view. Two displays, rotating 360 degrees , were then shown: a complete, solid volume and an incomplete, hollow form composed only ...
Perone Sammy S Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa, - - 2008
The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event ...
Yoon Jennifer M D - - 2008
Human teaching, a highly specialized form of cooperative information transmission, depends not only on the presence of benevolent communicators in the environment, but also on the preparedness of the students to learn from communication when it is addressed to them. We tested whether 9-month-old human infants can distinguish between communicative ...
Chen Li-Mei - - 2009
Early prosodic development (f0 variation) was systematically measured in Mandarin-learning infants at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations of twenty-four infants aged 0 ; 7 to 1 ; 6 were recorded in 45-minute sessions. The speech production of twenty-four caregivers was also audio-recorded during caregiver-infant natural ...
Liszkowski Ulf - - 2008
In the current study we investigated whether 12-month-old infants gesture appropriately for knowledgeable versus ignorant partners, in order to provide them with needed information. In two experiments we found that in response to a searching adult, 12-month-olds pointed more often to an object whose location the adult did not know ...
Király Ildikó - - 2009
This study demonstrated selective "rational" imitation in infants in two testing conditions: in the presence or absence of the model during the response phase. In the study, 14-month-olds were more likely to imitate a tool-use behavior when a prior failed attempt emphasized the logical reason and relevance of introducing this ...
Karch Dominik - - 2008
This article introduces a method to capture the movements of the upper and the lower limb of infants using an electromagnetic tracking system and to reliably calculate the segmental kinematics. Analysis of the spontaneous movements of infants is important e.g. in the context of the "General Movement Analysis", which aims ...
Reilly Kevin J KJ Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2009
The present investigation was designed to study the modulation of abdomen and rib cage movements during vocalization over a period of development associated with rapid decreases in the compliance of the chest wall. Rib cage and abdominal kinematics were recorded during spontaneous vocalizations in 7- and 11-month old infants. Principal ...
He Chao - - 2009
Previous studies have reported two types of event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses in infants to infrequent auditory changes: a broad discriminative positivity in younger infants and a negativity resembling adult mismatch negativity (MMN) in older infants. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive discriminative slow wave and the ...
Shimada Y - - 2008
Many adults may have lower subjective feelings of familiarity toward infants' vocalizations since infants' sounds are different from those of adults. However, mothers frequently exposed to infants' vocalizations may be more familiar and less averse. To test this hypothesis, 21 mothers (M age = 31.1 yr., SD = 4.3) of ...
Lee Soyoung - - 2008
Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more use of mid and ...
Bania Amanda E - - 2009
Nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were tested for their ability to assemble or disassemble the appropriate tool to obtain a food reward from two different apparatus. In its deconstructed form, the tool functioned as a probe for one apparatus. In its constructed form, the tool functioned as a hook, appropriate for ...
Pulverman Rachel R Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. - - 2008
Do 14- to 17-month-olds notice the paths and manners of motion events? English- and Spanish-learning infants were habituated to an animated motion event including a manner (e.g., spinning) and a path (e.g., over). They were then tested on four types of events that changed either the manner, the path, both, ...
Kotwica Kathleen A - - 2008
Expression of multiple object management skills (manual acquisition and storage of objects) was examined longitudinally at 7, 9, 11, and 13 months for 38 infants (19 females) whose hand use preference was either stable (consistently right or left across the ages) or nonstable (either no hand-use preference exhibited or inconsistent ...
Gava Lucia - - 2008
Many studies have shown that newborns prefer (e.g. Goren, Sarty & Wu, 1975; Valenza, Simion, Macchi Cassia & Umiltà, 1996) and recognize (e.g. Bushnell, Say & Mullin, 1989; Pascalis & de Schonen, 1994) faces. However, it is not known whether, at birth, faces are still preferred and recognized when some ...
Daum Moritz M - - 2008
Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of ...
Hamlin J Kiley - - 2008
In the current study, we tested whether 7-month-old infants would selectively imitate the goal-relevant aspects of an observed action. Infants saw an experimenter perform an action on one of two small toys and then were given the opportunity to act on the toys. Infants viewed actions that were either goal-directed ...
Teinonen Tuomas T Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. - - 2008
Previous research has shown that infants match vowel sounds to facial displays of vowel articulation [Kuhl, P. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1982). The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science, 218, 1138-1141; Patterson, M. L., & Werker, J. F. (1999). Matching phonetic information in lips and voice is robust ...
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