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Results 301 - 350 of 1588
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Waxman Sandra R - - 2009
The current experiments address several concerns, both empirical and theoretical in nature, that have surfaced within the verb learning literature. They begin to reconcile what, until now, has been a large and largely unexplained gap between infants' well-documented ability to acquire verbs in the natural course of their lives and ...
McCrink Koleen - - 2009
Recent studies on nonsymbolic arithmetic have illustrated that under conditions that prevent exact calculation, adults display a systematic tendency to overestimate the answers to addition problems and underestimate the answers to subtraction problems. It has been suggested that this operational momentum results from exposure to a culture-specific practice of representing ...
Wagner Laura - - 2009
How do infants represent objects, actions, and relations in events? In this review, we discuss an approach to studying this question that begins with linguistic theory-specifically, semantic structures in language. On the basis of recent research exploring infant cognition and prominent linguistic analyses, we examine whether infants' representations of motion ...
Kelly David J - - 2009
The other-race effect in face processing develops within the first year of life in Caucasian infants. It is currently unknown whether the developmental trajectory observed in Caucasian infants can be extended to other cultures. This is an important issue to investigate because recent findings from cross-cultural psychology have suggested that ...
Kaldy Zsuzsa - - 2009
What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g. shape or color) more than others (e. g. luminance), can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, since the magnitude ...
Lagercrantz Hugo - - 2009
A simple definition of consciousness is sensory awareness of the body, the self, and the world. The fetus may be aware of the body, for example by perceiving pain. It reacts to touch, smell, and sound, and shows facial expressions responding to external stimuli. However, these reactions are probably preprogrammed ...
Sommerville Jessica A - - 2009
For adults, prior information about an individual's likely goals, preferences or dispositions plays a powerful role in interpreting ambiguous behavior and predicting and interpreting behavior in novel contexts. Across two studies, we investigated whether 10-month-old infants' ability to identify the goal of an ambiguous action sequence was facilitated by seeing ...
Rendall Drew - - 2009
A key component of nonhuman primate vocal communication is the production and recognition of clear cues to social identity that function in the management of these species' individualistic social relationships. However, it remains unclear how ubiquitous such identity cues are across call types and age-sex classes and what the underlying ...
Liu Huei-Mei - - 2009
ABSTRACTAcoustic-phonetic exaggeration of infant-directed speech (IDS) is well documented, but few studies address whether these features are modified with a child's age. Mandarin-speaking mothers were recorded while addressing an adult and their child at two ages (0 ; 7-1 ; 0 and 5 ; 0) to examine the acoustic-phonetic differences ...
Gliga Teodora T Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, UK. - - 2009
One-year-old infants have a small receptive vocabulary and follow deictic gestures, but it is still debated whether they appreciate the referential nature of these signals. Demonstrating understanding of the complementary roles of symbolic (word) and indexical (pointing) reference provides evidence of referential interpretation of communicative signals. We presented 13-month-old infants ...
Plantinga Judy - - 2009
Music is part of an infant's world even before birth, and caregivers around the world sing to infants. Yet, there has been little research into the musical abilities or preferences of infants younger than 5 months. In this study, the head turn preference procedure used with older infants was adapted ...
Kavsek Michael - - 2009
The goal of the present habituation-dishabituation study was to explore sensitivity to subjective contours and neon color spreading patterns in infants. The first experiment was a replication of earlier investigations that showed evidence that even young infants are capable of perceiving subjective contours. Participants 4 months of age were habituated ...
Otsuka Yumiko - - 2009
Previous psychophysical studies have shown that the adult human visual system makes use of form information such as occlusion to determine whether to integrate or segregate local motion signals (J. McDermott, Y. Weiss, & E. H. Adelson, 2001). Using the displays developed by McDermott et al., these experiments examined whether ...
Werner Lynne A LA Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105-6246, USA. - - 2009
Adults are more sensitive to a sound if they know when the sound will occur. In the present experiment, the effects of temporal uncertainty and temporal expectancy on infants' and adults' detection of a 1 kHz tone in a broadband noise were examined. In one experiment, masked sensitivity was measured ...
Fagard Jacqueline J Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Université Paris-Descartes, Paris CNRS, France. - - 2009
The goal of this study was to investigate some of the visuo-motor factors underlying an infant's developing ability to grasp a laterally-moving object. In particular, hand preference, midline crossing, and visual-field asymmetry were investigated by comparing performance as a function of the object's direction of motion. We presented 6-, 8-, ...
Stefanics Gábor - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the auditory system of newborn babies extracts the constancy of a pitch interval from exemplars varying in absolute pitch. METHODS: Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded from healthy newborn infants in an oddball paradigm consisting of frequent standard and infrequent deviant tone pairs. Tone pairs varied ...
Yeung A M - - 2009
All published literature to date has identified the human corneo-scleral limbus as the site within which stem cells of the ocular surface reside. Recently we described a unique anatomical structure at the limbus, termed the Limbal Epithelial Crypt (LEC) that has features of a putative stem cell niche. In this ...
Deloache Judy S - - 2009
Why are snakes such a common target of fear? One current view is that snake fear is one of several innate fears that emerge spontaneously. Another is that humans have an evolved predisposition to learn to fear snakes. In the first study reported here, 9- to 10-month-old infants showed no ...
Mugitani Ryoko - - 2009
This study investigated vowel length discrimination in infants from 2 language backgrounds, Japanese and English, in which vowel length is either phonemic or nonphonemic. Experiment 1 revealed that English 18-month-olds discriminate short and long vowels although vowel length is not phonemically contrastive in English. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that ...
Kerzerho St??phanie - - 2009
Factors affecting manual discrimination of spatial orientations and orientation preferences in 5-month-old infants have been investigated by using a familiarisation/reaction to novelty procedure. In the first experiment we explored whether the 'vertical preference' observed by Gentaz and Streri (2004 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 1-7) and Kerzerho et al (2005 ...
Kimura Tasuku - - 2009
Development of bipedal walking from the very early stage of walking was studied longitudinally in infant humans and chimpanzees. In contrast to adults, infants of neither species could walk steadily and rhythmically step by step. Short braking duration and small recovery of mechanical energy were demonstrated in infants of both ...
Hespos Susan J - - 2009
The current work explored the conditions under which infants generalize spatial relationships from one event to another. English-learning 5-month-olds habituated to a tight- or loose-fit covering event dishabituated to a change in fit during a containment test event, but infants habituated to a visually similar occlusion event did not. Thus, ...
Hayden Angela - - 2009
Although several studies have examined infants' sensitivity to perceptual organizational cues, few have examined the functional relations among these cues. We examined how uniform connectedness (UC) functions in relation to shape and luminance similarity. UC has been characterized as the entry-level mechanism of perceptual organization and would therefore be predicted ...
Thompson Laura A - - 2009
This study investigated how cortisol (stress) reactivity and mothers' behavioral sensitivity affect familiarity preferences in 6-month-old infants. Relations between sensitivity and stress were explored using saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before, and 20-min after, two preferential looking experiments. Photographs and voice recordings from infants' mothers were incorporated into ...
Oakes Lisa M - - 2009
Change-detection tasks reveal that infants' ability to bind color to location in visual short-term memory (VSTM) develops rapidly: Seven-month-old infants, but not 6-month-old infants, detect that successive arrays of 3 objects are different if they contain the same colors in different locations (Oakes et al., 2006). Here we test a ...
Marshall Peter J - - 2009
Five-month-old infants viewed point-light displays depicting the human actions of walking, kicking, throwing, and running. These actions were presented as upright canonical displays and spatially scrambled displays in which the global form of the action was disrupted. Significant differences were observed between event-related potential (ERP) waveforms to the canonical and ...
Nawrot Elizabeth - - 2009
Little is known about infants' perception of depth from motion parallax, even though it is known that infants are sensitive both to motion and to depth-from-motion cues at an early age. The present experiment assesses whether infants are sensitive to the unambiguous depth specified by motion parallax and, if so, ...
Cassidy Jane W - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine different protocols with regard to the presentation of music stimuli and compare gender differential reactions to those stimuli. Subjects for this study (N = 63) were premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between the gestational ages of 28 and ...
Luo Yuyan - - 2009
The present research examined whether infants as young as 6 months of age would consider what objects a human agent could perceive when interpreting her actions on the objects. In two experiments, the infants took the agent's actions of repeatedly reaching for and grasping one of two possible objects as ...
Pereverzeva Maria - - 2009
The present paper addresses the question of simultaneous color contrast in 4-month-old human infants. A temporal modulation paradigm was employed for infant testing. In this paradigm, infants viewed two test disks presented side-by-side: one of unchanging chromaticity (static) and another of the chromaticity varied in time (temporally modulated). The test ...
Booth Amy E - - 2009
A precisely controlled automated procedure confirms a developmental decalage: Infants acquiring English link count nouns to object categories well before they link adjectives to properties. Fourteen- and 18-month-olds (n= 48 at each age) extended novel words presented as count nouns based on category membership rather than shared properties. When the ...
Wood Justin N - - 2009
A manual search paradigm explored the development of English singular-plural comprehension. After being shown a box into which they could reach but not see, infants heard verbal descriptions about the contents of the box (e.g., "There are some cars in the box" vs. "There is a car in the box)" ...
Bortfeld Heather - - 2009
We investigate the utility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative technique for studying infant speech processing. NIRS is an optical imaging technology that uses relative changes in total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation as an indicator of neural activation. Procedurally, NIRS has the advantage over more common methods (e.g., fMRI) ...
Moriceau Stephanie - - 2009
Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5 mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and ...
Wattam-Bell John J Department of Developmental Science, University College London, London, UK. - - 2009
These experiments compared the maximum displacement and disparity limits (Dmax) for apparent motion and stereopsis in random-dot displays in adult and 12-28 week-old infant subjects. Both stereo and motion Dmax increased during development, from about 0.3 deg in the youngest infants to 2 deg in adults. Some of the younger ...
Frank Michael C - - 2009
In simple tests of preference, infants as young as newborns prefer faces and face-like stimuli over distractors. Little is known, however, about the development of attention to faces in complex scenes. We recorded eye-movements of 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants and adults during free-viewing of clips from A Charlie Brown ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2008
This study examined the brain bases of early human social cognitive abilities. Specifically, we investigated whether cortical regions implicated in adults' perception of facial communication signals are functionally active in early human development. Four-month-old infants watched two kinds of dynamic scenarios in which a face either established mutual gaze or ...
Watanabe Hama - - 2009
To understand young infants' flexible changes of learned actions when abrupt environmental changes occur, we examined fifty-four 3-month-olds who performed a mobile task, in which they learned to move the mobile by a string attached to their arms or legs (arm-based or leg-based learning). We manipulated the order of tests-arm ...
Warneken Felix F Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2009
Human infants as young as 14 to 18 months of age help others attain their goals, for example, by helping them to fetch out-of-reach objects or opening cabinets for them. They do this irrespective of any reward from adults (indeed external rewards undermine the tendency), and very likely with no ...
Snyder Kelly A - - 2008
Habituation refers to a decline in orienting or responding to a repeated stimulus, and can be inferred to reflect learning about the properties of the repeated stimulus when followed by increased orienting to a novel stimulus (i.e., novelty detection). Habituation and novelty detection paradigms have been used for over 40 ...
Keates Jean - - 2008
To clarify the role of labels in early induction, we compared 16-month-old infants' (n=114) generalization of target properties to test objects when objects were introduced by the experimenter in one of the following ways: (a) with a general attentional phrase, (b) highlighted with a flashlight and a general attentional phrase, ...
Patrick Susan K - - 2009
The study of quadrupeds has furnished most of our understanding of mammalian locomotion. To allow a more direct comparison of coordination between the four limbs in humans and quadrupeds, we studied crawling in the human, a behavior that is part of normal human development and mechanically more similar to quadrupedal ...
Shuwairi Sarah M - - 2009
Can infants use interposition and line junction cues to infer three-dimensional (3D) structure? Previous work has shown that in a task that required 4-month-olds to discriminate between static two-dimensional (2D) pictures of possible and impossible cubes, infants exhibited a spontaneous preference for displays of the impossible cube but left open ...
Brandone Amanda C - - 2009
At what age do infants understand that goals exist independently of the actions that result from them? Exploring infants' understanding of failed intentional actions-when the goal of the action is unfulfilled and thus not apparent in the actor's movements-is a critical step in answering this question. Using a visual habituation ...
Háden Gábor P - - 2009
The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that ...
Hansen Jonas Kjeldbjerg - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Infantile masturbation is considered a variant of normal behaviour. The abrupt and spontaneous onset, altered sensorium and autonomic phenomena during episodes may suggest an epileptic fit. Therefore, children with infantile masturbation are often admitted to hospital and undergo unnecessary tests. The purpose of the present study was to provide ...
Trehub Sandra E - - 2009
Listeners may favour particular rhythms because of their degree of conformity to culture-specific expectations or because of perceptual constraints that are apparent early in development. In two experiments we examined adults' and 6-month-old infants' detection of subtle rhythmic and melodic changes to two sequences of tones, a conventional rhythm that ...
Friedrich Manuela - - 2009
The early acquisition of native language prosody is assumed to ease infants' language development. In a longitudinal setting we investigated whether the early processing of native and non-native language word stress patterns is associated with children's subsequent language skills. ERP data of 71 four- and five-month-old infants were retrospectively grouped ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2008
J. Kagan (2008) urges contemporary developmentalists to (a) be cautious when attributing conceptual knowledge to infants based on looking-time performance, (b) constrain their interpretation of infant performance with multiple methodologies, and (c) reconsider the possibility that qualitative development may be the path by which perceptual infants become conceptual adults. This ...
Song Hyun-joo - - 2008
Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events ...
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