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Results 251 - 300 of 1596
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Otsuka Yumiko - - 2009
This study compared 3- to 4-month-olds' recognition of previously unfamiliar faces learned in a moving or a static condition. Infants in the moving condition showed successful recognition with only 30 s familiarization, even when different images of a face were used in the familiarization and test phase (Experiment 1). In ...
Frank Michael C - - 2009
By 7 months of age, infants are able to learn rules based on the abstract relationships between stimuli (Marcus et al., 1999), but they are better able to do so when exposed to speech than to some other classes of stimuli. In the current experiments we ask whether multimodal stimulus ...
Scott Rose M RM Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, 603 East Daniel Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. - - 2009
Recent research has shown that infants as young as 13 months can attribute false beliefs to agents, suggesting that the psychological-reasoning subsystem necessary for attributing reality-incongruent informational states (Subsystem-2, SS2) is operational in infancy. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds' false-belief reasoning extends to false beliefs about object identity. Infants ...
DeCasper Anthony J - - 2009
We investigated operant sucking response learning in human newborns. Auditory reinforcers always occurred monaurally to see whether their potency differed between ears. Experiment 1 - we controlled the reinforcers, either intrauterine heartbeat sounds or unfamiliar speech, while infants chose which ear received it. Experiment 2 - we controlled the reinforcers ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2010
Previous research demonstrated that young infants' neural processing of novel objects is enhanced by a fearful face gazing toward the object. The current event-related potential (ERP) study addresses the question of whether this effect is driven by the particular threat-value of a fearful expression or whether a positive emotion could ...
He Chao - - 2009
Pitch perception is critical for the perception of speech and music, for object identification, and for auditory scene analysis, whereby representations are derived for each sounding object in the environment from the complex sound wave that reaches the ears. The perceived pitch of a complex sound corresponds to its fundamental ...
Pons Ferran - - 2009
The conventional view is that perceptual/cognitive development is an incremental process of acquisition. Several striking findings have revealed, however, that the sensitivity to non-native languages, faces, vocalizations, and music that is present early in life declines as infants acquire experience with native perceptual inputs. In the language domain, the decline ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2009
Previous research has demonstrated that organizational principles become functional over different time courses of development: Lightness similarity is available at 3 months of age, but form similarity is not readily in evidence until 6 months of age. We investigated whether organization would transfer across principles and whether perceptual scaffolding can ...
Clifford Alexandra - - 2009
The origin of color categories has been debated by psychologists, linguists and cognitive scientists for many decades. Here, we present the first electrophysiological evidence for categorical responding to color before color terms are acquired. Event-related potentials were recorded on a visual oddball task in 7-month old infants. Infants were shown ...
Davila Ross Marina - - 2009
Human emotional expressions, such as laughter, are argued to have their origins in ancestral nonhuman primate displays. To test this hypothesis, the current work examined the acoustics of tickle-induced vocalizations from infant and juvenile orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, as well as tickle-induced laughter produced by human infants. Resulting acoustic ...
Fais Laurel - - 2010
In this work, we examine a context in which a conflict arises between two roles that infant-directed speech (IDS) plays: making language structure salient and modeling the adult form of a language. Vowel devoicing in fluent adult Japanese creates violations of the canonical Japanese consonant-vowel word structure pattern by systematically ...
Chen Li-Mei - - 2010
The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, ...
Horne Pauline J - - 2009
The present study investigated whether local stimulus enhancement and the demonstration of objects' affordances--both of which are inherent in modelling of object-directed target actions--are themselves sufficient to evoke the target behaviour on imitation test trials. Six-month-old infants were presented with a puppet wearing a removable mitten and observed either a ...
Dell'Mour Vera - - 2009
High levels of social tolerance are considered to promote social learning, as they allow direct observation of a manipulating conspecific and facilitate scrounging. Owing to tolerance toward infants, infancy is thought to be especially suited for learning socially transmitted behaviors. Despite this, few studies have investigated social learning of infants, ...
Adde Lars - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Absence of fidgety movements (FM) in high-risk infants is a strong marker for later cerebral palsy (CP). FMs can be classified by the General Movement Assessment (GMA), based on Gestalt perception of the infant's movement pattern. More objective movement analysis may be provided by computer-based technology. The aim of ...
Xu Fei - - 2009
Research on initial conceptual knowledge and research on early statistical learning mechanisms have been, for the most part, two separate enterprises. We report a study with 11-month-old infants investigating whether they are sensitive to sampling conditions and whether they can integrate intentional information in a statistical inference task. Previous studies ...
Höhle Barbara - - 2009
There is converging evidence that infants are sensitive to prosodic cues from birth onwards and use this kind of information in their earliest steps into the acquisition of words and syntactic regularities of their target language. Regarding word segmentation, it has been found that English-learning infants segment trochaic words by ...
Lin Hung-Chu - - 2009
Changes in the organization of infant looking, facial expressions, and vocalizations were examined over age (4, 7, and 10 months) and with different social partners. Although infants at all ages accompanied smiling with looking at both mothers and unfamiliar partners, 7- and 10-month infants accompanied vocalization with looking only when ...
Stahl Daniel - - 2010
Event-related potential (ERP) studies with infants are often limited by a small number of measurements. We introduce a weighted general linear mixed model analysis with a time-varying covariate, which allows for the efficient analysis of all available event-related potential data of infants. This method allows controlling the signal to noise ...
Saito Yuri - - 2009
The present study was focusing on the very few contacts with the mother's voice that NICU infants have in the womb as well as after birth, we examined whether they can discriminate between their mothers' utterances and those of female nurses in terms of the emotional bonding that is facilitated ...
Reid Vincent M - - 2009
The sequential nature of action ensures that an individual can anticipate the conclusion of an observed action via the use of semantic rules. The semantic processing of language and action has been linked to the N400 component of the event-related potential (ERP). The authors developed an ERP paradigm in which ...
Groh Ashley M - - 2009
This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge-as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved-is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress vocalizations. Adults who ...
Liszkowski Ulf - - 2009
One of the defining features of human language is displacement, the ability to make reference to absent entities. Here we show that prelinguistic, 12-month-old infants already can use a nonverbal pointing gesture to make reference to absent entities. We also show that chimpanzees-who can point for things they want humans ...
Bristow Davina - - 2009
Speech is not a purely auditory signal. From around 2 months of age, infants are able to correctly match the vowel they hear with the appropriate articulating face. However, there is no behavioral evidence of integrated audiovisual perception until 4 months of age, at the earliest, when an illusory percept ...
Kenward Ben - - 2009
The term goal directed conventionally refers to either of 2 separate process types-motor processes organizing action oriented toward physical targets and decision-making processes that select these targets by integrating desire for and knowledge of action outcomes. Even newborns are goal directed in the first sense, but the status of infants ...
Pierce Doris - - 2009
The study provides a substantive description of infant and toddler play with everyday objects and independent negotiation of home space. A grounded theory approach was used to study 18 typically developing children longitudinally from ages 1 to 18 months. Data from 133 home visits included videotaped self-directed play sessions with ...
Newman Rochelle S - - 2009
Infants are often spoken to in the presence of background sounds, including speech from other talkers. In the present study, we compared 5- and 8.5-month-olds' abilities to recognize their own names in the context of three different types of background speech: that of a single talker, multitalker babble, and that ...
Pelucchi Bruna B Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53705, USA. - - 2009
Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real speech. To what ...
Goldstein Michael H MH Department of Psychology, Cornell University, 242 Uris Hall, Ithaca, NY, 14853-7601, USA. - - 2009
The early noncry vocalizations of infants are salient social signals. Caregivers spontaneously respond to 30%-50% of these sounds, and their responsiveness to infants' prelinguistic noncry vocalizations facilitates the development of phonology and speech. Have infants learned that their vocalizations influence the behavior of social partners? If they have, infants should ...
Uller Claudia - - 2009
The ability to select the greater numerosity over another in small sets seems to stem from the calculation of which set contains more, and has been taken as evidence of a primordial representation at the roots of the primate numerical system. We tested 56 horses (Equus caballus) in a paradigm ...
Hirotani Masako - - 2009
This study investigated the role of joint attention in infants' word learning. Infants aged 18-21 months were taught new words in two social contexts, joint attention (eye contact, positive tone of voice) or non-joint attention (no eye contact, neutral tone of voice). Event-related potentials were measured as the infants saw ...
Doi Hirokazu - - 2009
The ability to detect facial information despite poor visual conditions is important for young infants. The present study investigated the developmental course of facial information detection by examining whether infants perceive Mooney faces, a well-studied type of impoverished face image. The 18-month-olds preferred upright Mooney faces to inverted ones, but ...
Kovács Agnes Melinda - - 2009
Children exposed to bilingual input typically learn 2 languages without obvious difficulties. However, it is unclear how preverbal infants cope with the inconsistent input and how bilingualism affects early development. In 3 eye-tracking studies we show that 7-month-old infants, raised with 2 languages from birth, display improved cognitive control abilities ...
Garcia-Sierra Adrian - - 2009
Previous behavioral studies have shown improved sensitivity to native-language contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrasts when comparing 6-8- and 10-12-month-old monolingual infants. It has been argued that exposure to language dedicates neural networks to the acoustic properties of native-language speech, and that, in adulthood, this commitment interferes with ...
Kitamura Christine - - 2009
Impaired phonological processing has been found to have a reciprocal casual association with the reading ability of people with reading difficult-ies. Further, there is growing evidence that problems in phonological processing are present at birth as research shows that infants with a family history of these disorders have atypical neural ...
Panneton Robin K - - 2009
Initially, human infants are able to discriminate a change from one speech phoneme to another, whether or not the speech contrasts are native or foreign. By the end of the first postnatal year, the ease with which infants discriminate non-native phonemes diminishes, indicating a progressive attunement toward language-relevant speech. However, ...
Beach Elizabeth - - 2009
In early infancy, speech perception is based on innate psychoacoustic thresholds allowing young infants to discriminate a wide range of speech contrasts. However, as infants accumulate knowledge of their native language, they begin attuning to native speech sounds: first vowels around 6 months; then consonants around 9-12 months. Now that ...
Sundara Megha - - 2009
For bilingual infants, phonetic categories of the two languages develop interdependently. This is supported by the differences in time course and trajectory of development of phonetic perception between Spanish-Catalan bilingual and monolingual infants (Bosch and Sebastian-Galles, 2003a, 2003b, 2005; Sebastian-Galles and Bosch, in press). Bosch and Sebastian-Galles argue that for ...
Hayden Angela - - 2009
Adults process other-race faces differently than own-race faces. For instance, a single other-race face in an array of own-race faces attracts Caucasians' attention, but a single own-race face among other-race faces does not. This perceptual asymmetry has been explained by the presence of an other-race feature in other-race faces and ...
van Heugten Marieke - - 2009
The acoustic realization of lexical items produced by different speakers can vary greatly. Current research suggests that infants, unlike adults, struggle to cope with this lack of invariance in the realization of words. Although 7.5-month olds are able to recognize words across different utterances when produced by speakers of the ...
Kuhl Patricia K - - 2009
The adult brain exhibits anatomical and functional specialization specific to speech, but we have little information regarding the infant brain. Recent adult neuroimaging studies show that speech processing is left-lateralized and that two regions of the brain, the superior temporal (ST, auditory area) and inferior parietal (IF, motor area), contribute ...
Polka Linda - - 2009
Previous research shows that infants in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth which improve rapidly over the first 6 months of life, and that attention to the rhythmic properties of language supports these skills. Babies in monolingual families also prefer listening to their native language over ...
Phan Jennifer - - 2009
To understand speech, infants must differentiate between phonetic changes that are linguistically contrastive and those that are not. Research has shown that infants are very sensitive to fine-grained differences in speech sounds that differentiate words in their own or another language. However, little is known about infants' ability to discriminate ...
Shafer Valerie L - - 2009
This research examines the maturation of I-E vowel discrimination, in terms of neurophysiological responses, in infants exposed monolingually to English or bilingually to English and Spanish. The vowels [I] as in "pit" and [E] as in "pet" contrast meaning in English but not in Spanish. Bilingual exposure to English and ...
Moon Christine - - 2009
Behavioral research has shown that by 6 months of age, infants show an effect of experience with native language vowels. In a previous study of category organization, infants in Sweden and the United States treated a vowel prototype as equivalent to variants of the vowel in the native, but not ...
Sakai Jun - - 2009
We assessed CO(2) gas dispersal potential of bedding that had actually been used by 26 infants diagnosed with sudden unexpected infant death using a baby mannequin model. The age of victims ranged from 1 to 12 months. In some cases, the parents alleged that the infant faces were not covered ...
Smith Nicholas A - - 2009
Auditory stream segregation in six-month-old infants was examined in a paradigm adapted from Bregman and Rudnicky (1975). In a conditioned head-turn procedure, listeners' detection of changes in the temporal order of 2200 and 2400 Hz target tones was tested under three conditions. For developmental comparison, as well as validation of ...
Werker Janet F - - 2009
Phonetic categories become language specific across the first months of life. However, at the onset of word learning there are tasks in which infants fail to utilize native language phonetic categories to drive word learning. In 2005, we advanced a framework to account for why infants can detect and use ...
Dilley Laura - - 2009
Relatively little work has examined acoustic-phonetic variability in consonants in infant-directed speech, particularly that directed to children with hearing loss. Assimilation is a form of variability which has been particularly well studied in adult-directed speech in which a word-final alveolar consonant takes the place of articulation of a following word-initial ...
Meredith Morgan - - 2009
Infants from monolingual English- and Spanish-speaking homes were compared in their perception of two phonetic contrasts that differ in their phonemic status in the two languages. The contrast [d]-[E] is phonemic in English but allophonic in Spanish; while the contrast [d]-flap is phonemic in Spanish but allophonic in English. Infants ...
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