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Horne Pauline J - - 2009
The present study investigated whether local stimulus enhancement and the demonstration of objects' affordances--both of which are inherent in modelling of object-directed target actions--are themselves sufficient to evoke the target behaviour on imitation test trials. Six-month-old infants were presented with a puppet wearing a removable mitten and observed either a ...
Dell'Mour Vera - - 2009
High levels of social tolerance are considered to promote social learning, as they allow direct observation of a manipulating conspecific and facilitate scrounging. Owing to tolerance toward infants, infancy is thought to be especially suited for learning socially transmitted behaviors. Despite this, few studies have investigated social learning of infants, ...
Adde Lars - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Absence of fidgety movements (FM) in high-risk infants is a strong marker for later cerebral palsy (CP). FMs can be classified by the General Movement Assessment (GMA), based on Gestalt perception of the infant's movement pattern. More objective movement analysis may be provided by computer-based technology. The aim of ...
Xu Fei - - 2009
Research on initial conceptual knowledge and research on early statistical learning mechanisms have been, for the most part, two separate enterprises. We report a study with 11-month-old infants investigating whether they are sensitive to sampling conditions and whether they can integrate intentional information in a statistical inference task. Previous studies ...
Höhle Barbara - - 2009
There is converging evidence that infants are sensitive to prosodic cues from birth onwards and use this kind of information in their earliest steps into the acquisition of words and syntactic regularities of their target language. Regarding word segmentation, it has been found that English-learning infants segment trochaic words by ...
Lin Hung-Chu - - 2009
Changes in the organization of infant looking, facial expressions, and vocalizations were examined over age (4, 7, and 10 months) and with different social partners. Although infants at all ages accompanied smiling with looking at both mothers and unfamiliar partners, 7- and 10-month infants accompanied vocalization with looking only when ...
Stahl Daniel - - 2010
Event-related potential (ERP) studies with infants are often limited by a small number of measurements. We introduce a weighted general linear mixed model analysis with a time-varying covariate, which allows for the efficient analysis of all available event-related potential data of infants. This method allows controlling the signal to noise ...
Saito Yuri - - 2009
The present study was focusing on the very few contacts with the mother's voice that NICU infants have in the womb as well as after birth, we examined whether they can discriminate between their mothers' utterances and those of female nurses in terms of the emotional bonding that is facilitated ...
Reid Vincent M - - 2009
The sequential nature of action ensures that an individual can anticipate the conclusion of an observed action via the use of semantic rules. The semantic processing of language and action has been linked to the N400 component of the event-related potential (ERP). The authors developed an ERP paradigm in which ...
Groh Ashley M - - 2009
This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge-as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved-is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress vocalizations. Adults who ...
Goldstein Michael H - - 2009
The early noncry vocalizations of infants are salient social signals. Caregivers spontaneously respond to 30%-50% of these sounds, and their responsiveness to infants' prelinguistic noncry vocalizations facilitates the development of phonology and speech. Have infants learned that their vocalizations influence the behavior of social partners? If they have, infants should ...
Liszkowski Ulf - - 2009
One of the defining features of human language is displacement, the ability to make reference to absent entities. Here we show that prelinguistic, 12-month-old infants already can use a nonverbal pointing gesture to make reference to absent entities. We also show that chimpanzees-who can point for things they want humans ...
Bristow Davina - - 2009
Speech is not a purely auditory signal. From around 2 months of age, infants are able to correctly match the vowel they hear with the appropriate articulating face. However, there is no behavioral evidence of integrated audiovisual perception until 4 months of age, at the earliest, when an illusory percept ...
Kenward Ben - - 2009
The term goal directed conventionally refers to either of 2 separate process types-motor processes organizing action oriented toward physical targets and decision-making processes that select these targets by integrating desire for and knowledge of action outcomes. Even newborns are goal directed in the first sense, but the status of infants ...
Pierce Doris - - 2009
The study provides a substantive description of infant and toddler play with everyday objects and independent negotiation of home space. A grounded theory approach was used to study 18 typically developing children longitudinally from ages 1 to 18 months. Data from 133 home visits included videotaped self-directed play sessions with ...
Newman Rochelle S - - 2009
Infants are often spoken to in the presence of background sounds, including speech from other talkers. In the present study, we compared 5- and 8.5-month-olds' abilities to recognize their own names in the context of three different types of background speech: that of a single talker, multitalker babble, and that ...
Pelucchi Bruna B Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53705, USA. - - 2009
Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real speech. To what ...
Uller Claudia - - 2009
The ability to select the greater numerosity over another in small sets seems to stem from the calculation of which set contains more, and has been taken as evidence of a primordial representation at the roots of the primate numerical system. We tested 56 horses (Equus caballus) in a paradigm ...
Hirotani Masako - - 2009
This study investigated the role of joint attention in infants' word learning. Infants aged 18-21 months were taught new words in two social contexts, joint attention (eye contact, positive tone of voice) or non-joint attention (no eye contact, neutral tone of voice). Event-related potentials were measured as the infants saw ...
Doi Hirokazu - - 2009
The ability to detect facial information despite poor visual conditions is important for young infants. The present study investigated the developmental course of facial information detection by examining whether infants perceive Mooney faces, a well-studied type of impoverished face image. The 18-month-olds preferred upright Mooney faces to inverted ones, but ...
Kovács Agnes Melinda - - 2009
Children exposed to bilingual input typically learn 2 languages without obvious difficulties. However, it is unclear how preverbal infants cope with the inconsistent input and how bilingualism affects early development. In 3 eye-tracking studies we show that 7-month-old infants, raised with 2 languages from birth, display improved cognitive control abilities ...
Garcia-Sierra Adrian - - 2009
Previous behavioral studies have shown improved sensitivity to native-language contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrasts when comparing 6-8- and 10-12-month-old monolingual infants. It has been argued that exposure to language dedicates neural networks to the acoustic properties of native-language speech, and that, in adulthood, this commitment interferes with ...
Kitamura Christine - - 2009
Impaired phonological processing has been found to have a reciprocal casual association with the reading ability of people with reading difficult-ies. Further, there is growing evidence that problems in phonological processing are present at birth as research shows that infants with a family history of these disorders have atypical neural ...
Panneton Robin K - - 2009
Initially, human infants are able to discriminate a change from one speech phoneme to another, whether or not the speech contrasts are native or foreign. By the end of the first postnatal year, the ease with which infants discriminate non-native phonemes diminishes, indicating a progressive attunement toward language-relevant speech. However, ...
Beach Elizabeth - - 2009
In early infancy, speech perception is based on innate psychoacoustic thresholds allowing young infants to discriminate a wide range of speech contrasts. However, as infants accumulate knowledge of their native language, they begin attuning to native speech sounds: first vowels around 6 months; then consonants around 9-12 months. Now that ...
Sundara Megha - - 2009
For bilingual infants, phonetic categories of the two languages develop interdependently. This is supported by the differences in time course and trajectory of development of phonetic perception between Spanish-Catalan bilingual and monolingual infants (Bosch and Sebastian-Galles, 2003a, 2003b, 2005; Sebastian-Galles and Bosch, in press). Bosch and Sebastian-Galles argue that for ...
Hayden Angela - - 2009
Adults process other-race faces differently than own-race faces. For instance, a single other-race face in an array of own-race faces attracts Caucasians' attention, but a single own-race face among other-race faces does not. This perceptual asymmetry has been explained by the presence of an other-race feature in other-race faces and ...
van Heugten Marieke - - 2009
The acoustic realization of lexical items produced by different speakers can vary greatly. Current research suggests that infants, unlike adults, struggle to cope with this lack of invariance in the realization of words. Although 7.5-month olds are able to recognize words across different utterances when produced by speakers of the ...
Kuhl Patricia K - - 2009
The adult brain exhibits anatomical and functional specialization specific to speech, but we have little information regarding the infant brain. Recent adult neuroimaging studies show that speech processing is left-lateralized and that two regions of the brain, the superior temporal (ST, auditory area) and inferior parietal (IF, motor area), contribute ...
Polka Linda - - 2009
Previous research shows that infants in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth which improve rapidly over the first 6 months of life, and that attention to the rhythmic properties of language supports these skills. Babies in monolingual families also prefer listening to their native language over ...
Phan Jennifer - - 2009
To understand speech, infants must differentiate between phonetic changes that are linguistically contrastive and those that are not. Research has shown that infants are very sensitive to fine-grained differences in speech sounds that differentiate words in their own or another language. However, little is known about infants' ability to discriminate ...
Shafer Valerie L - - 2009
This research examines the maturation of I-E vowel discrimination, in terms of neurophysiological responses, in infants exposed monolingually to English or bilingually to English and Spanish. The vowels [I] as in "pit" and [E] as in "pet" contrast meaning in English but not in Spanish. Bilingual exposure to English and ...
Moon Christine - - 2009
Behavioral research has shown that by 6 months of age, infants show an effect of experience with native language vowels. In a previous study of category organization, infants in Sweden and the United States treated a vowel prototype as equivalent to variants of the vowel in the native, but not ...
Sakai Jun - - 2009
We assessed CO(2) gas dispersal potential of bedding that had actually been used by 26 infants diagnosed with sudden unexpected infant death using a baby mannequin model. The age of victims ranged from 1 to 12 months. In some cases, the parents alleged that the infant faces were not covered ...
Smith Nicholas A - - 2009
Auditory stream segregation in six-month-old infants was examined in a paradigm adapted from Bregman and Rudnicky (1975). In a conditioned head-turn procedure, listeners' detection of changes in the temporal order of 2200 and 2400 Hz target tones was tested under three conditions. For developmental comparison, as well as validation of ...
Werker Janet F - - 2009
Phonetic categories become language specific across the first months of life. However, at the onset of word learning there are tasks in which infants fail to utilize native language phonetic categories to drive word learning. In 2005, we advanced a framework to account for why infants can detect and use ...
Dilley Laura - - 2009
Relatively little work has examined acoustic-phonetic variability in consonants in infant-directed speech, particularly that directed to children with hearing loss. Assimilation is a form of variability which has been particularly well studied in adult-directed speech in which a word-final alveolar consonant takes the place of articulation of a following word-initial ...
Meredith Morgan - - 2009
Infants from monolingual English- and Spanish-speaking homes were compared in their perception of two phonetic contrasts that differ in their phonemic status in the two languages. The contrast [d]-[E] is phonemic in English but allophonic in Spanish; while the contrast [d]-flap is phonemic in Spanish but allophonic in English. Infants ...
Gogate Lakshmi J - - 2009
To explore early lexical development, the authors examined infants' sensitivity to changes in spoken syllables and objects given different temporal relations between syllable-object pairings. In Experiment 1, they habituated 2-month-olds to 1 syllable, /tah/ or /gah/, paired with an object in synchronous (utterances coincident with object motions, N = 16) ...
Lacerda Francisco - - 2009
To investigate how possible biases in matching of object sizes with sound intensities may be influenced by the ecological relevance of the potential associations, three groups of Swedish infants (4, 6, and 8 months of age) are being tested in their preferences to match speech or nonspeech sounds of different ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2009
Research using artificial languages with English-learning infants has shown both prosodic and distributional cues are used for speech segmentation by 7 months. When these cues conflict, infants younger than 7 months rely on distributional cues while older infants rely on prosodic cues). In the present study we assessed the role ...
Yoshida Katherine A - - 2009
Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar-sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this ...
Kavsek Michael - - 2009
The findings of numerous preferential-reaching studies suggest that infants first respond to pictorial depth cues between 5 and 7 months of age. However, three recent preferential-reaching studies have found evidence of responsiveness to pictorial depth cues in 5-month-olds. We investigated these apparently contradictory results by conducting meta-analyses of the data ...
Lukowski Angela F AF Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California-Irvine, 3340 Social Ecology Building II, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. - - 2009
We examined generalization in 9-month-old infants after a 24-h delay using deferred imitation. Infants flexibly applied their knowledge of sequence actions across changes in props even though they had no opportunity for immediate imitation.
Miller Jennifer L - - 2009
The ability to sustain attention influences different domains including cognitive, motor, and communicative behavior. Previous research has demonstrated how an infant's parent can influence sustained attention. The purpose of our study was to expose infants systematically to both sensitive and redirective patterns of behavior to examine how unfamiliar individuals could ...
vanMarle Kristy - - 2009
Vigorous debate surrounds the issue of whether infants use different representational mechanisms to discriminate small and large numbers. We report evidence for ratio-dependent performance in infants' discrimination of small numbers of auditory events, suggesting that infants can use analog magnitudes to represent small values, at least in the auditory domain. ...
Waxman Sandra R - - 2009
The current experiments address several concerns, both empirical and theoretical in nature, that have surfaced within the verb learning literature. They begin to reconcile what, until now, has been a large and largely unexplained gap between infants' well-documented ability to acquire verbs in the natural course of their lives and ...
McCrink Koleen - - 2009
Recent studies on nonsymbolic arithmetic have illustrated that under conditions that prevent exact calculation, adults display a systematic tendency to overestimate the answers to addition problems and underestimate the answers to subtraction problems. It has been suggested that this operational momentum results from exposure to a culture-specific practice of representing ...
Wagner Laura - - 2009
How do infants represent objects, actions, and relations in events? In this review, we discuss an approach to studying this question that begins with linguistic theory-specifically, semantic structures in language. On the basis of recent research exploring infant cognition and prominent linguistic analyses, we examine whether infants' representations of motion ...
Kelly David J - - 2009
The other-race effect in face processing develops within the first year of life in Caucasian infants. It is currently unknown whether the developmental trajectory observed in Caucasian infants can be extended to other cultures. This is an important issue to investigate because recent findings from cross-cultural psychology have suggested that ...
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