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Results 201 - 250 of 1581
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Gredeb?ck Gustaf - - 2010
Six- and 12-month-old infant's eye movements were recorded as they observed feeding actions being performed in a rational or non-rational manner. Twelve-month-olds fixated the goal of these actions before the food arrived (anticipation); the latency of these gaze shifts being dependent (r=.69) on infants life experience being feed. In addition, ...
Ruusuvirta Timo - - 2009
Humans are able to attentively discriminate number from 6 months of age. However, the age of the emergence of this ability at the pre-attentive stage of processing remains unclear. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in newborn human infants aged from 3 to 5 days. At 500-ms intervals, the infants were ...
Männel Claudia - - 2009
In language learning, infants are faced with the challenge of decomposing continuous speech into relevant units, such as syntactic clauses and words. Within the framework of prosodic bootstrapping, behavioral studies suggest infants approach this segmentation problem by relying on prosodic information, especially on acoustically marked intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs). In ...
Fagan Mary K - - 2009
Infants learn about their environment through sensory exploration, acquiring knowledge that is important for cognitive development. However, little is known about the sensory exploration of infants with profound hearing loss before or after they receive cochlear implants. This paper reviews aspects of sensory perception and cognitive development in hearing infants, ...
Barr Gordon A - - 2009
Behavioral transitions characterize development. Young infant rats paradoxically prefer odors that are paired with shock, but older pups learn aversions. This transition is amygdala and corticosterone dependent. Using microarrays and microdialysis, we found downregulated dopaminergic presynaptic function in the amygdala with preference learning. Corticosterone-injected 8-d-old pups and untreated 12-d-old pups ...
Spencer John P - - 2009
Topál et al. (Reports, 26 September 2008, p. 1831) proposed that infants' perseverative search errors can be explained by ostensive cues from the experimenter. We use the dynamic field theory to test the proposal that infants encode locations more weakly when social cues are present. Quantitative simulations show that this ...
McCleery Joseph P - - 2009
Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old high-risk infants who carry some of the genes associated with ASD ...
Lagercrantz Hugo - - 2009
Newborn infants fulfil some criteria of being conscious i.e. being aware of the body, the self and the world. They are able to differentiate between self and nonself touch, express emotions and show signs of shared feelings. They process sensory impressions including pain at a cortical level. They remember rhythmic ...
Lewkowicz David J - - 2009
According to conventional wisdom, multisensory development is a progressive process that results in the growth and proliferation of perceptual skills. We review new findings indicating that a regressive process - perceptual narrowing - also contributes in critical ways to perceptual development. These new data reveal that young infants are able ...
Topál József J Research Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1132 Budapest, Hungary. - - 2009
Ten-month-old infants persistently search for a hidden object at its initial hiding place even after observing it being hidden at another location. Recent evidence suggests that communicative cues from the experimenter contribute to the emergence of this perseverative search error. We replicated these results with dogs (Canis familiaris), who also ...
Kitamura Christine - - 2009
This study investigates the influence of the acoustic properties of vowels on 6- and 10-month-old infants' speech preferences. The shape of the contour (bell or monotonic) and the duration (normal or stretched) of vowels were manipulated in words containing the vowels /i/ and /u/, and presented to infants using a ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2009
Previous research has demonstrated that infants under 17 months have difficulty learning novel words in the laboratory when the words differ by only one consonant sound, irrespective of the magnitude of that difference. The current study explored whether 15-month-old infants can learn novel words that differ in only one vowel ...
Byers-Heinlein Krista - - 2009
How infants learn new words is a fundamental puzzle in language acquisition. To guide their word learning, infants exploit systematic word-learning heuristics that allow them to link new words to likely referents. By 17 months, infants show a tendency to associate a novel noun with a novel object rather than ...
Repacholi Betty M - - 2009
This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 ...
Pelucchi Bruna - - 2009
Numerous recent studies suggest that human learners, including both infants and adults, readily track sequential statistics computed between adjacent elements. One such statistic, transitional probability, is typically calculated as the likelihood that one element predicts another. However, little is known about whether listeners are sensitive to the directionality of this ...
Trosvik P?l - - 2010
Temporal dynamics of the human gut microbiota is of fundamental importance for the development of proper gut function and maturation of the immune system. Here we present a description of infant gut ecological dynamics using a combination of nonlinear data modeling and simulations of the early infant gut colonization processes. ...
Jones Susan S - - 2009
An overview of existing data on imitation in infancy suggests that changes in the direction of imitation research are underway. The widely accepted view that newborn infants imitate lacks supporting evidence. Instead, existing data suggest that infants do not imitate others until their second year, and that imitation of different ...
Heathcock Jill C JC Division of Physical Therapy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. - - 2009
Previous work has shown that full-term infants who were healthy contacted a toy with their feet several weeks before they did so with their hands and that movement training advanced feet reaching. Certain populations of preterm infants are delayed in hand reaching; however, feet reaching has not been investigated in ...
Koterba Erin A - - 2009
Adults modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been tied to infant attention. However, the effect infant-directed action on infant behavior is understudied. This study examined whether infant-directed action affects infants, specifically their attention to and exploratory behaviors with objects. Forty-eight 8- to 10-month-old infants and ...
Southgate Victoria V Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, UK. - - 2009
Certain regions of the human brain are activated both during action execution and action observation. This so-called 'mirror neuron system' has been proposed to enable an observer to understand an action through a process of internal motor simulation. Although there has been much speculation about the existence of such a ...
Kawakami Fumito - - 2009
Five infants were observed longitudinally. In over 30 h of observations, seven spontaneous smiles and one spontaneous laugh were found. All smiles were observed in infants between the ages of 10 and 15 months. These data indicate that spontaneous smiles do not disappear at 2 months of age and they ...
Friedrich Manuela - - 2010
The relation between the maturation of brain mechanisms responsible for the N400 elicitation in the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the development of behavioral language skills was investigated in 12-month-old infants. ERPs to words presented in a picture-word priming paradigm were analyzed according to the infants' production and comprehension skills ...
Harris Lauren Julius - - 2010
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and objects representing infants, such as dolls, preferentially on the left side. The attention hypothesis credits the effect to left-directed attention for perception of emotionally salient targets, faces being prime examples. Support comes from studies showing stronger left visual hemispace (LVH) biases in left-holders ...
McCurry Sarah - - 2009
Object individuation, the capacity to track the identity of objects when perceptual contact is lost and then regained, is fundamental to human cognition. A great deal of research using the violation-of-expectation method has been conducted to investigate the development of object individuation in infancy. At the same time, there is ...
Warneken Felix - - 2009
The current response discusses the insightful commentaries by Dale Hay (2009) and Karen Wynn (2009) on the proposal that human altruism has deep roots both in phylogeny and ontogeny (Warneken & Tomasello, 2009). In particular, I focus on (a) what observational and experimental methods can reveal about altruistic motivations in ...
Peltola Mikko J - - 2009
Adult-like attentional biases toward fearful faces can be observed in 7-month-old infants. It is possible, however, that infants merely allocate attention to simple features such as enlarged fearful eyes. In the present study, 7-month-old infants (n = 15) were first shown individual emotional faces to determine their visual scanning patterns ...
Vestergaard Martin D MD Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2009
Auditory size perception refers to the ability to make accurate judgements of the size of a sound source based solely upon the sound emitted from the source. Electro-physiological and behavioural data were collected to test whether sound-source size parameters are detected from task-irrelevant sequences in adults and newborn infants. The ...
Olineck Kara M - - 2009
The present study examined infants' understanding of other people's intentional actions. The primary goal was to investigate whether infants' performances on visual attention and imitation tasks that have been designed to tap understanding of intentional actions were interrelated. Infants completed a goal-detection task and an action-parsing task at 10 months. ...
Kovács Agnes Melinda - - 2009
Children acquire their native language according to a well-defined time frame. Surprisingly, although children raised in bilingual environments have to learn roughly twice as much about language as their monolingual peers, the speed of acquisition is comparable in monolinguals and bilinguals. Here, we show that preverbal 12-month-old bilingual infants have ...
Lee Sue Ann S - - 2010
This study compared segmental distribution patterns for consonants and vowels in English infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS). A previous study of Korean indicated that segmental patterns of IDS differed from ADS patterns (Lee, Davis & MacNeilage, 2008). The aim of the current study was to determine whether such ...
Lee Sue Ann S - - 2010
The phonetic characteristics of canonical babbling produced by Korean- and English-learning infants were compared with consonant and vowel frequencies observed in infant-directed speech produced by Korean- and English-speaking mothers. For infant output, babbling samples from six Korean-learning infants were compared with an existing English babbling database (Davis & MacNeilage, 1995). ...
Cummings Alycia - - 2009
To examine how young children recognize the association between two different types of meaningful sounds and their visual referents, we compared 15-, 20-, and 25-month-old infants' looking time responses to familiar naturalistic environmental sounds, (e.g., the sound of a dog barking) and their empirically matched verbal descriptions (e.g., "Dog barking") ...
Bergstrom Linda - - 2009
In this secondary analysis of videotape data, we describe birth talk demonstrated by caregivers to women during the second stage of labor. Birth talk is a distinctive verbal register or a set of linguistic features that are used with particular behaviors during specific situations, has a particular communication purpose, and ...
Jackson Iain - - 2009
The violation-of-expectation (VOE) paradigm and related methods are the main tools used to study high-level cognition in preverbal infants. Infants' differential looking to conceptually implausible/impossible events has been used as an index of early cognitive competence in many areas, including object knowledge, physics, language, and number. However, an event's plausibility ...
Richmond Jenny - - 2009
Here we report evidence from a new eye-tracking measure of relational memory that suggests that 9-month-old infants can encode memories in terms of the relations among items, a function putatively subserved by the hippocampus. Infants learned about the association between faces that were superimposed on unique scenic backgrounds. During test ...
Otsuka Yumiko - - 2009
This study compared 3- to 4-month-olds' recognition of previously unfamiliar faces learned in a moving or a static condition. Infants in the moving condition showed successful recognition with only 30 s familiarization, even when different images of a face were used in the familiarization and test phase (Experiment 1). In ...
Scott Rose M - - 2009
Recent research has shown that infants as young as 13 months can attribute false beliefs to agents, suggesting that the psychological-reasoning subsystem necessary for attributing reality-incongruent informational states (Subsystem-2, SS2) is operational in infancy. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds' false-belief reasoning extends to false beliefs about object identity. Infants ...
Frank Michael C - - 2009
By 7 months of age, infants are able to learn rules based on the abstract relationships between stimuli (Marcus et al., 1999), but they are better able to do so when exposed to speech than to some other classes of stimuli. In the current experiments we ask whether multimodal stimulus ...
DeCasper Anthony J - - 2009
We investigated operant sucking response learning in human newborns. Auditory reinforcers always occurred monaurally to see whether their potency differed between ears. Experiment 1 - we controlled the reinforcers, either intrauterine heartbeat sounds or unfamiliar speech, while infants chose which ear received it. Experiment 2 - we controlled the reinforcers ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2010
Previous research demonstrated that young infants' neural processing of novel objects is enhanced by a fearful face gazing toward the object. The current event-related potential (ERP) study addresses the question of whether this effect is driven by the particular threat-value of a fearful expression or whether a positive emotion could ...
He Chao - - 2009
Pitch perception is critical for the perception of speech and music, for object identification, and for auditory scene analysis, whereby representations are derived for each sounding object in the environment from the complex sound wave that reaches the ears. The perceived pitch of a complex sound corresponds to its fundamental ...
Pons Ferran - - 2009
The conventional view is that perceptual/cognitive development is an incremental process of acquisition. Several striking findings have revealed, however, that the sensitivity to non-native languages, faces, vocalizations, and music that is present early in life declines as infants acquire experience with native perceptual inputs. In the language domain, the decline ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2009
Previous research has demonstrated that organizational principles become functional over different time courses of development: Lightness similarity is available at 3 months of age, but form similarity is not readily in evidence until 6 months of age. We investigated whether organization would transfer across principles and whether perceptual scaffolding can ...
Clifford Alexandra - - 2009
The origin of color categories has been debated by psychologists, linguists and cognitive scientists for many decades. Here, we present the first electrophysiological evidence for categorical responding to color before color terms are acquired. Event-related potentials were recorded on a visual oddball task in 7-month old infants. Infants were shown ...
Davila Ross Marina - - 2009
Human emotional expressions, such as laughter, are argued to have their origins in ancestral nonhuman primate displays. To test this hypothesis, the current work examined the acoustics of tickle-induced vocalizations from infant and juvenile orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, as well as tickle-induced laughter produced by human infants. Resulting acoustic ...
Fais Laurel - - 2010
In this work, we examine a context in which a conflict arises between two roles that infant-directed speech (IDS) plays: making language structure salient and modeling the adult form of a language. Vowel devoicing in fluent adult Japanese creates violations of the canonical Japanese consonant-vowel word structure pattern by systematically ...
Chen Li-Mei - - 2010
The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, ...
Horne Pauline J - - 2009
The present study investigated whether local stimulus enhancement and the demonstration of objects' affordances--both of which are inherent in modelling of object-directed target actions--are themselves sufficient to evoke the target behaviour on imitation test trials. Six-month-old infants were presented with a puppet wearing a removable mitten and observed either a ...
Dell'Mour Vera - - 2009
High levels of social tolerance are considered to promote social learning, as they allow direct observation of a manipulating conspecific and facilitate scrounging. Owing to tolerance toward infants, infancy is thought to be especially suited for learning socially transmitted behaviors. Despite this, few studies have investigated social learning of infants, ...
Adde Lars - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Absence of fidgety movements (FM) in high-risk infants is a strong marker for later cerebral palsy (CP). FMs can be classified by the General Movement Assessment (GMA), based on Gestalt perception of the infant's movement pattern. More objective movement analysis may be provided by computer-based technology. The aim of ...
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