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Results 201 - 250 of 1597
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Daum Moritz M - - 2009
The present study applied a preferential looking paradigm to test whether 6- and 9-month old infants are able to infer the size of a goal object from an actor's grasping movement. The target object was a cup with the handle rotated either towards or away from the actor. In two ...
Hespos Susan - - 2009
Infants can anticipate the future location of a moving object and execute a predictive reach to intercept the object. When a moving object is temporarily hidden by darkness or occlusion, 6-month-old infants' reaching is perturbed but performance on darkness trials is significantly better than occlusion trials. How does this reaching ...
Sebasti??n-Gall??s N??ria - - 2009
A shift from language-general to language-specific sound discrimination abilities has been largely attested in different populations of infants during the second half of the first year of life; however, data are still scarce regarding bilingual populations. Previous research with 4-, 8- and 12-month-old Catalan-Spanish bilingual infants had offered evidence of ...
Charles Eric P - - 2009
Piaget proposed that understanding permanency, understanding occlusion events, and forming mental representations were synonymous; however, accumulating evidence indicates that those concepts are not unified in development. Infants reach for endarkened objects at younger ages than for occluded objects, and infants' looking patterns suggest that they expect occluded objects to reappear ...
Cordes Sara - - 2009
Although young infants have repeatedly demonstrated successful numerosity discrimination across large sets when the number of items in the sets changes twofold (E. M. Brannon, S. Abbott, & D. J. Lutz, 2004; J. N. Wood & E. S. Spelke, 2005; F. Xu & E. S. Spelke, 2000), they consistently fail ...
Southgate Victoria V Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, UK. - - 2009
How do children decide which elements of an action demonstration are important to reproduce in the context of an imitation game? We tested whether selective imitation of a demonstrator's actions may be based on the same search for relevance that drives adult interpretation of ostensive communication. Three groups of 18-month-old ...
Southgate Victoria V Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2009
Many studies have demonstrated that infants can attribute goals to observed actions, whether they are presented live by familiar agents or on a computer screen by abstract figures. However, because most, if not all, of these studies rely on the repeated action presentations typical of infant studies, it is not ...
Mahajan Neha N Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2009
Both human infants and adult non-human primates share the capacity to track small numbers of objects across time and occlusion. The question now facing developmental and comparative psychologists is whether similar mechanisms give rise to this capacity across the two populations. Here, we explore whether non-human primates' object tracking abilities ...
Gill Simone V SV Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, - - 2009
A critical aspect of perception-action coupling is the ability to modify ongoing actions in accordance with variations in the environment. Infants' ability to modify their gait patterns to walk down shallow and steep slopes was examined at three nested time scales. Across sessions, a microgenetic training design showed rapid improvements ...
Gelskov Sofie V - - 2010
The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential looking ...
Dehaene-Lambertz G - - 2010
Understanding how language emerged in our species calls for a detailed investigation of the initial specialization of the human brain for speech processing. Our earlier research demonstrated that an adult-like left-lateralized network of perisylvian areas is already active when infants listen to sentences in their native language, but did not ...
Honda Yukiko - - 2010
Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we recorded changes of oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb, and total-Hb in 7- to 8-month-old infants' and adults' brains in response to canonical face and scrambled face stimuli. Using a newly developed probe for NIRS recording, which was light and soft enough to be tolerated by infants, we were ...
Parise Eugenio - - 2010
In a series of four experiments we assessed whether functional properties of the human face, such as signaling an object through eye gaze, influence face processing in 3- and 4-month-old infants. Infants viewed canonical and scrambled faces. We found that 4- but not 3-month-old infants' ERP showed an enhanced face-sensitive ...
Rigato Silvia - - 2010
Event-related potentials were recorded from adults and 4-month-old infants while they watched pictures of faces that varied in emotional expression (happy and fearful) and in gaze direction (direct or averted). Results indicate that emotional expression is temporally independent of gaze direction processing at early stages of processing, and only become ...
Yang Jiale - - 2009
Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading ...
Tsuruhara Aki - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to explore the infants' ability to perceive 3D shape from pictorial depth cues. While several previous studies showed that infants discriminate between displays which differ in pictorial information for depth and can use this information to direct reaching, it is not clear that infants ...
Gredeb?ck Gustaf - - 2010
Six- and 12-month-old infant's eye movements were recorded as they observed feeding actions being performed in a rational or non-rational manner. Twelve-month-olds fixated the goal of these actions before the food arrived (anticipation); the latency of these gaze shifts being dependent (r=.69) on infants life experience being feed. In addition, ...
Ruusuvirta Timo - - 2009
Humans are able to attentively discriminate number from 6 months of age. However, the age of the emergence of this ability at the pre-attentive stage of processing remains unclear. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in newborn human infants aged from 3 to 5 days. At 500-ms intervals, the infants were ...
Männel Claudia - - 2009
In language learning, infants are faced with the challenge of decomposing continuous speech into relevant units, such as syntactic clauses and words. Within the framework of prosodic bootstrapping, behavioral studies suggest infants approach this segmentation problem by relying on prosodic information, especially on acoustically marked intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs). In ...
Fagan Mary K MK Indiana University, USA. - - 2009
Infants learn about their environment through sensory exploration, acquiring knowledge that is important for cognitive development. However, little is known about the sensory exploration of infants with profound hearing loss before or after they receive cochlear implants. This paper reviews aspects of sensory perception and cognitive development in hearing infants, ...
Barr Gordon A GA Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2009
Behavioral transitions characterize development. Young infant rats paradoxically prefer odors that are paired with shock, but older pups learn aversions. This transition is amygdala and corticosterone dependent. Using microarrays and microdialysis, we found downregulated dopaminergic presynaptic function in the amygdala with preference learning. Corticosterone-injected 8-d-old pups and untreated 12-d-old pups ...
Spencer John P JP Department of Psychology and Delta Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2009
Topál et al. (Reports, 26 September 2008, p. 1831) proposed that infants' perseverative search errors can be explained by ostensive cues from the experimenter. We use the dynamic field theory to test the proposal that infants encode locations more weakly when social cues are present. Quantitative simulations show that this ...
McCleery Joseph P JP Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0109, - - 2009
Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old high-risk infants who carry some of the genes associated with ASD ...
Lagercrantz Hugo - - 2009
Newborn infants fulfil some criteria of being conscious i.e. being aware of the body, the self and the world. They are able to differentiate between self and nonself touch, express emotions and show signs of shared feelings. They process sensory impressions including pain at a cortical level. They remember rhythmic ...
Lewkowicz David J - - 2009
According to conventional wisdom, multisensory development is a progressive process that results in the growth and proliferation of perceptual skills. We review new findings indicating that a regressive process - perceptual narrowing - also contributes in critical ways to perceptual development. These new data reveal that young infants are able ...
Topál József J Research Institute for Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1132 Budapest, Hungary. - - 2009
Ten-month-old infants persistently search for a hidden object at its initial hiding place even after observing it being hidden at another location. Recent evidence suggests that communicative cues from the experimenter contribute to the emergence of this perseverative search error. We replicated these results with dogs (Canis familiaris), who also ...
Kitamura Christine - - 2009
This study investigates the influence of the acoustic properties of vowels on 6- and 10-month-old infants' speech preferences. The shape of the contour (bell or monotonic) and the duration (normal or stretched) of vowels were manipulated in words containing the vowels /i/ and /u/, and presented to infants using a ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2009
Previous research has demonstrated that infants under 17 months have difficulty learning novel words in the laboratory when the words differ by only one consonant sound, irrespective of the magnitude of that difference. The current study explored whether 15-month-old infants can learn novel words that differ in only one vowel ...
Byers-Heinlein Krista - - 2009
How infants learn new words is a fundamental puzzle in language acquisition. To guide their word learning, infants exploit systematic word-learning heuristics that allow them to link new words to likely referents. By 17 months, infants show a tendency to associate a novel noun with a novel object rather than ...
Repacholi Betty M - - 2009
This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 ...
Pelucchi Bruna B Department of Psychology and Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI 53705, United States of America. - - 2009
Numerous recent studies suggest that human learners, including both infants and adults, readily track sequential statistics computed between adjacent elements. One such statistic, transitional probability, is typically calculated as the likelihood that one element predicts another. However, little is known about whether listeners are sensitive to the directionality of this ...
Trosvik P?l - - 2010
Temporal dynamics of the human gut microbiota is of fundamental importance for the development of proper gut function and maturation of the immune system. Here we present a description of infant gut ecological dynamics using a combination of nonlinear data modeling and simulations of the early infant gut colonization processes. ...
Jones Susan S - - 2009
An overview of existing data on imitation in infancy suggests that changes in the direction of imitation research are underway. The widely accepted view that newborn infants imitate lacks supporting evidence. Instead, existing data suggest that infants do not imitate others until their second year, and that imitation of different ...
Heathcock Jill C JC Division of Physical Therapy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. - - 2009
Previous work has shown that full-term infants who were healthy contacted a toy with their feet several weeks before they did so with their hands and that movement training advanced feet reaching. Certain populations of preterm infants are delayed in hand reaching; however, feet reaching has not been investigated in ...
Koterba Erin A - - 2009
Adults modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been tied to infant attention. However, the effect infant-directed action on infant behavior is understudied. This study examined whether infant-directed action affects infants, specifically their attention to and exploratory behaviors with objects. Forty-eight 8- to 10-month-old infants and ...
Southgate Victoria V Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, UK. - - 2009
Certain regions of the human brain are activated both during action execution and action observation. This so-called 'mirror neuron system' has been proposed to enable an observer to understand an action through a process of internal motor simulation. Although there has been much speculation about the existence of such a ...
Kawakami Fumito - - 2009
Five infants were observed longitudinally. In over 30 h of observations, seven spontaneous smiles and one spontaneous laugh were found. All smiles were observed in infants between the ages of 10 and 15 months. These data indicate that spontaneous smiles do not disappear at 2 months of age and they ...
Friedrich Manuela - - 2010
The relation between the maturation of brain mechanisms responsible for the N400 elicitation in the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the development of behavioral language skills was investigated in 12-month-old infants. ERPs to words presented in a picture-word priming paradigm were analyzed according to the infants' production and comprehension skills ...
Harris Lauren Julius - - 2010
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and objects representing infants, such as dolls, preferentially on the left side. The attention hypothesis credits the effect to left-directed attention for perception of emotionally salient targets, faces being prime examples. Support comes from studies showing stronger left visual hemispace (LVH) biases in left-holders ...
McCurry Sarah S University of Alabama, - - 2009
Object individuation, the capacity to track the identity of objects when perceptual contact is lost and then regained, is fundamental to human cognition. A great deal of research using the violation-of-expectation method has been conducted to investigate the development of object individuation in infancy. At the same time, there is ...
Warneken Felix - - 2009
The current response discusses the insightful commentaries by Dale Hay (2009) and Karen Wynn (2009) on the proposal that human altruism has deep roots both in phylogeny and ontogeny (Warneken & Tomasello, 2009). In particular, I focus on (a) what observational and experimental methods can reveal about altruistic motivations in ...
Peltola Mikko J MJ Department of Psychology, University of Tampere, Finland. - - 2009
Adult-like attentional biases toward fearful faces can be observed in 7-month-old infants. It is possible, however, that infants merely allocate attention to simple features such as enlarged fearful eyes. In the present study, 7-month-old infants (n = 15) were first shown individual emotional faces to determine their visual scanning patterns ...
Vestergaard Martin D MD Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2009
Auditory size perception refers to the ability to make accurate judgements of the size of a sound source based solely upon the sound emitted from the source. Electro-physiological and behavioural data were collected to test whether sound-source size parameters are detected from task-irrelevant sequences in adults and newborn infants. The ...
Olineck Kara M - - 2009
The present study examined infants' understanding of other people's intentional actions. The primary goal was to investigate whether infants' performances on visual attention and imitation tasks that have been designed to tap understanding of intentional actions were interrelated. Infants completed a goal-detection task and an action-parsing task at 10 months. ...
Kovács Agnes Melinda - - 2009
Children acquire their native language according to a well-defined time frame. Surprisingly, although children raised in bilingual environments have to learn roughly twice as much about language as their monolingual peers, the speed of acquisition is comparable in monolinguals and bilinguals. Here, we show that preverbal 12-month-old bilingual infants have ...
Lee Sue Ann S - - 2010
This study compared segmental distribution patterns for consonants and vowels in English infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS). A previous study of Korean indicated that segmental patterns of IDS differed from ADS patterns (Lee, Davis & MacNeilage, 2008). The aim of the current study was to determine whether such ...
Lee Sue Ann S - - 2010
The phonetic characteristics of canonical babbling produced by Korean- and English-learning infants were compared with consonant and vowel frequencies observed in infant-directed speech produced by Korean- and English-speaking mothers. For infant output, babbling samples from six Korean-learning infants were compared with an existing English babbling database (Davis & MacNeilage, 1995). ...
Cummings Alycia - - 2009
To examine how young children recognize the association between two different types of meaningful sounds and their visual referents, we compared 15-, 20-, and 25-month-old infants' looking time responses to familiar naturalistic environmental sounds, (e.g., the sound of a dog barking) and their empirically matched verbal descriptions (e.g., "Dog barking") ...
Bergstrom Linda - - 2009
In this secondary analysis of videotape data, we describe birth talk demonstrated by caregivers to women during the second stage of labor. Birth talk is a distinctive verbal register or a set of linguistic features that are used with particular behaviors during specific situations, has a particular communication purpose, and ...
Jackson Iain - - 2009
The violation-of-expectation (VOE) paradigm and related methods are the main tools used to study high-level cognition in preverbal infants. Infants' differential looking to conceptually implausible/impossible events has been used as an index of early cognitive competence in many areas, including object knowledge, physics, language, and number. However, an event's plausibility ...
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