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Richards John E - - 2010
The development of attention in the infant can be characterized by changes in overall arousal (attentiveness) and by changes in attention's effect on specific cognitive processes (e.g., stimulus orienting, spatial selection, recognition memory). These attention systems can be identified using behavioral and psychophysiological methods. The development of infant attention is ...
Kim Geunyoung G Hallym University, Gangwon-Do 200-702, Republic of Korea. - - 2010
Studies of infant social referencing have indicated that infants might be more influenced by vocal information contained in emotional messages than by facial expression, especially during fearful message conditions. The present study investigated the characteristics of emotional channels that parents used during social referencing, and corresponding infants' behavioral changes. Results ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2010
The process by which two people share attention towards the same object or event is called joint attention. Joint attention and the underlying triadic representations between self, other person and object are thought to be unique to humans, supporting teaching, cooperation and language learning. Despite the progress that has been ...
Yoshino Daisuke - - 2010
This study examined the perception of the rotating Kanizsa square by using a fixed-trial familiarization method. If the Kanizsa square is rotated across the pacmen, adult observers perceive not only a rotating illusory square, but also an illusory expansion/contraction motion of this square. The phenomenon is called a "rotational dynamic ...
Mento Giovanni - - 2010
In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging has allowed researchers to individuate the earlier morphological development of the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere during late-gestational development. Anatomical asymmetry, however, does not necessarily mean functional asymmetry, and whether the anatomical differences between hemispheres at this early age are paralleled by ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2010
In this study, we examined the nature of infants' representations of newly encountered word forms. Using a word-object association task, we taught 14-month-olds novel three-syllable words differing in segments and stress patterns. At test, we manipulated the stress pattern of the word or the position of the stressed syllable in ...
Lany Jill J Department of Psychology and Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA. - - 2010
Infants are highly sensitive to statistical patterns in their auditory language input that mark word categories (e.g., noun and verb). However, it is unknown whether experience with these cues facilitates the acquisition of semantic properties of word categories. In a study testing this hypothesis, infants first listened to an artificial ...
Fagard Jacqueline - - 2010
By the end of the first year, infants show dramatic increases in manual skill. In this study we tested one factor likely to contribute to this change: an increase in the capacity for observational learning, which may enable infants to learn new behaviors and practice ones that they already possess. ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2010
Infants do not readily organize using form similarity: 6- to 7-month-olds familiarized with horizontal or vertical bars (filled rectangles) do not display a subsequent preference for a novel column versus row organization of X-O elements (Quinn and Bhatt, 2006 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 32 1221-1230). In ...
Harris Lauren Julius - - 2010
Most adults hold human infants on the left side, with the infant's head to the left of their own body midline. The discovery of this bias is credited to Lee Salk, who first reported it in 1960, but the same was reported at least 300 years earlier and many times ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2010
Interacting with others by reading their emotional expressions is an essential social skill in humans. How this ability develops during infancy and what brain processes underpin infants' perception of emotion in different modalities are the questions dealt with in this paper. Literature review. The first part provides a systematic review ...
Rahlin Mary - - 2010
To establish intrarater and interrater reliability of still photography for measuring habitual head deviation from midline in infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). Two investigators took still photographs of 30 infants with CMT in a supine position and measured head deviation angles with a protractor. Data analysis included paired t ...
Soley Gaye - - 2010
Infants prefer native structures such as familiar faces and languages. Music is a universal human activity containing structures that vary cross-culturally. For example, Western music has temporally regular metric structures, whereas music of the Balkans (e.g., Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey) can have both regular and irregular structures. We presented 4- to ...
Sugimoto Tasuku - - 2010
It has been shown that humans prefer consonant sounds from the early stages of development. From a comparative psychological perspective, although previous studies have shown that birds and monkeys can discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds, it remains unclear whether nonhumans have a spontaneous preference for consonant music over dissonant ...
Sato Yutaka - - 2010
Japanese has a vowel duration contrast as one component of its language-specific phonemic repertory to distinguish word meanings. It is not clear, however, how a sensitivity to vowel duration can develop in a linguistic context. In the present study, using the visual habituation-dishabituation method, the authors evaluated infants' abilities to ...
Mattock Karen - - 2010
English, French, and bilingual English-French 17-month-old infants were compared for their performance on a word learning task using the Switch task. Object names presented a /b/ vs. /g/ contrast that is phonemic in both English and French, and auditory strings comprised English and French pronunciations by an adult bilingual. Infants ...
Georgouli H - - 2010
Hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1) is caused by an enzymatic defect in tyrosine metabolism. It is an autosomal recessive disorder and affects both sexes equally. In young infants HT1 can present as severe liver involvement and in older infants as liver failure and renal tubular dysfunction together with growth failure ...
Gredebäck Gustaf - - 2010
The neurological correlates of pointing comprehension in adults and 8-month-old infants are explored. Both age groups demonstrate differential activation to congruent and incongruent pointing gestures over posterior temporal areas. The functional similarity of the adult N200 and the infant P400 component suggests that they might have a common source.
Hodsoll John - - 2010
Recent evidence indicates that infant faces capture attention automatically, presumably to elicit caregiving behavior from adults and leading to greater probability of progeny survival. Elsewhere, evidence demonstrates that people show deficiencies in the processing of other-race relative to own-race faces. We ask whether this other-race effect impacts on attentional attraction ...
Jansson-Verkasalo Eira - - 2010
Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process ...
Schwartz Jeffrey H - - 2010
Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet") yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2010
A precondition for successful communication between people is the detection of signals indicating the intention to communicate, such as eye contact or calling a person's name. In adults, establishing communication by eye contact or calling a person's name results in overlapping activity in right prefrontal cortex, suggesting that, regardless of ...
Stapel Janny C JC Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Infants make predictions about actions they observe already during the first year of life. To investigate the role of the motor system in predicting the end state of observed actions, 12-month-old infants were shown movies of ordinary and extraordinary object-directed actions. The stimuli displayed a female actor who picked up ...
Cecchi F F ARTS Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy. - - 2010
The study and measurement of grasping actions and forces in humans is important in a variety of contexts. In infants, it can give insights on the typical and atypical motor development, while it poses functional and operative requirements that are not fully matched by current sensing technology. Novel approaches for ...
Tsuruhara Aki A Research and Development Initiative, Chuo University, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan. - - 2010
A "transfer-across-depth-cues" method was used to explore the development of the ability to generate and use spatial representations of an object as specified by static pictorial depth cues. Infants were habituated to an object with depth specified by one cue and then presented with the same shape with depth specified ...
Balas Benjamin J BJ Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA, - - 2010
Infant face processing becomes more selective during the first year of life as a function of varying experience with distinct face categories defined by species, race, and age. Given that any individual face belongs to many such categories (e.g. A young Caucasian man's face) we asked how the neural selectivity ...
Soska Kasey C KC Department of Psychology, New York University, 6 Washington Place, Room 458, New York, NY 10003, USA. - - 2010
How do infants learn to perceive the backs of objects that they see only from a limited viewpoint? Infants' 3-dimensional object completion abilities emerge in conjunction with developing motor skills--independent sitting and visual-manual exploration. Infants at 4.5 to 7.5 months of age (n = 28) were habituated to a limited-view ...
Morange-Majoux Fran?oise - - 2010
Recent theories on the evolution of language (e.g. Corballis, 2009) emphazise the interest of early manifestations of manual laterality and manual specialization in human infants. In the present study, left- and right-hand movements towards a midline object were observed in 24 infants aged 4months in a constrained condition, in which ...
Tsang Christine D - - 2010
Preverbal infants are attuned to the different emotional messages contained in playsongs and lullabies. However, it is unclear which performance properties of singing underlie infants' perception of the communicative intent of infant-directed singing. Volkova, Trehub, and Schellenberg (2006) recently demonstrated that 6- and 7-month-old infants preferred low-pitched to high-pitched renditions ...
Swingley Daniel - - 2009
Infants learn the forms of words by listening to the speech they hear. Though little is known about the degree to which these forms are meaningful for young infants, the words still play a role in early language development. Words guide the infant to his or her first syntactic intuitions, ...
Vaish Amrisha - - 2010
Phillips et al. (2002) suggest that by 12-14 months, infants can use a person's emotional and attentional cues to predict that person's actions. However, this work was conducted using only positive emotions, which is problematic because attention and positive emotions lead to the same prediction about a person's actions, thus ...
Bornstein Marc H - - 2010
Infants' categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel ...
Kimura Atsushi - - 2010
We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of ...
Libertus Melissa E - - 2009
Behavioral studies show that infants are capable of discriminating the number of objects or events in their environment, while also suggesting that number discrimination in infancy may be ratio-dependent. However, due to limitations of the dependent measures used with infant behavioral studies, the evidence for ratio dependence falls short of ...
Grossmann Tobias T Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbek, University of London, UK. - - 2009
We measured looking times and ERPs to examine the cognitive and brain bases of perceptual category learning in 6-month-old infants. In Experiment 1, we showed that categorization and exemplar discrimination rely on different cortical processes. Specifically, the repetition of individual exemplars resulted in differential cortical processing at posterior channels at ...
Bakker Hanneke H Department Paediatrics - Developmental Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The - - 2010
Reaching movements are initiated by activity of the prime mover, i.e. the first activated arm muscle. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prime mover activity and kinematics of reaching in typically developing (TD) infants in supine and sitting position. Fourteen infants were assessed at 4 and 6 months during ...
Mar?chal L - - 2009
This study provides an important contribution to the definition of the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT). So far, no measuring means were suited to assess the manual EFIT performed on infants. The proposed method aims at objectively defining the EFIT based on the quantification of pertinent cognitive parameters used by ...
Sheridan Carolin C Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham # 518, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. - - 2010
The processing of rapidly presented stimuli has been shown to be a precursor for the perception of speech in infants, long before they learn to speak. However, the onset and early development of rapid temporal processing (RTP) skills is not yet well understood. The main goal of this study was ...
Christie Tamara - - 2010
Three experiments demonstrate that biological movement facilitates young infants' recognition of the whole human form. A body discrimination task was used in which 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants were habituated to typical human bodies and then shown scrambled human bodies at the test. Recovery of interest to the scrambled bodies ...
Vauclair Jacques - - 2009
The aim of this study was to measure the pattern of hand preferences for pointing gestures as a function of object-manipulation handedness in 123 infants and toddlers (10-40 months). The results showed that not only right-handers but also left-handers and ambidextrous participants tended to use their right hand for pointing. ...
Hupbach Almut - - 2009
Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & ...
Lewkowicz David J - - 2009
This study investigated how 4-month-old infants represent sequences: Do they track the statistical relations among specific sequence elements (e.g., AB, BC) or do they encode abstract ordinal positions (i.e., B is second)? Infants were habituated to sequences of 4 moving and sounding elements-3 of the elements varied in their ordinal ...
Vouloumanos Athena - - 2009
In everyday word learning words are only sometimes heard in the presence of their referent, making the acquisition of novel words a particularly challenging task. The current study investigated whether children (18-month-olds who are novice word learners) can track the statistics of co-occurrence between words and objects to learn novel ...
Skoruppa Katrin - - 2009
During the first year of life, infants begin to have difficulties perceiving non-native vowel and consonant contrasts, thus adapting their perception to the phonetic categories of the target language. In this paper, we examine the perception of a non-segmental feature, i.e. stress. Previous research with adults has shown that speakers ...
Poulin-Dubois Diane - - 2009
We investigated whether 16-month-old infants' past experience with a person's gaze reliability influences their expectation about the person's ability to form beliefs. Infants were first administered a search task in which they observed an experimenter show excitement while looking inside a box that either contained a toy (reliable looker condition) ...
Ko Eon-Suk - - 2009
8- and 14-month-old infants' perceptual sensitivity to vowel duration conditioned by post-vocalic consonantal voicing was examined. Half the infants heard CVC stimuli with short vowels, and half heard stimuli with long vowels. In both groups, stimuli with voiced and voiceless final consonants were compared. Older infants showed significant sensitivity to ...
Daum Moritz M - - 2009
The present study applied a preferential looking paradigm to test whether 6- and 9-month old infants are able to infer the size of a goal object from an actor's grasping movement. The target object was a cup with the handle rotated either towards or away from the actor. In two ...
Hespos Susan - - 2009
Infants can anticipate the future location of a moving object and execute a predictive reach to intercept the object. When a moving object is temporarily hidden by darkness or occlusion, 6-month-old infants' reaching is perturbed but performance on darkness trials is significantly better than occlusion trials. How does this reaching ...
Sebasti??n-Gall??s N??ria - - 2009
A shift from language-general to language-specific sound discrimination abilities has been largely attested in different populations of infants during the second half of the first year of life; however, data are still scarce regarding bilingual populations. Previous research with 4-, 8- and 12-month-old Catalan-Spanish bilingual infants had offered evidence of ...
Charles Eric P - - 2009
Piaget proposed that understanding permanency, understanding occlusion events, and forming mental representations were synonymous; however, accumulating evidence indicates that those concepts are not unified in development. Infants reach for endarkened objects at younger ages than for occluded objects, and infants' looking patterns suggest that they expect occluded objects to reappear ...
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