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Pons Ferran - - 2010
Recent research has suggested consonants and vowels serve different roles during language processing. While statistical computations are preferentially made over consonants but not over vowels, simple structural generalizations are easily made over vowels but not over consonants. Nevertheless, the origins of this asymmetry are unknown. Here we tested if a ...
Hyde Daniel C - - 2010
Bilateral regions of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) appear to be functionally selective for both rudimentary non-symbolic number tasks and higher-level symbolic number tasks in adults and older children. Furthermore, the ability to mentally represent and manipulate approximate non-symbolic numerical quantities is present from birth. These factors leave open whether the ...
Quinn Paul C PC University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. - - 2010
Three- to 4-month-old infants reared by female caregivers display a spontaneous preference for individual adult women's over men's faces. Here we report that this preference extends to prototype girl over boy faces. The findings suggest transfer of gender-diagnostic facial information from individual adult to prototype child faces.
Minagawa-Kawai Yasuyo - - 2011
This study uses near-infrared spectroscopy in young infants in order to elucidate the nature of functional cerebral processing for speech. Previous imaging studies of infants' speech perception revealed left-lateralized responses to native language. However, it is unclear if these activations were due to language per se rather than to some ...
Van Overwalle Frank - - 2010
This paper explores the minimal representational and processing requirements for teleological and mentalistic inferences. These inferences are already present in 6- to 12-month-old infants when they judge the goals of moving agents like inanimate shapes, without any cue about human body motion. This precludes the mirror system as a potential ...
Fifer William P - - 2010
Newborn infants must rapidly adjust their physiology and behavior to the specific demands of the novel postnatal environment. This adaptation depends, at least in part, on the infant's ability to learn from experiences. We report here that infants exhibit learning even while asleep. Bioelectrical activity from face and scalp electrodes ...
Lebedeva Gina C GC Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7988, USA. - - 2010
To better understand how infants process complex auditory input, this study investigated whether 11-month-old infants perceive the pitch (melodic) or the phonetic (lyric) components within songs as more salient, and whether melody facilitates phonetic recognition. Using a preferential looking paradigm, uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional songs were tested; either the pitch or ...
Sacrey Lori-Ann R - - 2010
Hand shaping is an important part of many skilled hand movements and includes a number of hand shapes prominent amongst which is collection. In collection, the hand is held with the digits lightly closed and flexed. It occurs when the hand is at rest and it occurs as the hand ...
Narayan Chandan R - - 2010
Previous research suggests that infant speech perception reorganizes in the first year: young infants discriminate both native and non-native phonetic contrasts, but by 10-12 months difficult non-native contrasts are less discriminable whereas performance improves on native contrasts. In the current study, four experiments tested the hypothesis that, in addition to ...
Bhatt Ramesh S - - 2010
Research indicates that object perception involves the decomposition of images into parts. A critical principle that governs part decomposition by adults is the short-cut rule, which states that, all else being equal, the visual system parses objects using the shortest possible cuts. We examined whether 6.5-month-olds' parsing of images also ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2010
Subordinate-level category-learning processes in infants were investigated with ERP and looking-time measures. ERPs were recorded while 6- to 7-month-olds were presented with Saint Bernard images during familiarization, followed by novel Saint Bernards interspersed with Beagles during test. In addition, infant looking times were measured during a paired-preference test (novel Saint ...
Gerry David W - - 2010
Phillips-Silver and Trainor (2005) demonstrated a link between movement and the metrical interpretation of rhythm patterns in 7-month-old infants. Infants bounced on every second beat of a rhythmic pattern with no auditory accents later preferred to listen to an accented version of the pattern with accents every second beat (duple ...
Woods Rebecca J - - 2010
The ability to individuate objects is one of our most fundamental cognitive capacities. Recent research has revealed that when objects vary in color or luminance alone, infants fail to individuate those objects until 11.5 months. However, color and luminance frequently covary in the natural environment, thus providing a more salient ...
Zmyj Norbert - - 2010
Human infants have an enormous amount to learn from others to become full-fledged members of their culture. Thus, it is important that they learn from reliable, rather than unreliable, models. In two experiments, we investigated whether 14-month-olds (a) imitate instrumental actions and (b) adopt the individual preferences of a model ...
Doi Hirokazu - - 2010
This study investigated whether the disengagement of attention from facial expression is modulated by gaze direction in infants. To this end, we measured the saccadic reaction time required for the 10-month-olds to disengage their attention from angry and happy expressions combined with either straight or averted gaze. The 10-month-olds' disengagement ...
Seehagen Sabine - - 2010
An imitation procedure was used to investigate the impact of demonstrator familiarity and language cues on infant learning from television. Eighteen-month-old infants watched two pre-recorded videos showing an adult demonstrating a sequence of actions with two sets of stimuli. Infants' familiarity with the demonstrator and the language used during the ...
Warlaumont Anne S AS School of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, 807 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. - - 2010
Acoustic analysis of infant vocalizations has typically employed traditional acoustic measures drawn from adult speech acoustics, such as f(0), duration, formant frequencies, amplitude, and pitch perturbation. Here an alternative and complementary method is proposed in which data-derived spectrographic features are central. 1-s-long spectrograms of vocalizations produced by six infants recorded ...
Hochmann Jean-Rémy - - 2010
While content words (e.g., 'dog') tend to carry meaning, function words (e.g., 'the') mainly serve syntactic purposes. Here, we ask whether 17-month old infants can use one language-universal cue to identify function word candidates: their high frequency of occurrence. In Experiment 1, infants listened to a series of short, naturally ...
de Hevia Maria Dolores - - 2010
Mature representations of number are built on a core system of numerical representation that connects to spatial representations in the form of a mental number line. The core number system is functional in early infancy, but little is known about the origins of the mapping of numbers onto space. In ...
Jadva Vasanti - - 2010
Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, ...
Zentner Marcel - - 2010
Humans have a unique ability to coordinate their motor movements to an external auditory stimulus, as in music-induced foot tapping or dancing. This behavior currently engages the attention of scholars across a number of disciplines. However, very little is known about its earliest manifestations. The aim of the current research ...
McColgan Kerry E - - 2010
Adult-directed conversational speech (ADS) is characterized by a high level of acoustic imprecision which should theoretically cause problems for infant language learning. Whether infant-directed speech (IDS) is clearer than ADS is disputed. However, differences in prosody [Fernald (1989)], utterance length [Cooper (1997)], and acoustic features [Bernstein Ratner (1984) and Malsheen ...
Vouloumanos Athena - - 2010
Human neonates prefer listening to speech compared to many nonspeech sounds, suggesting that humans are born with a bias for speech. However, neonates' preference may derive from properties of speech that are not unique but instead are shared with the vocalizations of other species. To test this, thirty neonates and ...
Hunnius Sabine - - 2010
This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a ...
Synnestvedt Anna - - 2010
Studies have reported differences between infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS), suggesting that mothers adjust speech to their infants in ways that may help children better parse the incoming acoustical signal. One aspect of IDS that has been examined is voice onset time (VOT). Results have been inconsistent, revealing ...
Petito Andi C - - 2010
Since the 1980s, research investigating the beneficial effects of exposure to maternal voice has been steadily increasing. This has been accomplished by playing back recordings of maternal voice to the preterm infants. It is not known, however, how variations in the typical NICU setting alter the sound quality of the ...
Moon Christine - - 2010
The prevailing view is that newborn phonetic perception is tabula rasa because of poor transmission of the acoustic features of phonemes to the fetus. However, vowel information may be at least intermittently clear in utero. We tested 80 neonates (M = 32.8 h old, range 7-75) in the US and ...
Bertoncini Josiane - - 2010
Several studies indicate that profoundly deaf children receiving a cochlear implant (CI) under the age of 2 years are able to develop linguistic skills at a rate equal to similarly aged children with normal hearing. CI devices deliver temporal-envelope (E) cues in speech over a small number of frequency channels. ...
McCammon Jenesia - - 2010
Adult-directed speech (ADS) is characterized by frequent use of phonological rules such as palatalization ("did you" becomes "didju"). Use of such rules should blur word boundaries, making it more difficult for infants to identify words in the input. To date, there are conflicting data on the degree to which infant-directed ...
Zhang Yang - - 2010
Speech scientists have long proposed that formant-exaggerated speech plays an important role in phonetic learning and language acquisition. However, there have been very little neurophysiological data on how the infant brain and adult brain respond to formant exaggeration in speech. We employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate neural coding of ...
Kimmerle Marliese - - 2010
Role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) is a complementary movement of both hands that requires differentiation between actions of the hands. Previous research showed that RDBM can be observed in infants as early as 7 months. However, RDBM could be considered a skill only when its frequency, duration, and use is appropriate ...
Franklin Anna - - 2010
Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ('blue-yellow') and L-M ('red-green') cone-opponent contrast channels (Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in 4-5-month-olds may be ...
Newman Rochelle S - - 2010
Adults experience a release of masking when the amplitude level of a masker varies [Festen and Plomp (1990) and Wilson and Carhart (1969)], especially when the variation occurs in a slow, predictable manner [Gustafsson and Arlinger (1994)]. This pattern of performance has been described as "listening in the dips" of ...
Ferry Alissa L - - 2010
Neonates prefer human speech to other nonlinguistic auditory stimuli. However, it remains an open question whether there are any conceptual consequences of words on object categorization in infants younger than 6 months. The current study examined the influence of words and tones on object categorization in forty-six 3- to 4-month-old ...
Shinskey Jeanne L JL Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK. - - 2010
Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations perspective on ...
Southgate Victoria - - 2010
Despite much research demonstrating infants' abilities to attribute goals to others' actions, it is unclear whether infants can generate on-line predictions about action outcomes, an ability crucial for the human propensity to cooperate and collaborate with others. This lack of evidence is mainly due to methodological limitations restricting the interpretation ...
Bortfeld Heather - - 2010
In a series of studies, we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants' recognition of words in fluent speech. We first collected samples of mothers' infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. ...
Scott Lisa S - - 2010
The ability to recognize the difference among faces of another race or species declines from 6 to 9 months of age. During this time, perceptual biases are formed, leading to lasting deficits in recognizing individuals of other races and species. However, little is known about how early infant experience shapes ...
Gerken LouAnn - - 2010
Previous work demonstrated that 9-month-olds who were familiarized with 3-syllable strings consistent with both a broader (AAB or ABA) and narrower (AAdi or AdiA) generalization made only the latter. Because the narrower generalization is a subset of the broader one, any example that is consistent with the broader generalization but ...
Yoshida Katherine A - - 2010
Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and English-learning infants of 5-6 and 7-8 months ...
Yang Dahe - - 2010
Five experiments were conducted to investigate infants' ability to transfer actions learned via imitation to new objects and to examine what components of the original context are critical to such transfer. Infants of 15 months observed an experimenter perform an action with one or two toys and then were offered ...
Richards John E - - 2010
The development of attention in the infant can be characterized by changes in overall arousal (attentiveness) and by changes in attention's effect on specific cognitive processes (e.g., stimulus orienting, spatial selection, recognition memory). These attention systems can be identified using behavioral and psychophysiological methods. The development of infant attention is ...
Kim Geunyoung G Hallym University, Gangwon-Do 200-702, Republic of Korea. - - 2010
Studies of infant social referencing have indicated that infants might be more influenced by vocal information contained in emotional messages than by facial expression, especially during fearful message conditions. The present study investigated the characteristics of emotional channels that parents used during social referencing, and corresponding infants' behavioral changes. Results ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2010
The process by which two people share attention towards the same object or event is called joint attention. Joint attention and the underlying triadic representations between self, other person and object are thought to be unique to humans, supporting teaching, cooperation and language learning. Despite the progress that has been ...
Yoshino Daisuke - - 2010
This study examined the perception of the rotating Kanizsa square by using a fixed-trial familiarization method. If the Kanizsa square is rotated across the pacmen, adult observers perceive not only a rotating illusory square, but also an illusory expansion/contraction motion of this square. The phenomenon is called a "rotational dynamic ...
Mento Giovanni - - 2010
In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging has allowed researchers to individuate the earlier morphological development of the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere during late-gestational development. Anatomical asymmetry, however, does not necessarily mean functional asymmetry, and whether the anatomical differences between hemispheres at this early age are paralleled by ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2010
In this study, we examined the nature of infants' representations of newly encountered word forms. Using a word-object association task, we taught 14-month-olds novel three-syllable words differing in segments and stress patterns. At test, we manipulated the stress pattern of the word or the position of the stressed syllable in ...
Lany Jill J Department of Psychology and Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA. - - 2010
Infants are highly sensitive to statistical patterns in their auditory language input that mark word categories (e.g., noun and verb). However, it is unknown whether experience with these cues facilitates the acquisition of semantic properties of word categories. In a study testing this hypothesis, infants first listened to an artificial ...
Cecchi F - - 2010
The study and measurement of grasping actions and forces in humans is important in a variety of contexts. In infants, it can give insights on the typical and atypical motor development, while it poses functional and operative requirements that are not fully matched by current sensing technology. Novel approaches for ...
Fagard Jacqueline - - 2010
By the end of the first year, infants show dramatic increases in manual skill. In this study we tested one factor likely to contribute to this change: an increase in the capacity for observational learning, which may enable infants to learn new behaviors and practice ones that they already possess. ...
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