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Woods Rebecca J - - 2010
Infants' ability to represent objects has received significant attention from the developmental research community. With the advent of eye-tracking technology, detailed analysis of infants' looking patterns during object occlusion have revealed much about the nature of infants' representations. The current study continues this research by analyzing infants' looking patterns in ...
Gliga Teodora T Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, UK. - - 2010
Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz) oscillatory activity over the visual cortex ...
Mather Emily E Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. - - 2011
Studies report that infants as young as 1 ; 3 to 1 ; 5 will seek out a novel object in response to hearing a novel label (e.g. Halberda, 2003; Markman, Wasow & Hansen, 2003). This behaviour is commonly known as the 'mutual exclusivity' response (Markman, 1989; 1990). However, evidence ...
Gredebäck Gustaf - - 2010
Two- to 8-month-old infants interacted with their mother or a stranger in a prospective longitudinal gaze following study. Gaze following, as assessed by eye tracking, emerged between 2 and 4 months and stabilized between 6 and 8 months of age. Overall, infants followed the gaze of a stranger more than ...
Sato Yutaka - - 2010
Infants' speech perception abilities change through the first year of life, from broad sensitivity to a wide range of speech contrasts to becoming more finely attuned to their native language. What remains unclear, however, is how this perceptual change relates to brain responses to native language contrasts in terms of ...
Turati Chiara - - 2010
Holistic face processing was investigated in newborns, 3-month-old infants, and adults through a modified version of the composite face paradigm and the recording of eye movements. After familiarization to the top portion of a face, participants (N = 70) were shown 2 aligned or misaligned faces, 1 of which comprised ...
Moriceau Stephanie - - 2010
Here we review the neurobiology of infant odor learning in rats, and discuss the unique role of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in the learning necessary for the developing rat. During the first 9 postnatal (PN) days, infants readily learn odor preferences, while aversion and fear learning are attenuated. Such ...
Southgate Victoria - - 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated infants' pragmatic abilities for resolving the referential ambiguity of non-verbal communicative gestures, and for inferring the intended meaning of a communicator's utterances. These abilities are difficult to reconcile with the view that it is not until around 4 years that children can reason about the internal ...
Libertus Melissa E - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination ...
van Wermeskerken Margot - - 2011
The present study examined 7- to 11-month-old infants' anticipatory and reactive reaching for temporarily occluded objects. Infants were presented with laterally approaching objects that moved at different velocities (10, 20, and 40cm/s) in different occlusion situations (no-, 20cm-, and 40cm-occlusion), resulting in occlusion durations ranging between 0 and 4s. Results ...
Kondaurova Maria V - - 2011
The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), ...
Slater Alan M - - 2010
After a brief familiarization period to either one or two toys 5-month-olds gave a clear preference for perceptually novel displays, suggesting that replicable findings of greater looking at an unexpected arithmetic outcome in addition/subtraction experiments cannot easily be attributed to simple familiarity preferences.
Hämäläinen Jarmo A - - 2011
Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to understand how the brain processes auditory input, and to track developmental change in sensory systems. Localizing ERP generators can provide invaluable insights into how and where auditory information is processed. However, age-appropriate infant brain templates have not been available to aid such ...
Paul Rhea R Yale Child Study Center, USA Southern Connecticut State University, USA. - - 2011
Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at higher risk for acquiring these disorders than the general population. Language development is usually delayed in children with ASD. The present study examines the development of pre-speech vocal behavior in infants at risk for ASD due to the presence ...
Garcia-Sierra Adrian - - 2010
The goal of this investigation was to compare speech discrimination in 11-14-month-old infants who are being raised in either monolingual English (N=22) or bilingual Spanish-English (N= 22) homes. The participants' neural activity associated with the ability to discriminate English, Spanish, and Mandarin Chinese consonants was assessed using event related potentials ...
Kondaurova Maria V - - 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated that mothers exaggerate phonetic properties of infant-directed (ID) speech. However, these studies focused on a single acoustic dimension, i.e., frequency, whereas speech sounds are composed of multiple acoustic cues. Moreover, little is known how mothers adjust phonetic properties of speech to children with hearing loss. This ...
Cristià Alejandrina - - 2010
The goal of the present research was to develop an easy-to-use PRAAT script yielding robust measurements of acoustic correlates of vowel quality and vowel nasality. Several algorithms were scripted in PRAAT and evaluated on two corpora. The first was the Hillenbrand corpus, containing ∕hVd∕ words in isolation, spoken by 50 ...
Kishon-Rabin Liat - - 2010
The goal of this study was to investigate the preference for the native language compared with an unfamiliar language in normally hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired infants with cochlear implants (CIs). Preference for the native language is an important step in the process of language acquisition because it helps infants to ...
Ramirez-Esparza Nairan - - 2010
This investigation explores how everyday social communication between parents and infants relates to speech development. This goal is accomplished by using the digital recorder LENA that monolingual (N=11) and Spanish-English bilingual (N=10) 14-month-old infants wore for 4 days. Infants' sample files (i.e., 160, 30-s intervals per infant) were coded according ...
Egorova Natalia - - 2010
A wealth of behavioral research suggests that infants become increasingly specialized in their native dialect∕language in infancy. In contrast, few studies document how this early specialization is reflected in neural activation, most of which have compared familiar and unfamiliar languages, and none focused on different dialects. This study aimed to ...
Yang Jie - - 2010
Davis and MacNeilage (1995) reported contextual influences on infants' segmental production in which vowel production preference and error were strongly influenced by word level contexts. However, few studies have addressed the issue of contextual influences on supra-segmental production in pre-linguistic periods of acquisition. The present study investigated the influence of ...
Futó Judit - - 2010
Human infants grow up in environments populated by artifacts. In order to acquire knowledge about different kinds of human-made objects, children have to be able to focus on the information that is most relevant for sorting artifacts into categories. Traditional theories emphasize the role of superficial, perceptual features in object ...
Cristià Alejandrina - - 2010
Many models of infant category learning attribute a crucial role to distributions of acoustic cues. Unfortunately, most of the evidence in favor of this hypothesis is indirect (e.g., infants take longer to learn contrasts with overlapping acoustic cue distributions) and the more direct evidence, from laboratory training studies, is not ...
Werner Lynne A - - 2010
Wideband acoustic transfer functions (WATF) measured in the ear canal have been shown to be effective in the diagnosis of middle ear dysfunction in adults and in newborn infants. Although these measures would be diagnostically useful in older infants, normative data on a large number of older infants are lacking. ...
Hendrickson Kristi - - 2010
Previous research has shown that 14-month-olds are able to form arbitrary word-object associations. [Werker et al. 1998).] However, merely associating words and objects is insufficient for the higher level concept that words "stand for" objects. In order to investigate at what age referential understanding emerges, we tested 14- and 17-month-olds ...
Messinger Daniel M DM University of Miami, United States. - - 2010
The face-to-face interactions of infants and their parents are a model system in which critical communicative abilities emerge. We apply machine learning methods to explore the predictability of infant and mother behavior during interaction with an eye to understanding the preconditions of infant intentionality. Overall, developmental changes were most evident ...
Nakato Emi - - 2011
Recognition of other people's facial expressions of emotion plays an important role in social communication in infants as well as adults. Evidence from behavioral studies has demonstrated that the ability to recognize facial expressions develops by 6 to 7 months of age. Although the regions of the infant brain involved ...
Meltzoff Andrew N - - 2010
Gaze following is a key component of human social cognition. Gaze following directs attention to areas of high information value and accelerates social, causal, and cultural learning. An issue for both robotic and infant learning is whose gaze to follow. The hypothesis tested in this study is that infants use ...
Libertus Klaus K Psychology & Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. - - 2010
Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants' own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received ...
Rugani Rosa - - 2010
Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices ...
Johansen Jørgen Dines - - 2010
In this article it is argued that feelings are all important to the function of literature. In contradiction to music that is concerned with the inwardness of humankind, literature has, because of language, the capacity to create fictional worlds that in many respects are similar to and related to the ...
Denison Stephanie - - 2010
Previous research has revealed that infants can reason correctly about single-event probabilities with small but not large set sizes (Bonatti, 2008; Teglas et al., 2007). The current study asks whether infants can make predictions regarding single-event probability with large set sizes using a novel procedure. Infants completed two trials: A ...
Muentener Paul P Department of Psychology, William James Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States. - - 2010
Five experiments extended studies of infants' causal representations of Michottian launching events to 8-month-olds' causal representations of physical state changes. Infants were habituated to events in which a potential causal agent moved behind a screen, after which a box partially visible on the other side of the screen underwent some ...
Coquerelle Michael - - 2010
Comparison of the early development of the mandibular symphysis between primates and modern humans is of particular interest in human palaeontology. Using geometric morphometric methods, we explored and compared the ontogenetic shape changes of 14 chimpanzee mandibles (Pan troglodytes) against 66 human CT-scanned mandibles over the age range from fetal ...
Esseily R - - 2010
Observational learning was studied in 8-, 10-, 12-, 15- and 18-month-old infants. Using object-retrieval tasks of relatively comparable difficulty for each age group, we showed that between 10 and 12 months there is a change in the capacity to learn a new skill by observation.
Berthier Neil E - - 2010
It has been suggested that the onset of successful reaching in infants is mediated by the onset of an ability to use sight of the hand to make corrective reaches. However, removing vision of the hand in infants younger than 6 months has not been shown to have an effect ...
Wilcox Teresa T Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. - - 2010
There is evidence that infants as young as 4.5 months use property-rich but not property-poor sounds as the basis for individuating objects (Wilcox, Woods, Tuggy, & Napoli, 2006). The current research sought to identify the age at which infants demonstrate the capacity to use property-poor sounds. Using the task of ...
Green Jordan R JR Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 318 Barkley Center, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA. - - 2010
Although a growing body of literature has identified the positive effects of visual speech on speech and language learning, oral movements of infant-directed speech (IDS) have rarely been studied. This investigation used 3-dimensional motion capture technology to describe how mothers modify their lip movements when talking to their infants. Lip ...
Matsuda Yoshi-Taka - - 2011
Adults typically address infants in a special speech mode called infant-directed speech (IDS). IDS is characterized by a special prosody (i.e., higher pitched, slower and hyperarticulated) and a special lexicon ("baby talk"). Here we investigated which areas of the adult brain are involved in processing IDS, which aspects of IDS ...
Hespos Susan J - - 2010
In two experiments, we examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. The primary question was whether action segments consisting of an event (e.g., occlusion, containment) are more salient than action segments consisting of a transition (e.g., bounce, slide). In Experiment 1, infants ...
Grossberg Stephen S Center for Adaptive Systems, Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, Boston University, 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, United States. - - 2010
How does an infant learn through visual experience to imitate actions of adult teachers, despite the fact that the infant and adult view one another and the world from different perspectives? To accomplish this, an infant needs to learn how to share joint attention with adult teachers and to follow ...
Choudhury Naseem - - 2011
To investigate the maturation of long-latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEP) from 6 to 48months in infants with a family history of language impairment (FH+) and control infants (FH-). LLAEPs of seventeen FH+ infants were compared to 28 FH- infants at 6, 9, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48months. Participants received ...
Cacchione Trix - - 2010
Recent research suggests that witnessing events of fission (e.g., the splitting of a solid object) impairs human infants', human adults', and non-human primates' object representations. The present studies investigated the reactions of gorillas and orangutans to cohesion violation across different types of fission events implementing a behavioral paradigm previously used ...
Koenig Jeremy E - - 2011
The colonization process of the infant gut microbiome has been called chaotic, but this view could reflect insufficient documentation of the factors affecting the microbiome. We performed a 2.5-y case study of the assembly of the human infant gut microbiome, to relate life events to microbiome composition and function. Sixty ...
Wilcox Teresa T Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. - - 2010
A great deal is known about the development of visual object processing capacities and the neural structures that mediate these capacities in the mature observer. In contrast, little is known about the neural structures that mediate these capacities in the infant or how these structures eventually give rise to mature ...
Morange-Majoux Francoise - - 2011
In infants the developmental course of haptic perception is constrained by the development of attention to object properties and of the ability to execute various movements with the hands. The purpose of this study is to consider how infants, aged 4 to 6 months, become able to use their hands ...
Chien Sarina Hui-Lin - - 2010
Simion, Valenza, Macchi Cassia, Turati, and Umiltà (2002) suggested that newborns preferred "top-heavy" stimuli and such bias may account for neonatal face preference. However, convergent evidence for the discriminability between the top-heavy versus bottom-heavy patterns has not been demonstrated. We used a modified familiarization/novelty procedure (Chien, Palmer, & Teller, 2003) ...
Marshall-Pescini S - - 2010
Topál et al. (Reports, 4 September 2009, p. 1269) showed that dogs, like infants but unlike wolves, make perseverative search errors that can be explained by the use of ostensive cues from the experimenter. We suggest that a simpler learning process, local enhancement, can account for errors made by dogs.
Ferre Claudio L - - 2010
Handedness is a developmental phenomenon that becomes distinctively identifiable during infancy. Although infant hand-use preferences sometimes have been reported as unstable, other evidence demonstrates that infant hand-use preference for apprehending objects can be reliably assessed during the second half of the infant's first year of life. The current study provides ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2011
ABSTRACTLexical stress is useful for a number of language learning tasks. In particular, it helps infants segment the speech stream and identify phonetic contrasts. Recent work has demonstrated that infants aged 1 ; 0 can learn two novel words differing only in their stress pattern. In the current study, we ...
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