Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 1584
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
van Wermeskerken Margot - - 2011
The present study examined 7- to 11-month-old infants' anticipatory and reactive reaching for temporarily occluded objects. Infants were presented with laterally approaching objects that moved at different velocities (10, 20, and 40cm/s) in different occlusion situations (no-, 20cm-, and 40cm-occlusion), resulting in occlusion durations ranging between 0 and 4s. Results ...
Kondaurova Maria V - - 2011
The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), ...
Slater Alan M - - 2010
After a brief familiarization period to either one or two toys 5-month-olds gave a clear preference for perceptually novel displays, suggesting that replicable findings of greater looking at an unexpected arithmetic outcome in addition/subtraction experiments cannot easily be attributed to simple familiarity preferences.
Hämäläinen Jarmo A - - 2011
Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to understand how the brain processes auditory input, and to track developmental change in sensory systems. Localizing ERP generators can provide invaluable insights into how and where auditory information is processed. However, age-appropriate infant brain templates have not been available to aid such ...
Paul Rhea R Yale Child Study Center, USA Southern Connecticut State University, USA. - - 2011
Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at higher risk for acquiring these disorders than the general population. Language development is usually delayed in children with ASD. The present study examines the development of pre-speech vocal behavior in infants at risk for ASD due to the presence ...
Garcia-Sierra Adrian - - 2010
The goal of this investigation was to compare speech discrimination in 11-14-month-old infants who are being raised in either monolingual English (N=22) or bilingual Spanish-English (N= 22) homes. The participants' neural activity associated with the ability to discriminate English, Spanish, and Mandarin Chinese consonants was assessed using event related potentials ...
Kondaurova Maria V - - 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated that mothers exaggerate phonetic properties of infant-directed (ID) speech. However, these studies focused on a single acoustic dimension, i.e., frequency, whereas speech sounds are composed of multiple acoustic cues. Moreover, little is known how mothers adjust phonetic properties of speech to children with hearing loss. This ...
Cristià Alejandrina - - 2010
The goal of the present research was to develop an easy-to-use PRAAT script yielding robust measurements of acoustic correlates of vowel quality and vowel nasality. Several algorithms were scripted in PRAAT and evaluated on two corpora. The first was the Hillenbrand corpus, containing ∕hVd∕ words in isolation, spoken by 50 ...
Kishon-Rabin Liat - - 2010
The goal of this study was to investigate the preference for the native language compared with an unfamiliar language in normally hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired infants with cochlear implants (CIs). Preference for the native language is an important step in the process of language acquisition because it helps infants to ...
Ramirez-Esparza Nairan - - 2010
This investigation explores how everyday social communication between parents and infants relates to speech development. This goal is accomplished by using the digital recorder LENA that monolingual (N=11) and Spanish-English bilingual (N=10) 14-month-old infants wore for 4 days. Infants' sample files (i.e., 160, 30-s intervals per infant) were coded according ...
Egorova Natalia - - 2010
A wealth of behavioral research suggests that infants become increasingly specialized in their native dialect∕language in infancy. In contrast, few studies document how this early specialization is reflected in neural activation, most of which have compared familiar and unfamiliar languages, and none focused on different dialects. This study aimed to ...
Yang Jie - - 2010
Davis and MacNeilage (1995) reported contextual influences on infants' segmental production in which vowel production preference and error were strongly influenced by word level contexts. However, few studies have addressed the issue of contextual influences on supra-segmental production in pre-linguistic periods of acquisition. The present study investigated the influence of ...
Futó Judit - - 2010
Human infants grow up in environments populated by artifacts. In order to acquire knowledge about different kinds of human-made objects, children have to be able to focus on the information that is most relevant for sorting artifacts into categories. Traditional theories emphasize the role of superficial, perceptual features in object ...
Cristià Alejandrina - - 2010
Many models of infant category learning attribute a crucial role to distributions of acoustic cues. Unfortunately, most of the evidence in favor of this hypothesis is indirect (e.g., infants take longer to learn contrasts with overlapping acoustic cue distributions) and the more direct evidence, from laboratory training studies, is not ...
Werner Lynne A - - 2010
Wideband acoustic transfer functions (WATF) measured in the ear canal have been shown to be effective in the diagnosis of middle ear dysfunction in adults and in newborn infants. Although these measures would be diagnostically useful in older infants, normative data on a large number of older infants are lacking. ...
Hendrickson Kristi - - 2010
Previous research has shown that 14-month-olds are able to form arbitrary word-object associations. [Werker et al. 1998).] However, merely associating words and objects is insufficient for the higher level concept that words "stand for" objects. In order to investigate at what age referential understanding emerges, we tested 14- and 17-month-olds ...
Messinger Daniel M - - 2010
The face-to-face interactions of infants and their parents are a model system in which critical communicative abilities emerge. We apply machine learning methods to explore the predictability of infant and mother behavior during interaction with an eye to understanding the preconditions of infant intentionality. Overall, developmental changes were most evident ...
Nakato Emi - - 2011
Recognition of other people's facial expressions of emotion plays an important role in social communication in infants as well as adults. Evidence from behavioral studies has demonstrated that the ability to recognize facial expressions develops by 6 to 7 months of age. Although the regions of the infant brain involved ...
Meltzoff Andrew N - - 2010
Gaze following is a key component of human social cognition. Gaze following directs attention to areas of high information value and accelerates social, causal, and cultural learning. An issue for both robotic and infant learning is whose gaze to follow. The hypothesis tested in this study is that infants use ...
Libertus Klaus - - 2010
Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants' own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received ...
Rugani Rosa - - 2010
Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices ...
Johansen Jørgen Dines - - 2010
In this article it is argued that feelings are all important to the function of literature. In contradiction to music that is concerned with the inwardness of humankind, literature has, because of language, the capacity to create fictional worlds that in many respects are similar to and related to the ...
Denison Stephanie - - 2010
Previous research has revealed that infants can reason correctly about single-event probabilities with small but not large set sizes (Bonatti, 2008; Teglas et al., 2007). The current study asks whether infants can make predictions regarding single-event probability with large set sizes using a novel procedure. Infants completed two trials: A ...
Muentener Paul - - 2010
Five experiments extended studies of infants' causal representations of Michottian launching events to 8-month-olds' causal representations of physical state changes. Infants were habituated to events in which a potential causal agent moved behind a screen, after which a box partially visible on the other side of the screen underwent some ...
Coquerelle Michael - - 2010
Comparison of the early development of the mandibular symphysis between primates and modern humans is of particular interest in human palaeontology. Using geometric morphometric methods, we explored and compared the ontogenetic shape changes of 14 chimpanzee mandibles (Pan troglodytes) against 66 human CT-scanned mandibles over the age range from fetal ...
Esseily R - - 2010
Observational learning was studied in 8-, 10-, 12-, 15- and 18-month-old infants. Using object-retrieval tasks of relatively comparable difficulty for each age group, we showed that between 10 and 12 months there is a change in the capacity to learn a new skill by observation.
Berthier Neil E - - 2010
It has been suggested that the onset of successful reaching in infants is mediated by the onset of an ability to use sight of the hand to make corrective reaches. However, removing vision of the hand in infants younger than 6 months has not been shown to have an effect ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2010
There is evidence that infants as young as 4.5 months use property-rich but not property-poor sounds as the basis for individuating objects (Wilcox, Woods, Tuggy, & Napoli, 2006). The current research sought to identify the age at which infants demonstrate the capacity to use property-poor sounds. Using the task of ...
Green Jordan R - - 2010
Although a growing body of literature has identified the positive effects of visual speech on speech and language learning, oral movements of infant-directed speech (IDS) have rarely been studied. This investigation used 3-dimensional motion capture technology to describe how mothers modify their lip movements when talking to their infants. Lip ...
Matsuda Yoshi-Taka - - 2011
Adults typically address infants in a special speech mode called infant-directed speech (IDS). IDS is characterized by a special prosody (i.e., higher pitched, slower and hyperarticulated) and a special lexicon ("baby talk"). Here we investigated which areas of the adult brain are involved in processing IDS, which aspects of IDS ...
Hespos Susan J - - 2010
In two experiments, we examined 6- and 8-month-old infants' capacities to detect target actions in a continuous action sequence. The primary question was whether action segments consisting of an event (e.g., occlusion, containment) are more salient than action segments consisting of a transition (e.g., bounce, slide). In Experiment 1, infants ...
Grossberg Stephen S Center for Adaptive Systems, Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, Boston University, 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, United States. - - 2010
How does an infant learn through visual experience to imitate actions of adult teachers, despite the fact that the infant and adult view one another and the world from different perspectives? To accomplish this, an infant needs to learn how to share joint attention with adult teachers and to follow ...
Choudhury Naseem - - 2011
To investigate the maturation of long-latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEP) from 6 to 48months in infants with a family history of language impairment (FH+) and control infants (FH-). LLAEPs of seventeen FH+ infants were compared to 28 FH- infants at 6, 9, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48months. Participants received ...
Cacchione Trix - - 2010
Recent research suggests that witnessing events of fission (e.g., the splitting of a solid object) impairs human infants', human adults', and non-human primates' object representations. The present studies investigated the reactions of gorillas and orangutans to cohesion violation across different types of fission events implementing a behavioral paradigm previously used ...
Koenig Jeremy E - - 2011
The colonization process of the infant gut microbiome has been called chaotic, but this view could reflect insufficient documentation of the factors affecting the microbiome. We performed a 2.5-y case study of the assembly of the human infant gut microbiome, to relate life events to microbiome composition and function. Sixty ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2010
A great deal is known about the development of visual object processing capacities and the neural structures that mediate these capacities in the mature observer. In contrast, little is known about the neural structures that mediate these capacities in the infant or how these structures eventually give rise to mature ...
Morange-Majoux Francoise - - 2011
In infants the developmental course of haptic perception is constrained by the development of attention to object properties and of the ability to execute various movements with the hands. The purpose of this study is to consider how infants, aged 4 to 6 months, become able to use their hands ...
Chien Sarina Hui-Lin - - 2010
Simion, Valenza, Macchi Cassia, Turati, and Umiltà (2002) suggested that newborns preferred "top-heavy" stimuli and such bias may account for neonatal face preference. However, convergent evidence for the discriminability between the top-heavy versus bottom-heavy patterns has not been demonstrated. We used a modified familiarization/novelty procedure (Chien, Palmer, & Teller, 2003) ...
Marshall-Pescini S - - 2010
Topál et al. (Reports, 4 September 2009, p. 1269) showed that dogs, like infants but unlike wolves, make perseverative search errors that can be explained by the use of ostensive cues from the experimenter. We suggest that a simpler learning process, local enhancement, can account for errors made by dogs.
Ferre Claudio L - - 2010
Handedness is a developmental phenomenon that becomes distinctively identifiable during infancy. Although infant hand-use preferences sometimes have been reported as unstable, other evidence demonstrates that infant hand-use preference for apprehending objects can be reliably assessed during the second half of the infant's first year of life. The current study provides ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2011
ABSTRACTLexical stress is useful for a number of language learning tasks. In particular, it helps infants segment the speech stream and identify phonetic contrasts. Recent work has demonstrated that infants aged 1 ; 0 can learn two novel words differing only in their stress pattern. In the current study, we ...
Holmboe Karla K Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, London, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Atypical attention has been proposed as a marker of the broader autism phenotype. In the present study we investigated this and the related process of inhibitory control at the youngest possible age through the study of infant siblings of children with an autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD). Both attention and inhibition ...
Steeve Roger W - - 2010
Empirical gaps remain regarding infant mandibular kinematics observed during naturally occurring episodes of chewing and pre-linguistic vocalizations during the first 2-years of life. Vertical jaw displacement was measured from a typically developing infant from 8 to 22 months. Infant jaw kinematics was measured for vowel babble, non-variegated and variegated babble, ...
Song Jae Yung - - 2010
A number of studies have examined the acoustic differences between infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech, suggesting that the exaggerated acoustic properties of IDS might facilitate infants' language development. However, there has been little empirical investigation of the acoustic properties that infants use for word learning. The goal of this ...
Scola Céline - - 2010
Studies have revealed a preference for the left hemibody in infant holding in 65-85% of cases. Several investigations have linked this preference to maternal asymmetries. The main goal of the present study was to assess manual and hemispheric asymmetries in both mother and child and delineate their respective influence on ...
Cristià Alejandrina - - 2010
The hypothesis that vocalic categories are enhanced in infant-directed speech (IDS) has received a great deal of attention and support. In contrast, work focusing on the acoustic implementation of consonantal categories has been scarce, and positive, negative, and null results have been reported. However, interpreting this mixed evidence is complicated ...
Palomares Melanie - - 2010
Glass patterns are moirés created from a sparse random-dot field paired with its spatially shifted copy. Because discrimination of these patterns is not based on local features, they have been used extensively to study global integration processes. Here, we investigated whether 4- to 5.5-month-old infants are sensitive to the global ...
Anzures Gizelle - - 2010
The present study examined whether 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants could categorize faces according to race. In Experiment 1, infants were familiarized with different female faces from a common ethnic background (i.e. either Caucasian or Asian) and then tested with female faces from a novel race category. Nine-month-olds were able ...
Addyman Caspar - - 2010
Very few experiments have studied the two item same/different relation in young human infants. This contrasts with an extensive animal literature. We tested young infants with two novel tasks designed specifically to provide convergent comparative measures. Each infant completed both tasks allowing an assessment of their understanding of the abstract ...
Picozzi Marta - - 2010
Previous evidence has shown that 11-month-olds represent ordinal relations between purely numerical values, whereas younger infants require a confluence of numerical and non-numerical cues. In this study, we show that when multiple featural cues (i.e., color and shape) are provided, 7-month-olds detect reversals in the ordinal direction of numerical sequences ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >