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Results 551 - 600 of 1581
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Repacholi Betty M - - 2007
Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. ...
Boyes Alice D - - 2007
Meta-awareness of bias in intimate partner judgments was investigated in 3 studies. In Study 1, participants rated fictional partners in happier relationships as more positively biased in their partner perceptions. In Study 2, participants thought their judgments of their own current partners were positively biased and that they were judged ...
De Groote Isabel - - 2007
The influence of affective expression on gaze following was investigated in 3-, 6- and 9-month-old infants. Gaze following became more robust at the older ages. There was no strong evidence that infants' gaze following activity was differentially influenced by the adult's affective expression, but rather for a developmental difference in ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2007
This investigation examined whether infants display boundary extension-a tendency to remember more of a visual scene than was presented. Three- to 7-month-olds were familiarized with a photograph of a visual scene, and tested with wide-angle versus close-up views of the scene. Infants preferred the close-up, indicating that they perceived the ...
Kelly David J - - 2007
A visual preference procedure was used to examine preferences among faces of different ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern) in Chinese 3-month-old infants exposed only to Chinese faces. The infants demonstrated a preference for faces from their own ethnic group. Alongside previous results showing that Caucasian infants exposed only ...
Bertenthal Bennett I - - 2007
The perceived spatiotemporal continuity of objects depends on the way they appear and disappear as they move in the spatial layout. This study investigated whether infants' predictive tracking of a briefly occluded object is sensitive to the manner by which the object disappears and reappears. Five-, 7-, and 9-month-old infants ...
Berger Sarah E - - 2007
The traditional study of infant locomotion focuses on what movements look like at various points in development, and how infants acquire sufficient strength and balance to move. We describe a new view of locomotor development that focuses on infants' ability to adapt their locomotor decisions to variations in the environment ...
Donnot Julien - - 2007
Infant holding biases of 202 mothers were studied in four French maternity hospitals. The study collected laterality for holding in mother/child dyads as a means of testing the emotional hypothesis (Manning & Chamberlain, 1991). Maternal holding side preferences and handedness were collected through questionnaires. In addition, hemispheric specialization for perceiving ...
Mareschal Denis - - 2007
One hundred 18-month-olds were tested using sequential touching and following 4 different priming contexts using sets of toys that could be simultaneously categorized at either the basic or global level. An exact expression of the expected mean sequence length for arbitrary categories was derived as a function of the number ...
Fagan Mary K - - 2007
Although vocalization and mouthing are behaviors frequently performed by infants, little is known about the characteristics of vocalizations that occur with objects, hands, or fingers in infants' mouths. The purpose of this research was to investigate characteristics of vocalizations associated with mouthing in 6- to 9-month-old infants during play with ...
Gergely György - - 2007
Humans are adapted to spontaneously transfer relevant cultural knowledge to conspecifics and to fast-learn the contents of such teaching through a human-specific social learning system called 'pedagogy' (Csibra & Gergely, 2006). Pedagogical knowledge transfer is triggered by specific communicative cues (such as eye-contact, contingent reactivity, the prosodic pattern of 'motherese', ...
Messinger Daniel - - 2007
Infant smiles emerge even in the absence of visual feedback, but their interactive development and intensification appear to be dependent on experiences of visually mediated interaction. Although neonatal smiling has no clear emotional content, social smiling emerges out of attentive engagement with an interactive caregiver. This process illustrates the dynamic ...
Saxe Rebecca - - 2007
Preverbal infants can represent the causal structure of events, including distinguishing the agentive and receptive roles and categorizing entities according to stable causal dispositions. This study investigated how infants combine these 2 kinds of causal inference. In Experiments 1 and 2, 9.5-month-olds used the position of a human hand or ...
Matsuzawa Tetsuro - - 2007
This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of mother and ...
Rivera-Gaxiola Maritza - - 2007
We report a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the scalp distribution of the normalized peak amplitude values for speech-related auditory Event-related Potentials (ERP) P150-250 and N250-550 in 7-, 11-, and 20-month-old American infants learning English and in 10-13-month-old Mexican infants learning Spanish. After assessing the infant auditory ERP P-N complex ...
Lee Soyoung - - 2007
Korean-learning infant patterns in babbling and single words were compared with those of English-learning infants and with Korean adult-directed and infantdirected speech to evaluate the roles of intrinsic production constraints proposed by the frame dominance hypothesis versus early learning mechanisms based on input regularities. Intrasyllabic patterns in babbling of Korean-learning ...
De Marco Arianna - - 2007
Facial displays are important for communication, and their ontogeny has been studied primarily in chimpanzees and macaques. We investigated the ontogeny, communicative function and target of facial displays in Cebus apella. Our results show that facial displays are absent at birth and develop as infants grow older. Lip-smacking appears first ...
Simion Francesca - - 2007
The present chapter deals with the topic of the ontogeny and development of face processing in the first months of life and is organized into two sections concerning face detection and face recognition. The first section focuses on the mechanisms underlying infants' visual preference for faces. Evidence is reviewed supporting ...
Leppänen Jukka M - - 2007
To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear) and infants (P400 ...
Iverson Jana M - - 2007
This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually ...
Merin Noah - - 2007
Thirty-one infant siblings of children with autism and 24 comparison infants were tested at 6 months of age during social interaction with a caregiver, using a modified Still Face paradigm conducted via a closed-circuit TV-video system. In the Still Face paradigm, the mother interacts with the infant, then freezes and ...
Saffran Jenny R - - 2007
Human infants possess powerful learning mechanisms used for the acquisition of language. To what extent are these mechanisms domain specific? One well-known infant language learning mechanism is the ability to detect and generalize rule-like similarity patterns, such as ABA or ABB [Marcus, G. F., Vijayan, S., Rao, S. B., & ...
Nousek Anna E - - 2006
Northern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) live in highly stable groups and use group-specific vocal signals, but individual variation in calls has not been described previously. A towed beam-forming array was used to ascribe stereotyped pulsed calls with two independently modulated frequency contours to visually identified individual killer whales in ...
Cassel Tricia D - - 2007
Infants with older siblings with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD-sibs) are at risk for socioemotional difficulties. ASD-sibs were compared to infants with typically developing older siblings (TD-sibs) using the face-to-face/still-face (FFSF) at 6 months and the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS) at 8, 10, 12, 15, and/or 18 months. ASD-sibs smiled ...
Bard Kim A - - 2007
Primate species differ in their imitative performance, perhaps reflecting differences in imitative capacity. The developmentally earliest form of imitation in humans, neonatal imitation, occurs in early interactions with social partners, and may be a more accurate index of innate capacity than imitation of actions on objects, which requires more cognitive ...
Luo Yuyan - - 2007
The present research examined whether 12.5-month-old infants take into account what objects an agent knows to be present in a scene when interpreting the agent's actions. In two experiments, the infants watched a female human agent repeatedly reach for and grasp object-A as opposed to object-B on an apparatus floor. ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2007
Event-related brain potentials were measured in 7- and 12-month-old infants to examine the development of processing happy and angry facial expressions. In 7-month-olds a larger negativity to happy faces was observed at frontal, central, temporal and parietal sites (Experiment 1), whereas 12-month-olds showed a larger negativity to angry faces at ...
Fagard Jacqueline - - 2006
Only about 50% of infants appear to be right-handed in their first year, yet only 10-12% ultimately become left-handed. Several parameters may control early changes in handedness, and we investigated the role of imitation. We wanted to see if infants, when choosing the hand to manipulate an object, were influenced ...
Carvajal Fernando - - 2006
We address how adults perceive facial and vocal signs of emotions in infants with and without Down syndrome. A set of naturalistic data from infants with trisomy 21 and typically developing infants (joy expression of young infants, 3.8-4.4 months, and anger and neutral expressions of older infants, 6.8-12.8 months) was ...
Granrud Carl E - - 2006
This study tested whether 4-month-old infants respond primarily to objects' physical or retinal image sizes. In the study's main experiment, infants were habituated to either a 6-cm-diameter disk at a distance of 18 cm or a 10-cm disk at 50 cm. They were then given 2 test trials in which ...
Molina Michèle - - 2006
A recent research revealed the capacity of the newborn to haptically detect, the weight of an object [12]. In this research, we tried to determine the means by which newborn infants, not having yet exploratory procedures, are able to treat this object property. We support the assumption that tactile perceptive ...
Rochat Philippe - - 2007
Intentionality is defined as the cognitive ability to represent goals beyond the here and now of perception. First signs of intentionality appear by the second month after birth. A major mechanism responsible for such development might be the unique reciprocal and intentional ways humans communicate with each other, particularly their ...
Bhat A N - - 2007
Our recent work suggests that infants begin to change their hand and joint kinematics in the presence of a toy months before the onset of purposeful reaching. Moreover, these 'toy-oriented' changes in hand kinematics cluster into Early, Mid and Late phases. The purpose of the present study was to test ...
Hauf Petra - - 2008
There is increasing evidence that action effects play a crucial role in action understanding and action control not only in adults but also in infants. Most of the research in infants focused on the learning of action-effect contingencies or how action effects help infants to infer goals in other persons' ...
Song Hyun-joo - - 2007
The present research examined whether 9.5-month-old infants can attribute to an agent a disposition to perform a particular action on objects, and can then use this disposition to predict which of two new objects - one that can be used to perform the action and one that cannot - the ...
Legerstee Maria - - 2007
The influence of maternal affect attunement on the relationship between gaze monitoring during dyadic communication at 3 months and coordinated attention during triadic communication at 5, 7 and 10 months was examined in a longitudinal study. Although most infants engaged in gaze monitoring at 3 months and in coordinated attention ...
Horne Pamela - - 2006
The effect of a 2 g/kg glucose feed was compared with a water feed on retention of a spoken word in 2-4 days old infants in a between group randomized trial. Infants heard a word in 30-s trials until they demonstrated orientation (head turns towards the sound) and habituation. After ...
Younger Barbara A - - 2006
Previous research suggests that model competence does not emerge until relatively late in infancy (20-26 months). Development was systematically analyzed within 3 key areas--count noun learning, dual representation, and categorization-hypothesized to support the emergence of model competence in the second year. In an object-handling preferential looking task, 21- to 26-month-olds ...
Ellis Ann E - - 2006
A sequential-touching task was used to investigate whether 14-month-old infants can rapidly change how they categorize a set of objects, recognizing new groupings of objects they had previously categorized in a different way. When presented with a collection of objects that could be categorized by shape (balls vs. blocks) or ...
Volkova Anna - - 2006
We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened significantly ...
Seidl Amanda - - 2006
In a landmark study, Jusczyk and Aslin (1995) demonstrated that English-learning infants are able to segment words from continuous speech at 7.5 months of age. In the current study, we explored the possibility that infants segment words from the edges of utterances more readily than the middle of utterances. The ...
Brannon Elizabeth M - - 2006
This paper investigates the ability of infants to attend to continuous stimulus variables and how this capacity relates to the representation of number. We examined the change in area needed by 6-month-old infants to detect a difference in the size of a single element (Elmo face). Infants successfully discriminated a ...
Meltzoff Andrew N - - 2007
Infant imitation demonstrates that the perception and production of human action are closely linked by a 'supramodal' representation of action. This action representation unites observation and execution into a common framework, and it has far-reaching implications for the development of social cognition. It allows infants to see the behaviors of ...
Shionoya Kiseko - - 2006
Fetal and infant rats can learn to avoid odors paired with illness before development of brain areas supporting this learning in adults, suggesting an alternate learning circuit. Here we begin to document the transition from the infant to adult neural circuit underlying odor-malaise avoidance learning using LiCl (0.3 M; 1% ...
Elsner Birgit - - 2007
This paper reviews studies on infants' imitation of goal-directed actions in the first two years of life. Special emphasis is given to the role of the two observable components of an action, that is, the movement and the action effects, on infants' replication of target actions. The reviewed studies provide ...
Elsner Birgit - - 2007
To investigate what infants around their first birthday learn from observing an action sequence, 9- to 15-month-olds' imitative behavior was compared in three conditions: a demonstration group watched three target action steps and a final outcome, a control group observed only the third step and final outcome, and a baseline ...
Reid Vincent M VM Neurocognition and Development Group, Center for Advanced Studies, University of Leipzig, Germany. - - 2007
We investigated the neural correlates of the perception of human goal-directed action by 8-month-old infants. Infants viewed video loops of complete and incomplete actions, which they could discriminate according to our pilot study, while we recorded their electrophysiological brain activity. Analysis of bursts of gamma-band oscillations resulting from passive viewing ...
Fulkerson Anne L - - 2007
Recent studies reveal that naming has powerful conceptual consequences within the first year of life. Naming distinct objects with the same word highlights commonalities among the objects and promotes object categorization. In the present experiment, we pursued the origin of this link by examining the influence of words and tones ...
Bazhenova Olga V - - 2007
Physiological responses (i.e., EEG, heart period, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) were monitored in 5-month-old infants during the replacement of an adult's smiling (SF) with a blank face (BF) in a face-to-face setting. Affect, while the infant looked at and away from the adult's face during both conditions, was analyzed. Infants ...
Kajikawa Sachiyo - - 2006
This study explored sensitivity to word-level phonotactic patterns in English and Japanese monolingual infants. Infants at the ages of 6, 12, and 18 months were tested on their ability to discriminate between test words using a habituation-switch experimental paradigm. All of the test words, neek, neeks, and neekusu, are phonotactically ...
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