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Results 551 - 600 of 1592
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Shuwairi Sarah M - - 2007
Adults can use pictorial depth cues to infer three-dimensional structure in two-dimensional depictions of objects. The age at which infants respond to the same kinds of visual information has not been determined, and theories about the underlying developmental mechanisms remain controversial. In this study, we used a visual habituation/novelty-preference procedure ...
Ishizuka Kentaro - - 2007
This paper describes a longitudinal analysis of the vowel development of two Japanese infants in terms of spectral resonant peaks. This study aims to investigate when and how the two infants become able to produce categorically separated vowels, and covers the ages of 4 to 60 months in order to ...
Legerstee Maria - - 2007
In two studies, 3-, 6- and 9-month-old infants interacted with their mothers during natural, still-face, and modified still-face (i.e., mothers wearing a mask, or drinking from bottle) conditions. Infants were also presented with matching doll conditions to control for the possibility that their responses might be due to changes in ...
Hayden Angela - - 2007
Sensitivity to second-order relational information (i.e., spatial relations among features such as the distance between eyes) is a vital part of achieving expertise with face processing. Prior research is unclear on whether infants are sensitive to second-order differences seen in typical human populations. In the current experiments, we examined whether ...
Feigenson Lisa - - 2007
Do disparate dimensions of magnitude share an underlying mental representation? Two recent papers offer suggestive evidence that participants' discrimination thresholds are identical across domains. Brannon, Lutz and Cordes showed that six-month-old infants' area discriminations match their number discriminations. VanMarle and Wynn demonstrated the same pattern for six-month-olds' discrimination of temporal ...
Liszkowski Ulf - - 2007
There is currently controversy over the nature of 1-year-olds' social-cognitive understanding and motives. In this study we investigated whether 12-month-old infants point for others with an understanding of their knowledge states and with a prosocial motive for sharing experiences with them. Declarative pointing was elicited in four conditions created by ...
Ornkloo Helena - - 2007
The authors examined 14- to 26-month-old infants' understanding of the spatial relationships between objects and apertures in an object manipulation task. The task was to insert objects with various cross-sections (circular, square, rectangular, ellipsoid, and triangular) into fitting apertures. A successful solution required the infant to mentally rotate the object ...
Ganea Patricia A - - 2007
Do infants use past linguistic information to interpret an ambiguous request for an object? When infants in this research were shown 2 objects, and asked for 1 with an indefinite request (e.g., "Can you get it for me?"), both 15- and 18-month-olds used the speaker's previous reference to an absent ...
Moll Henrike - - 2007
Fourteen- and 18-month-old infants observed an adult experiencing each of 2 objects (experienced objects) and then leaving the room; the infant then played with a 3rd object while the adult was gone (unexperienced object). The adult interacted with the 2 experienced objects in 1 of 3 ways: by (a) sharing ...
Vouloumanos Athena - - 2007
The nature and origin of the human capacity for acquiring language is not yet fully understood. Here we uncover early roots of this capacity by demonstrating that humans are born with a preference for listening to speech. Human neonates adjusted their high amplitude sucking to preferentially listen to speech, compared ...
Herbert Jane - - 2007
In the present experiment, we used a deferred imitation paradigm to explore the effect of crawling on memory retrieval by 9-month-old human infants. Infants observed an experimenter demonstrate a single target action with a novel object and their ability to reproduce that action was assessed after a 24-hr delay. Some ...
Repacholi Betty M - - 2007
Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. ...
Boyes Alice D - - 2007
Meta-awareness of bias in intimate partner judgments was investigated in 3 studies. In Study 1, participants rated fictional partners in happier relationships as more positively biased in their partner perceptions. In Study 2, participants thought their judgments of their own current partners were positively biased and that they were judged ...
De Groote Isabel - - 2007
The influence of affective expression on gaze following was investigated in 3-, 6- and 9-month-old infants. Gaze following became more robust at the older ages. There was no strong evidence that infants' gaze following activity was differentially influenced by the adult's affective expression, but rather for a developmental difference in ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2007
This investigation examined whether infants display boundary extension-a tendency to remember more of a visual scene than was presented. Three- to 7-month-olds were familiarized with a photograph of a visual scene, and tested with wide-angle versus close-up views of the scene. Infants preferred the close-up, indicating that they perceived the ...
Kelly David J - - 2007
A visual preference procedure was used to examine preferences among faces of different ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern) in Chinese 3-month-old infants exposed only to Chinese faces. The infants demonstrated a preference for faces from their own ethnic group. Alongside previous results showing that Caucasian infants exposed only ...
Bertenthal Bennett I - - 2007
The perceived spatiotemporal continuity of objects depends on the way they appear and disappear as they move in the spatial layout. This study investigated whether infants' predictive tracking of a briefly occluded object is sensitive to the manner by which the object disappears and reappears. Five-, 7-, and 9-month-old infants ...
Berger Sarah E - - 2007
The traditional study of infant locomotion focuses on what movements look like at various points in development, and how infants acquire sufficient strength and balance to move. We describe a new view of locomotor development that focuses on infants' ability to adapt their locomotor decisions to variations in the environment ...
Donnot Julien - - 2007
Infant holding biases of 202 mothers were studied in four French maternity hospitals. The study collected laterality for holding in mother/child dyads as a means of testing the emotional hypothesis (Manning & Chamberlain, 1991). Maternal holding side preferences and handedness were collected through questionnaires. In addition, hemispheric specialization for perceiving ...
Mareschal Denis - - 2007
One hundred 18-month-olds were tested using sequential touching and following 4 different priming contexts using sets of toys that could be simultaneously categorized at either the basic or global level. An exact expression of the expected mean sequence length for arbitrary categories was derived as a function of the number ...
Fagan Mary K - - 2007
Although vocalization and mouthing are behaviors frequently performed by infants, little is known about the characteristics of vocalizations that occur with objects, hands, or fingers in infants' mouths. The purpose of this research was to investigate characteristics of vocalizations associated with mouthing in 6- to 9-month-old infants during play with ...
Gergely György - - 2007
Humans are adapted to spontaneously transfer relevant cultural knowledge to conspecifics and to fast-learn the contents of such teaching through a human-specific social learning system called 'pedagogy' (Csibra & Gergely, 2006). Pedagogical knowledge transfer is triggered by specific communicative cues (such as eye-contact, contingent reactivity, the prosodic pattern of 'motherese', ...
Messinger Daniel - - 2007
Infant smiles emerge even in the absence of visual feedback, but their interactive development and intensification appear to be dependent on experiences of visually mediated interaction. Although neonatal smiling has no clear emotional content, social smiling emerges out of attentive engagement with an interactive caregiver. This process illustrates the dynamic ...
Saxe Rebecca - - 2007
Preverbal infants can represent the causal structure of events, including distinguishing the agentive and receptive roles and categorizing entities according to stable causal dispositions. This study investigated how infants combine these 2 kinds of causal inference. In Experiments 1 and 2, 9.5-month-olds used the position of a human hand or ...
Matsuzawa Tetsuro - - 2007
This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of mother and ...
Rivera-Gaxiola Maritza - - 2007
We report a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the scalp distribution of the normalized peak amplitude values for speech-related auditory Event-related Potentials (ERP) P150-250 and N250-550 in 7-, 11-, and 20-month-old American infants learning English and in 10-13-month-old Mexican infants learning Spanish. After assessing the infant auditory ERP P-N complex ...
Lee Soyoung - - 2007
Korean-learning infant patterns in babbling and single words were compared with those of English-learning infants and with Korean adult-directed and infantdirected speech to evaluate the roles of intrinsic production constraints proposed by the frame dominance hypothesis versus early learning mechanisms based on input regularities. Intrasyllabic patterns in babbling of Korean-learning ...
De Marco Arianna - - 2007
Facial displays are important for communication, and their ontogeny has been studied primarily in chimpanzees and macaques. We investigated the ontogeny, communicative function and target of facial displays in Cebus apella. Our results show that facial displays are absent at birth and develop as infants grow older. Lip-smacking appears first ...
Simion Francesca - - 2007
The present chapter deals with the topic of the ontogeny and development of face processing in the first months of life and is organized into two sections concerning face detection and face recognition. The first section focuses on the mechanisms underlying infants' visual preference for faces. Evidence is reviewed supporting ...
Leppänen Jukka M JM Human Information Processing Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Tampere, Tampere, FIN-33014 Finland. - - 2007
To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear) and infants (P400 ...
Iverson Jana M JM Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 3415 Sennott Square, 210 S. Bouquet St. Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. - - 2007
This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually ...
Merin Noah N Neuroscience Graduate Group and School of Medicine, Class 2008, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2007
Thirty-one infant siblings of children with autism and 24 comparison infants were tested at 6 months of age during social interaction with a caregiver, using a modified Still Face paradigm conducted via a closed-circuit TV-video system. In the Still Face paradigm, the mother interacts with the infant, then freezes and ...
Saffran Jenny R JR Department of Psychology and Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. - - 2007
Human infants possess powerful learning mechanisms used for the acquisition of language. To what extent are these mechanisms domain specific? One well-known infant language learning mechanism is the ability to detect and generalize rule-like similarity patterns, such as ABA or ABB [Marcus, G. F., Vijayan, S., Rao, S. B., & ...
Nousek Anna E - - 2006
Northern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) live in highly stable groups and use group-specific vocal signals, but individual variation in calls has not been described previously. A towed beam-forming array was used to ascribe stereotyped pulsed calls with two independently modulated frequency contours to visually identified individual killer whales in ...
Cassel Tricia D - - 2007
Infants with older siblings with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD-sibs) are at risk for socioemotional difficulties. ASD-sibs were compared to infants with typically developing older siblings (TD-sibs) using the face-to-face/still-face (FFSF) at 6 months and the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS) at 8, 10, 12, 15, and/or 18 months. ASD-sibs smiled ...
Bard Kim A - - 2007
Primate species differ in their imitative performance, perhaps reflecting differences in imitative capacity. The developmentally earliest form of imitation in humans, neonatal imitation, occurs in early interactions with social partners, and may be a more accurate index of innate capacity than imitation of actions on objects, which requires more cognitive ...
Luo Yuyan Y University of Missouri at Columbia, 20 McAlester Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. - - 2007
The present research examined whether 12.5-month-old infants take into account what objects an agent knows to be present in a scene when interpreting the agent's actions. In two experiments, the infants watched a female human agent repeatedly reach for and grasp object-A as opposed to object-B on an apparatus floor. ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2007
Event-related brain potentials were measured in 7- and 12-month-old infants to examine the development of processing happy and angry facial expressions. In 7-month-olds a larger negativity to happy faces was observed at frontal, central, temporal and parietal sites (Experiment 1), whereas 12-month-olds showed a larger negativity to angry faces at ...
Fagard Jacqueline - - 2006
Only about 50% of infants appear to be right-handed in their first year, yet only 10-12% ultimately become left-handed. Several parameters may control early changes in handedness, and we investigated the role of imitation. We wanted to see if infants, when choosing the hand to manipulate an object, were influenced ...
Carvajal Fernando - - 2006
We address how adults perceive facial and vocal signs of emotions in infants with and without Down syndrome. A set of naturalistic data from infants with trisomy 21 and typically developing infants (joy expression of young infants, 3.8-4.4 months, and anger and neutral expressions of older infants, 6.8-12.8 months) was ...
Granrud Carl E - - 2006
This study tested whether 4-month-old infants respond primarily to objects' physical or retinal image sizes. In the study's main experiment, infants were habituated to either a 6-cm-diameter disk at a distance of 18 cm or a 10-cm disk at 50 cm. They were then given 2 test trials in which ...
Molina Michèle - - 2006
A recent research revealed the capacity of the newborn to haptically detect, the weight of an object [12]. In this research, we tried to determine the means by which newborn infants, not having yet exploratory procedures, are able to treat this object property. We support the assumption that tactile perceptive ...
Rochat Philippe - - 2007
Intentionality is defined as the cognitive ability to represent goals beyond the here and now of perception. First signs of intentionality appear by the second month after birth. A major mechanism responsible for such development might be the unique reciprocal and intentional ways humans communicate with each other, particularly their ...
Bhat A N - - 2007
Our recent work suggests that infants begin to change their hand and joint kinematics in the presence of a toy months before the onset of purposeful reaching. Moreover, these 'toy-oriented' changes in hand kinematics cluster into Early, Mid and Late phases. The purpose of the present study was to test ...
Hauf Petra - - 2008
There is increasing evidence that action effects play a crucial role in action understanding and action control not only in adults but also in infants. Most of the research in infants focused on the learning of action-effect contingencies or how action effects help infants to infer goals in other persons' ...
Song Hyun-joo - - 2007
The present research examined whether 9.5-month-old infants can attribute to an agent a disposition to perform a particular action on objects, and can then use this disposition to predict which of two new objects - one that can be used to perform the action and one that cannot - the ...
Legerstee Maria - - 2007
The influence of maternal affect attunement on the relationship between gaze monitoring during dyadic communication at 3 months and coordinated attention during triadic communication at 5, 7 and 10 months was examined in a longitudinal study. Although most infants engaged in gaze monitoring at 3 months and in coordinated attention ...
Horne Pamela - - 2006
The effect of a 2 g/kg glucose feed was compared with a water feed on retention of a spoken word in 2-4 days old infants in a between group randomized trial. Infants heard a word in 30-s trials until they demonstrated orientation (head turns towards the sound) and habituation. After ...
Younger Barbara A - - 2006
Previous research suggests that model competence does not emerge until relatively late in infancy (20-26 months). Development was systematically analyzed within 3 key areas--count noun learning, dual representation, and categorization-hypothesized to support the emergence of model competence in the second year. In an object-handling preferential looking task, 21- to 26-month-olds ...
Ellis Ann E - - 2006
A sequential-touching task was used to investigate whether 14-month-old infants can rapidly change how they categorize a set of objects, recognizing new groupings of objects they had previously categorized in a different way. When presented with a collection of objects that could be categorized by shape (balls vs. blocks) or ...
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