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Results 501 - 550 of 1592
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Hespos Susan J - - 2008
Violation-of-expectation (VOE) tasks have revealed substantial developments in young infants' knowledge about support events: by 5.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released against but not on a surface; and by 6.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released with 15% but not 100% of its ...
Graham Susan A - - 2007
The role of words and gestures in guiding infants' inductive inferences about nonobvious properties was examined. One hundred seventy-two 14-month-olds and 22-month-olds were presented with novel target objects followed by test objects that varied in similarity to the target. Objects were introduced with a novel word or a novel gesture ...
Mugitani Ryoko - - 2007
Japanese infants at the ages of 6, 12, and 18 months were tested on their ability to discriminate three nonsense words with different phonotactic status: canonical keetsu, noncanonical but possible keets, and noncanonical and impossible keet. The results showed that 12 and 18 months olds discriminate the keets/keetsu pair, but ...
Soderstrom Melanie - - 2007
Deviation of real speech from grammatical ideals due to disfluency and other speech errors presents potentially serious problems for the language learner. While infants may initially benefit from attending primarily or solely to infant-directed speech, which contains few grammatical errors, older infants may listen more to adult-directed speech. In a ...
Dewar Kathryn - - 2007
In 3 experiments, 9-month-old infants' expectations for what distinct count noun labels refer to were investigated. In Experiment 1, a box was opened to reveal 2 objects inside during familiarization: either 2 identical objects or 2 different objects. Test trials followed the same procedure, except before the box was opened, ...
Johnson Susan C - - 2007
The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns ...
Bremner J Gavin - - 2007
When viewing an event in which an object moves behind an occluder on part of its trajectory, 4-month-old infants perceive the trajectory as continuous only when time or distance out of sight is short. Little is known, however, about the conditions under which young infants perceive trajectories to be discontinuous. ...
Legerstee Maria - - 2008
To explore 10-month-old infants' abilities to engage in intentional imitation, they were shown a human agent, a non-human agent (stuffed animal), and a surrogate object (mechanical pincers) model actions on objects. The tendency of infants to perform the target act was compared in several situations: (a) after test items were ...
Mattock Karen - - 2008
Perceptual reorganisation of infants' speech perception has been found from 6 months for consonants and earlier for vowels. Recently, similar reorganisation has been found for lexical tone between 6 and 9 months of age. Given that there is a close relationship between vowels and tones, this study investigates whether the ...
Turati Chiara - - 2008
The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances between ...
Lin Hui-Ling - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Aerosol face mask design and the distance at which the face mask is held from the face affect the delivery of nebulized medication to pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To measure the inhaled mass of nebulized albuterol with 3 types of pediatric face mask, at 3 different distances from the face, ...
Cohen Dodd W - - 2007
The prevailing notion in the psychoanalytic literature is that Freud's thinking on neonatal object relations is completely captured in terms of his concepts of autoerotism and primary narcissism. Indeed, for Freud, autoerotism and primary narcissism conceptualize the earliest libido distributions, but these concepts do not exhaust Freud's model of early ...
Springer Ingo N - - 2007
Symmetry is thought to be a major prerequisite for an attractive face. Many faces are not symmetric, yet are still regarded as beautiful. What role, then, does asymmetry play in the perception of beauty? We studied the assessment of computer-manipulated images by independent judges (n = 200-250): part A: nevi ...
Ganea Patricia A - - 2007
One of the most distinctive characteristics of humans is the capacity to learn from what other people tell them. Often new information is provided about an entity that is not present, requiring incorporation of that information into one's mental representation of the absent object. Here we present evidence regarding the ...
Locke John L - - 2007
An important form of innovation involves use of the voice in a new way, usually to solve some environmental problem. Vocal innovation occurs in humans and other animals, including chimpanzees. The framework outlined in the target article, appropriately modified, may permit new perspectives on the use of others as tools, ...
Harshaw Christopher C Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. - - 2007
Studies examining the effects of stimulus contingency on filial imprinting have produced inconsistent findings. In the current study, day-old bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) received individual 5-min sessions in which they were provided contingent, noncontingent, or vicarious exposure to a variant of a bobwhite maternal assembly call. Chicks given contingent exposure ...
Santesso Diane L - - 2007
Many studies have shown that infants prefer infant-directed (ID) speech to adult-directed (AD) speech. ID speech functions to aid language learning, obtain and/or maintain an infant's attention, and create emotional communication between the infant and caregiver. We examined psychophysiological responses to ID speech that varied in affective content (i.e., love/comfort, ...
Barrett Tracy M - - 2008
The coordination between visual and manual domains is a cornerstone of learning in early development. If infants anticipate an object's physical characteristics prior to contact (i.e., from visual inspection), they could learn more about the physical world through visual observation only than if manual exploration is required. In this experiment, ...
Liu Huei-Mei - - 2007
Using Mandarin Chinese, a "tone language" in which the pitch contours of syllables differentiate words, the authors examined the acoustic modifications of infant-directed speech (IDS) at the syllable level to test 2 hypotheses: (a) the overall increase in pitch and intonation contour that occurs in IDS at the phrase level ...
Johnson Susan C - - 2007
Twelve-month-old infants attribute goals to both familiar, human agents and unfamiliar, non-human agents. They also attribute goal-directedness to both familiar actions and unfamiliar ones. Four conditions examined information 12-month-olds use to determine which actions of an unfamiliar agent are goal-directed. Infants who witnessed the agent interact contingently with a human ...
Whalen D H - - 2007
Different languages use voice onset time (VOT) in different ways to signal the voicing contrast, for example, short lag/long lag (English) vs. prevoiced/short lag (French). Also, VOT depends on place of articulation, with labial VOTs being shorter than velar and alveolar and, sometimes, alveolar being shorter than velar. Here we ...
Surian Luca - - 2007
In two experiments, we investigated whether 13-month-old infants expect agents to behave in a way that is consistent with information to which they have been exposed. Infants watched animations in which an animal was either provided information or prevented from gathering information about the actual location of an object. The ...
Valenza Eloisa - - 2007
Previous research, in which static figures were used, showed that the ability to perceive illusory contours emerges around 7 months of age. However, recently, evidence has suggested that 2-3-month-old infants are able to perceive illusory contours when motion information is available (Johnson & Mason, 2002; Otsuka & Yamaguchi, 2003). The ...
Leslie Alan M - - 2007
Looking-time studies examined whether 11-month-old infants can individuate two pairs of objects using only shape information. In order to test individuation, the object pairs were presented sequentially. Infants were familiarized either with the sequential pairs, disk-triangle/disk-triangle (XY/XY), whose shapes differed within but not across pairs, or with the sequential pairs, ...
Kaplan Peter S - - 2007
Infant-directed (ID) speech produced by fathers who varied in their number of self-reported symptoms of depressed was analyzed for differences its ability to promote infant voice-face associative learning. Infants of fathers with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) showed significantly poorer learning than did infants of fathers with ...
Schroers Melissa - - 2007
Three-month-old infants were trained to move a mobile in the presence of a coconut or cherry odor (context). One or 5 days later, the infants were tested for retrieval in the presence of either the same odor, the alternate odor, or no odor. Infants tested with the training odor displayed ...
Singh Leher - - 2008
Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to ...
Friederici Angela D - - 2007
Language is the most important faculty that distinguishes humans from other animals. Infants learn their native language fast and effortlessly during the first years of life, as a function of the linguistic input in their environment. Behavioral studies reported the discrimination of melodic contours [1] and stress patterns [2, 3] ...
Gartstein Maria A - - 2008
This study of was conducted to explore the contribution of attentional skills to early language, and the influence of early language markers on the development of attention, simultaneously examining the impact of parent-child interaction factors (reciprocity/synchrony and sensitivity/responsivity), including their potential moderator effects. All children were between 6 months and ...
van Leeuwen Theo - - 2007
Cortical auditory categorization was assessed in 2-month-old infants at genetic risk for dyslexia and controls. Manipulated /bAk/ and /dAk/ speech stimuli were used as frequently presented standards. The neuroelectric brain responses of the control infants were highly sensitive to the phoneme boundary that separated these stimuli, but the infants at ...
Kishimoto Takeshi - - 2007
In the field of developmental psychology, there is speculation that pointing gestures by infants are good precursors of infant language acquisition, and some researchers have found correlations between these pointing gestures and some indices of language acquisition. Infants' pointing gestures are presumably related to language acquisition because they provoke verbal ...
Stoeger-Horwath Angela S - - 2007
African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) have a complex acoustic communication system, but very little is known about their vocal ontogeny. A first approach in ontogenetic studies is to define the call repertoire of specific age groups. Twelve hundred calls of 11 infant elephants from neonatal to 18 months of age ...
Homae Fumitaka - - 2007
Speech prosody is considered to be one of the most important sources of information for infants in acquiring their native language. Using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy in 10-month-old infants, we examined cortical activation when normal and flattened speech sounds were presented to the infants. The flattened speech sound was generated by ...
Weikum Whitney M - - 2007
This study shows that 4- and 6-month-old infants can discriminate languages (English from French) just from viewing silently presented articulations. By the age of 8 months, only bilingual (French-English) infants succeed at this task. These findings reveal a surprisingly early preparedness for visual language discrimination and highlight infants' selectivity for ...
Buder Eugene H EH School of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. - - 2008
Infant phonation is highly variable in many respects, including the basic vibratory patterns by which the vocal tissues create acoustic signals. Previous studies have identified the regular occurrence of nonmodal phonation types in normal infant phonation. The glottis is like many oscillating systems that, because of nonlinear relationships among the ...
Plunkett Kim - - 2008
An extensive body of research claims that labels facilitate categorisation, highlight the commonalities between objects and act as invitations to form categories for young infants before their first birthday. While this may indeed be a reasonable claim, we argue that it is not justified by the experiments described in the ...
de Graaf-Peters Victorine B VB Department of Neurology - Developmental Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The - - 2007
Adequate postural control is a prerequisite for daily activities such as reaching for an object. However, knowledge on the relationship between postural adjustments and the quality of reaching movements during human ontogeny is scarce. Therefore we evaluated the development of the relationship between the kinematic features of reaching movements and ...
Saylor Megan M - - 2007
The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20- month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with ...
D'Entremont Barbara - - 2007
Tomasello, Carpenter, and Liszkowski (2007) present a comprehensive review of the infant pointing literature. They conclude that infant pointing demonstrates communicative intent from its onset, at about 1 year of age. In this commentary, it is noted that for infants to understand communicative intent, they must have a concept of ...
Brugger Amy - - 2007
Two studies were conducted to investigate how 14- to 16-month-old infants select actions to imitate from the stream of events. In each study, an experimenter demonstrated two actions leading to an interesting effect. Aspects of the first action were manipulated and whether infants performed this action when given the objects ...
Sobel David M - - 2007
A fundamental assumption of the causal graphical model framework is the Markov assumption, which posits that learners can discriminate between two events that are dependent because of a direct causal relation between them and two events that are independent conditional on the value of another event(s). Sobel and Kirkham (2006) ...
Schmuckler Mark A - - 2007
Two experiments explored 5-month-old infants' recognition of self-movement in the context of imperfect contingencies between felt and seen movement. Previous work has shown that infants can discriminate a display of another child's movements from an on-line video display of their own movements, even when featural information is removed. These earlier ...
Tomasello Michael - - 2007
The current article proposes a new theory of infant pointing involving multiple layers of intentionality and shared intentionality. In the context of this theory, evidence is presented for a rich interpretation of prelinguistic communication, that is, one that posits that when 12-month-old infants point for an adult they are in ...
Sèbe Frédéric - - 2007
In sheep, the mother-young relationship is characterized by an exclusive bond that relies on the rapid establishment of mutual recognition. However, the role of acoustic cues has been underestimated and neglected in this early discrimination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was (1) to characterize the vocal behavior of ...
Southgate Victoria V Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK. - - 2007
Tomasello, Carpenter, and Liszkowski (2007) present compelling data to support the view that infant pointing, from the outset, is communicative and deployed in many of the same situations in which adults would ordinarily point for one another, either to share their interest in something, or to informatively help the other ...
Mundy Peter P University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA. - - 2007
This study examined the development of joint attention in 95 infants assessed between 9 and 18 months of age. Infants displayed significant test-retest reliability on measures of following gaze and gestures (responding to joint attention, RJA) and in their use of eye contact to establish social attention coordination (initiating joint ...
Range Friederike F Department for Neurobiology and Cognition Research, University of Vienna, Vienna 1091, Austria. - - 2007
The transmission of cultural knowledge requires learners to identify what relevant information to retain and selectively imitate when observing others' skills. Young human infants--without relying on language or theory of mind--already show evidence of this ability. If, for example, in a communicative context, a model demonstrates a head action instead ...
Booth Amy E - - 2008
We asked whether infants are sensitive to causal relations between objects and outcomes and whether this sensitivity supports categorization. Fourteen- and 18-month-old infants were familiarized with objects from a novel category. For some, the objects caused an electronic toy to activate. For others, the objects were present during activation of ...
Balkenius Christian - - 2007
Infants gradually learn to predict the motion of moving targets and change from a strategy that mainly depends on saccades to one that depends on anticipatory control of smooth pursuit. A model is described that combines three types of mechanisms for gaze control that develops in a way similar to ...
Kuroki Misa - - 2007
Infants often voluntarily glance at their social partner during their toy play, disengaging their gaze from a toy and selecting a caregiver as their new looking target. This study posed two research questions: Do positive emotions disengage infants' gaze from their point of fixation, and do positive emotions facilitate the ...
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