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Kochukhova Olga - - 2008
Smooth pursuit eye movements (SP) were studied in 5- and 9-month-old infants and adults in response to a rhombus oscillating horizontally behind three spatially separated vertical occluders. During motion, the rhombus vertices were never visible. Thus the perception of the global motion of the rhombus required integration of its moving ...
Johnson Susan C - - 2008
By the end of the first year, infants are able to recognize both goal-directed and perceptually guided behavior in the actions of non-human agents, even faceless ones. How infants derive the relevant orientation of an unfamiliar agent in the absence of familiar markers such as eyes, ears, or face is ...
van Hof Paulion - - 2008
The authors studied how infants come to perceive and act adaptively by presenting 35 three- to nine-month-olds with balls that approached at various speeds according to a staircase procedure. They determined whether infants attempted to reach for the ball and whether they were successful (i.e., contacted the ball). In addition, ...
Peltola Mikko J - - 2008
The present study investigated whether facial expressions modulate visual attention in 7-month-old infants. First, infants' looking duration to individually presented fearful, happy, and novel facial expressions was compared to looking duration to a control stimulus (scrambled face). The face with a novel expression was included to examine the hypothesis that ...
Demiris Yiannis - - 2008
Interesting systems, whether biological or artificial, develop. Starting from some initial conditions, they respond to environmental changes, and continuously improve their capabilities. Developmental psychologists have dedicated significant effort to studying the developmental progression of infant imitation skills, because imitation underlies the infant's ability to understand and learn from his or ...
Streri Arlette - - 2008
Inter-manual transfer of shape information was studied with habituation/dishabituation procedures in 2- and 6-month-old infants. Both age groups habituated to a shape repeatedly placed in one hand and dishabituated when a new shape was placed in the same hand. Subsequent testing revealed that only the 2-month olds dishabituated when the ...
Barrett Tracy M - - 2008
This study examined twenty two 11- and 13-month-old infants' approach and grasp of two objects-one symmetric and one asymmetric-in an effort to understand infants' use of shape information to plan motor action. At first contact, all infants grasped the asymmetrical object further from its center of mass than the symmetrical ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2008
Previous research suggests that by 4 months of age infants use the eye gaze of adults to guide their attention and facilitate processing of environmental information. Here we address the question of how infants process the relation between another person and an external object. We applied an ERP paradigm to ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2008
Eye gaze is an important social cue which is used to determine another person's focus of attention and intention to communicate. In combination with a fearful facial expression eye gaze can also signal threat in the environment. The ability to detect and understand others' social signals is essential in order ...
Nakano Tamami - - 2008
Behavioral studies have shown that infants can form associations between environmental events and produce anticipatory actions for the predictable event, but the neural mechanisms for the learning and anticipation of events in infants are not known. Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the association cortices of infants show activation related to ...
Kringelbach Morten L - - 2008
Darwin originally pointed out that there is something about infants which prompts adults to respond to and care for them, in order to increase individual fitness, i.e. reproductive success, via increased survivorship of one's own offspring. Lorenz proposed that it is the specific structure of the infant face that serves ...
Turk-Browne Nicholas B - - 2008
Many prominent studies of infant cognition over the past two decades have relied on the fact that infants habituate to repeated stimuli - i.e. that their looking times tend to decline upon repeated stimulus presentations. This phenomenon had been exploited to reveal a great deal about the minds of preverbal ...
Saffran Jenny - - 2008
There is a surprising degree of overlapping structure evident across the languages of the world. One factor leading to cross-linguistic similarities may be constraints on human learning abilities. Linguistic structures that are easier for infants to learn should predominate in human languages. If correct, then (a) human infants should more ...
Newman George E - - 2008
This paper reports the results of two sets of studies demonstrating 14-month-olds' tendency to associate an object's behavior with internal, rather than external features. In Experiment 1 infants were familiarized to two animated cats that each exhibited a different style of self-generated motion. Infants then saw a novel individual that ...
Wang Su-hua - - 2008
Can infants detect that an object has magically disappeared, broken apart or changed color while briefly hidden? Recent research suggests that infants detect some but not other 'impossible' changes; and that various contextual manipulations can induce infants to detect changes they would not otherwise detect. We present an account that ...
Nathani Suneeti - - 2007
PURPOSE: Onset of canonical babbling by 10 months of age is surprisingly robust in infancy, suggesting that there must be deep biological forces that keep the development of this key vocal capability on course. This study further evaluated the robustness of canonical babbling and other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development. ...
Proverbio Alice Mado - - 2007
Several studies have provided evidence of a women's better accuracy in interpreting emotional states. Despite this difference is generally ascribed to the primary role of female gender in the affective relation with the offspring, to date, little information is available regarding gender differences in the ability to interpret infant facial ...
Kelly David J - - 2007
Experience plays a crucial role in the development of face processing. In the study reported here, we investigated how faces observed within the visual environment affect the development of the face-processing system during the 1st year of life. We assessed 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Caucasian infants' ability to discriminate faces ...
Moore M Keith - - 2008
Two experiments systematically examined factors that influence infants' manual search for hidden objects (N=96). Experiment 1 used a new procedure to assess infants' search for partially versus totally occluded objects. Results showed that 8.75-month-old infants solved partial occlusions by removing the occluder and uncovering the object, but these same infants ...
Scheumann Marina - - 2007
The presence of context-specific communication sounds, structurally different call types related to particular situations and potentially expressing distinct emotions of the caller, were not systematically studied in infants of strepsirrhine primates. We exposed suckling's of gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in an infant separation paradigm to three distinct contexts (isolation, ...
Kabosova Andrea - - 2007
Adult human corneal epithelial basement membrane (EBM) and Descemet's membrane (DM) components exhibit heterogeneous distribution. The purpose of the study was to identify changes of these components during postnatal corneal development. Thirty healthy adult corneas and 10 corneas from 12-day- to 3-year-old children were studied by immunofluorescence with antibodies against ...
Sebastián-Gallés Núria - - 2007
Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well ...
Song Jae Yung - - 2007
This study investigated how the acoustic characteristics of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate infants' recognition of familiar words. The individual roles of three typical characteristics of IDS were examined: Exaggerated pitch range, slow speech rate, and hyperarticulated vowels. Using the intermodal preferential looking procedure, 34 19-month-olds were presented with 12 stimulus ...
Wermke Kathleen - - 2007
This study is part of the German Language Development Study's prospective longitudinal research programme on infants from birth until the age of 3 years. Thirty-four infants were retrospectively classified into two groups (normal/delayed) by their language skills at 2.5 years of age. Frequency spectrograms and melodies of about 11,000 cries ...
Wang Su-hua - - 2007
Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events ...
Jeong Jaehoon - - 2007
A large prosodic boundary triggers, in general, a high attachment of an ambiguously attached phrase (e.g., Susie learned that Bill called // on Monday). The informative boundary hypothesis (IBH), however, claims that such an effect of a local prosodic boundary is neutralized by the presence of another boundary (e.g., Susie ...
Träuble Birgit - - 2007
This report examines whether knowledge about function influences the formation of artifact categories in 11-12- month old infants. Using an object-examination task, a set of artificial stimuli was presented that could either be grouped according to overall similarity or according to similarity in one functionally relevant part. Experiment 1 revealed ...
Krøjgaard Peter - - 2007
Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding 'event-mapping designs' (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996), whereas the simpler event-monitoring designs (e.g. the 'wide-screen/narrow-screen' ...
Casasola Marianella - - 2007
Eighteen-month-olds' spatial categorization was tested when hearing a novel spatial word. Infants formed an abstract categorical representation of support (i.e., placing 1 object on another) when hearing a novel spatial particle during habituation but not when viewing the events in silence. Infants with a productive spatial vocabulary did not discriminate ...
Baker Rachel E - - 2007
Phonetic reduction of the second relative to the first mention of a word in a discourse (Second Mention Reduction, or SMR) is a well-documented feature of spoken American English (AE). This phenomenon could be mediated by discourse-level prosodic structure: second mentions are reduced because they are less likely than first ...
Moll Henrike - - 2007
We investigated how 14-month-old infants know what others know. In two studies, an infant played with each of two objects in turn while an experimenter was present. Then the experimenter left the room, and the infant played with a third object with an assistant. The experimenter returned, faced all three ...
Brannon Elizabeth M - - 2007
Time perception is important for many aspects of human behavior, and a large literature documents that adults represent intervals and that their ability to discriminate temporal intervals is ratio dependent. Here we replicate a recent study by vanMarle and Wynn (2006) that used the visual habituation paradigm and demonstrated that ...
Shirai Nobu N Department of Psychology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 minamiohsawa, Hachiohji-city, Tokyo, 192-0397, Japan. - - 2008
We examined the sensitivity of 2- and 3-month-old infants to radial expansion/contraction at various speeds. The stimuli comprised one radial motion pattern (expansion or contraction) and one translational motion pattern (up, down, left or right; counterbalanced across infants) placed side by side. The two patterns in each stimulus had the ...
Ferry Antonin - - 2007
Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was identified as a major volatile constituent of Brassica napus roots heavily infested by Delia radicum, the cabbage root fly. Attractiveness of this widespread compound was tested in the field in a naturally complex odorous environment. By using an original setup especially designed for ground dwelling beetles, ...
Radicevic Z Z Institute for Experimental Phonetics and Speech Pathology, Belgrade, SCG, Gospodar Jovanova 35, 11000 Belgrade, - - 2008
Quantitative EEG mapping in powers of electrical activity, concentration of main powers and area of concentration in relation to the side of presentation (left, right, and bihemisphery) and closer location was done on a 24-day-old infant first, and again when the infant was 2.5 months. EEG responses are analyzed in ...
Sann Coralie - - 2008
Two experiments, using habituation/reaction to novelty procedure, were performed to assess human neonates' ability to process and exchange information about texture (Experiment 1) or shape (Experiment 2) between their hands, without visual control. Forty-eight newborn infants (24 per experiment) received a haptic habituation either with their right or left hand ...
Ramsdell Heather L HL School of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, TN 38105, USA. - - 2007
The purpose of this study is to provide new perspectives on correlates of phonetic transcription agreement. Our research focuses on phonetic transcription and coding of infant vocalizations. The findings are presumed to be broadly applicable to other difficult cases of transcription, such as found in severe disorders of speech, which ...
Fontenelle Sarah A - - 2007
Everyday environments, even small regions within reach, vary dramatically in terms of material composition. Adapting one's manual behavior to such transitions can be considered to be an important element of skilled action. To investigate the origins of this ability, we presented 8-month-olds (n=24) and 10-month-olds (n=24) hard or soft objects ...
Csibra Gergely - - 2008
Human infants' tendency to attribute goals to observed actions may help us to understand where people's obsession with goals originates from. While one-year-old infants liberally interpret the behaviour of many kinds of agents as goal-directed, a recent report [Kamewari, K., Kato, M., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., & Hiraki, K. (2005). ...
Hespos Susan J - - 2008
Violation-of-expectation (VOE) tasks have revealed substantial developments in young infants' knowledge about support events: by 5.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released against but not on a surface; and by 6.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released with 15% but not 100% of its ...
Graham Susan A - - 2007
The role of words and gestures in guiding infants' inductive inferences about nonobvious properties was examined. One hundred seventy-two 14-month-olds and 22-month-olds were presented with novel target objects followed by test objects that varied in similarity to the target. Objects were introduced with a novel word or a novel gesture ...
Mugitani Ryoko - - 2007
Japanese infants at the ages of 6, 12, and 18 months were tested on their ability to discriminate three nonsense words with different phonotactic status: canonical keetsu, noncanonical but possible keets, and noncanonical and impossible keet. The results showed that 12 and 18 months olds discriminate the keets/keetsu pair, but ...
Soderstrom Melanie - - 2007
Deviation of real speech from grammatical ideals due to disfluency and other speech errors presents potentially serious problems for the language learner. While infants may initially benefit from attending primarily or solely to infant-directed speech, which contains few grammatical errors, older infants may listen more to adult-directed speech. In a ...
Dewar Kathryn - - 2007
In 3 experiments, 9-month-old infants' expectations for what distinct count noun labels refer to were investigated. In Experiment 1, a box was opened to reveal 2 objects inside during familiarization: either 2 identical objects or 2 different objects. Test trials followed the same procedure, except before the box was opened, ...
Johnson Susan C - - 2007
The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns ...
Bremner J Gavin - - 2007
When viewing an event in which an object moves behind an occluder on part of its trajectory, 4-month-old infants perceive the trajectory as continuous only when time or distance out of sight is short. Little is known, however, about the conditions under which young infants perceive trajectories to be discontinuous. ...
Legerstee Maria - - 2008
To explore 10-month-old infants' abilities to engage in intentional imitation, they were shown a human agent, a non-human agent (stuffed animal), and a surrogate object (mechanical pincers) model actions on objects. The tendency of infants to perform the target act was compared in several situations: (a) after test items were ...
Mattock Karen - - 2008
Perceptual reorganisation of infants' speech perception has been found from 6 months for consonants and earlier for vowels. Recently, similar reorganisation has been found for lexical tone between 6 and 9 months of age. Given that there is a close relationship between vowels and tones, this study investigates whether the ...
Turati Chiara - - 2008
The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances between ...
Lin Hui-Ling - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Aerosol face mask design and the distance at which the face mask is held from the face affect the delivery of nebulized medication to pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To measure the inhaled mass of nebulized albuterol with 3 types of pediatric face mask, at 3 different distances from the face, ...
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