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Martinez Amy A House Ear Institute, Children's Auditory Research and Evaluation Center, Los Angeles, California 90057, U.S.A. - - 2008
To assess perception of specific speech pattern contrasts in infants with normal hearing (NH) and infants with sensorineural hearing loss (HL). Prospective longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Tertiary referral center. Nine infants with NH and 11 infants with HL ranging from mild to profound. Speech pattern contrast perception was evaluated in ...
Rochat Magali J - - 2008
What is the evolutionary origin of the human ability to understand and predict the behavior of others? Recent studies suggest that human infants' early capacity for understanding others' goal-directed actions relies on nonmentalistic strategies [1-8]. However, there is no consensus about the nature of the mechanisms underpinning these strategies and ...
Bernardis Paolo P Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Parma, Via Volturno 39, 43100 Parma, - - 2008
Upper limb gestures, as well as transitive actions (i.e. acted upon an object) when either executed or observed affect speech. Broca's area seems to be involved in integration between the two motor representations of arm and mouth (Bernardis and Gentilucci, Neuropsychologia, 44:178-190, 2006, Gentilucci et al., Eur J Neurosci, 19:190-202, ...
Kuhl Patricia - - 2008
Infants learn language(s) with apparent ease, and the tools of modern neuroscience are providing valuable information about the mechanisms that underlie this capacity. Noninvasive, safe brain technologies have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. The past decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining ...
Baker Thomas J - - 2008
Previous research has indicated that the ability to integrate individual elements in the presence of noise is immature in 3-month-old infants. The present study extended the developmental timeline by investigating 6-month-olds' ability to integrate individual elements into whole contours through an assessment of their capability to discriminate circle and square ...
Hallé Pierre A - - 2008
The first part of this study examined (Parisian) French-learning 11-month-old infants' recognition of the six definite and indefinite French articles: le, la, les, un, une, and des. The six articles were compared with pseudoarticles in the context of disyllabic or monosyllabic nouns, using the Head-turn Preference Procedure. The pseudo articles ...
Christophe Anne - - 2008
This paper focuses on how phrasal prosody and function words may interact during early language acquisition. Experimental results show that infants have access to intermediate prosodic phrases (phonological phrases) during the first year of life, and use these to constrain lexical segmentation. These same intermediate prosodic phrases are used by ...
Maye Jessica - - 2008
Over the course of the first year of life, infants develop from being generalized listeners, capable of discriminating both native and non-native speech contrasts, into specialized listeners whose discrimination patterns closely reflect the phonetic system of the native language(s). Recent work by Maye, Werker and Gerken (2002) has proposed a ...
Rakison David H - - 2008
We present a domain-general framework called constrained attentional associative learning to provide a developmental account for how and when infants form concepts for animates and inanimates that encapsulate not only their surface appearance but also their movement characteristics. Six simulations with the same general-purpose architecture implement the features of the ...
Parise Eugenio - - 2008
Do 5-month-old infants show differences in processing objects as a function of a prior interaction with an adult? Using a live ERP paradigm we assessed this question utilizing a within-subjects design. Infants saw objects during two pretest phases with an adult experimenter. We recorded event-related potentials to the presentation of ...
Mani Nivedita - - 2008
Previous research has shown that English infants are sensitive to mispronunciations of vowels in familiar words by as early as 15-months of age. These results suggest that not only are infants sensitive to large mispronunciations of the vowels in words, but also sensitive to smaller mispronunciations, involving changes to only ...
Singh Leher - - 2008
Previous studies have shown that 7.5-month-olds can track and encode words in fluent speech, but they fail to equate instances of a word that contrast in talker gender, vocal affect, and fundamental frequency. By 10.5 months, they succeed at generalizing across such variability, marking a clear transition period during which ...
Kochukhova Olga - - 2008
Smooth pursuit eye movements (SP) were studied in 5- and 9-month-old infants and adults in response to a rhombus oscillating horizontally behind three spatially separated vertical occluders. During motion, the rhombus vertices were never visible. Thus the perception of the global motion of the rhombus required integration of its moving ...
Johnson Susan C - - 2008
By the end of the first year, infants are able to recognize both goal-directed and perceptually guided behavior in the actions of non-human agents, even faceless ones. How infants derive the relevant orientation of an unfamiliar agent in the absence of familiar markers such as eyes, ears, or face is ...
van Hof Paulion - - 2008
The authors studied how infants come to perceive and act adaptively by presenting 35 three- to nine-month-olds with balls that approached at various speeds according to a staircase procedure. They determined whether infants attempted to reach for the ball and whether they were successful (i.e., contacted the ball). In addition, ...
Peltola Mikko J - - 2008
The present study investigated whether facial expressions modulate visual attention in 7-month-old infants. First, infants' looking duration to individually presented fearful, happy, and novel facial expressions was compared to looking duration to a control stimulus (scrambled face). The face with a novel expression was included to examine the hypothesis that ...
Demiris Yiannis - - 2008
Interesting systems, whether biological or artificial, develop. Starting from some initial conditions, they respond to environmental changes, and continuously improve their capabilities. Developmental psychologists have dedicated significant effort to studying the developmental progression of infant imitation skills, because imitation underlies the infant's ability to understand and learn from his or ...
Streri Arlette - - 2008
Inter-manual transfer of shape information was studied with habituation/dishabituation procedures in 2- and 6-month-old infants. Both age groups habituated to a shape repeatedly placed in one hand and dishabituated when a new shape was placed in the same hand. Subsequent testing revealed that only the 2-month olds dishabituated when the ...
Barrett Tracy M - - 2008
This study examined twenty two 11- and 13-month-old infants' approach and grasp of two objects-one symmetric and one asymmetric-in an effort to understand infants' use of shape information to plan motor action. At first contact, all infants grasped the asymmetrical object further from its center of mass than the symmetrical ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2008
Previous research suggests that by 4 months of age infants use the eye gaze of adults to guide their attention and facilitate processing of environmental information. Here we address the question of how infants process the relation between another person and an external object. We applied an ERP paradigm to ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2008
Eye gaze is an important social cue which is used to determine another person's focus of attention and intention to communicate. In combination with a fearful facial expression eye gaze can also signal threat in the environment. The ability to detect and understand others' social signals is essential in order ...
Nakano Tamami - - 2008
Behavioral studies have shown that infants can form associations between environmental events and produce anticipatory actions for the predictable event, but the neural mechanisms for the learning and anticipation of events in infants are not known. Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the association cortices of infants show activation related to ...
Kringelbach Morten L - - 2008
Darwin originally pointed out that there is something about infants which prompts adults to respond to and care for them, in order to increase individual fitness, i.e. reproductive success, via increased survivorship of one's own offspring. Lorenz proposed that it is the specific structure of the infant face that serves ...
Turk-Browne Nicholas B - - 2008
Many prominent studies of infant cognition over the past two decades have relied on the fact that infants habituate to repeated stimuli - i.e. that their looking times tend to decline upon repeated stimulus presentations. This phenomenon had been exploited to reveal a great deal about the minds of preverbal ...
Saffran Jenny J Department of Psychology & Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1202 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706-1696, USA. - - 2008
There is a surprising degree of overlapping structure evident across the languages of the world. One factor leading to cross-linguistic similarities may be constraints on human learning abilities. Linguistic structures that are easier for infants to learn should predominate in human languages. If correct, then (a) human infants should more ...
Wang Su-hua - - 2008
Can infants detect that an object has magically disappeared, broken apart or changed color while briefly hidden? Recent research suggests that infants detect some but not other 'impossible' changes; and that various contextual manipulations can induce infants to detect changes they would not otherwise detect. We present an account that ...
Newman George E GE Yale University, 2 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 USA. - - 2008
This paper reports the results of two sets of studies demonstrating 14-month-olds' tendency to associate an object's behavior with internal, rather than external features. In Experiment 1 infants were familiarized to two animated cats that each exhibited a different style of self-generated motion. Infants then saw a novel individual that ...
Nathani Suneeti - - 2007
PURPOSE: Onset of canonical babbling by 10 months of age is surprisingly robust in infancy, suggesting that there must be deep biological forces that keep the development of this key vocal capability on course. This study further evaluated the robustness of canonical babbling and other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development. ...
Proverbio Alice Mado - - 2007
Several studies have provided evidence of a women's better accuracy in interpreting emotional states. Despite this difference is generally ascribed to the primary role of female gender in the affective relation with the offspring, to date, little information is available regarding gender differences in the ability to interpret infant facial ...
Kelly David J - - 2007
Experience plays a crucial role in the development of face processing. In the study reported here, we investigated how faces observed within the visual environment affect the development of the face-processing system during the 1st year of life. We assessed 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Caucasian infants' ability to discriminate faces ...
Moore M Keith - - 2008
Two experiments systematically examined factors that influence infants' manual search for hidden objects (N=96). Experiment 1 used a new procedure to assess infants' search for partially versus totally occluded objects. Results showed that 8.75-month-old infants solved partial occlusions by removing the occluder and uncovering the object, but these same infants ...
Scheumann Marina - - 2007
The presence of context-specific communication sounds, structurally different call types related to particular situations and potentially expressing distinct emotions of the caller, were not systematically studied in infants of strepsirrhine primates. We exposed suckling's of gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in an infant separation paradigm to three distinct contexts (isolation, ...
Sebastián-Gallés Núria - - 2007
Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well ...
Song Jae Yung - - 2007
This study investigated how the acoustic characteristics of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate infants' recognition of familiar words. The individual roles of three typical characteristics of IDS were examined: Exaggerated pitch range, slow speech rate, and hyperarticulated vowels. Using the intermodal preferential looking procedure, 34 19-month-olds were presented with 12 stimulus ...
Wermke Kathleen - - 2007
This study is part of the German Language Development Study's prospective longitudinal research programme on infants from birth until the age of 3 years. Thirty-four infants were retrospectively classified into two groups (normal/delayed) by their language skills at 2.5 years of age. Frequency spectrograms and melodies of about 11,000 cries ...
Wang Su-hua - - 2007
Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events ...
Jeong Jaehoon - - 2007
A large prosodic boundary triggers, in general, a high attachment of an ambiguously attached phrase (e.g., Susie learned that Bill called // on Monday). The informative boundary hypothesis (IBH), however, claims that such an effect of a local prosodic boundary is neutralized by the presence of another boundary (e.g., Susie ...
Träuble Birgit - - 2007
This report examines whether knowledge about function influences the formation of artifact categories in 11-12- month old infants. Using an object-examination task, a set of artificial stimuli was presented that could either be grouped according to overall similarity or according to similarity in one functionally relevant part. Experiment 1 revealed ...
Krøjgaard Peter - - 2007
Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding 'event-mapping designs' (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996), whereas the simpler event-monitoring designs (e.g. the 'wide-screen/narrow-screen' ...
Casasola Marianella - - 2007
Eighteen-month-olds' spatial categorization was tested when hearing a novel spatial word. Infants formed an abstract categorical representation of support (i.e., placing 1 object on another) when hearing a novel spatial particle during habituation but not when viewing the events in silence. Infants with a productive spatial vocabulary did not discriminate ...
Baker Rachel E - - 2007
Phonetic reduction of the second relative to the first mention of a word in a discourse (Second Mention Reduction, or SMR) is a well-documented feature of spoken American English (AE). This phenomenon could be mediated by discourse-level prosodic structure: second mentions are reduced because they are less likely than first ...
Moll Henrike - - 2007
We investigated how 14-month-old infants know what others know. In two studies, an infant played with each of two objects in turn while an experimenter was present. Then the experimenter left the room, and the infant played with a third object with an assistant. The experimenter returned, faced all three ...
Brannon Elizabeth M - - 2007
Time perception is important for many aspects of human behavior, and a large literature documents that adults represent intervals and that their ability to discriminate temporal intervals is ratio dependent. Here we replicate a recent study by vanMarle and Wynn (2006) that used the visual habituation paradigm and demonstrated that ...
Kabosova Andrea A Ophthalmology Research Laboratories, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, - - 2007
Adult human corneal epithelial basement membrane (EBM) and Descemet's membrane (DM) components exhibit heterogeneous distribution. The purpose of the study was to identify changes of these components during postnatal corneal development. Thirty healthy adult corneas and 10 corneas from 12-day- to 3-year-old children were studied by immunofluorescence with antibodies against ...
Shirai Nobu N Department of Psychology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 minamiohsawa, Hachiohji-city, Tokyo, 192-0397, Japan. - - 2008
We examined the sensitivity of 2- and 3-month-old infants to radial expansion/contraction at various speeds. The stimuli comprised one radial motion pattern (expansion or contraction) and one translational motion pattern (up, down, left or right; counterbalanced across infants) placed side by side. The two patterns in each stimulus had the ...
Ferry Antonin - - 2007
Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was identified as a major volatile constituent of Brassica napus roots heavily infested by Delia radicum, the cabbage root fly. Attractiveness of this widespread compound was tested in the field in a naturally complex odorous environment. By using an original setup especially designed for ground dwelling beetles, ...
Radicevic Z Z Institute for Experimental Phonetics and Speech Pathology, Belgrade, SCG, Gospodar Jovanova 35, 11000 Belgrade, - - 2008
Quantitative EEG mapping in powers of electrical activity, concentration of main powers and area of concentration in relation to the side of presentation (left, right, and bihemisphery) and closer location was done on a 24-day-old infant first, and again when the infant was 2.5 months. EEG responses are analyzed in ...
Sann Coralie - - 2008
Two experiments, using habituation/reaction to novelty procedure, were performed to assess human neonates' ability to process and exchange information about texture (Experiment 1) or shape (Experiment 2) between their hands, without visual control. Forty-eight newborn infants (24 per experiment) received a haptic habituation either with their right or left hand ...
Ramsdell Heather L HL School of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, TN 38105, USA. - - 2007
The purpose of this study is to provide new perspectives on correlates of phonetic transcription agreement. Our research focuses on phonetic transcription and coding of infant vocalizations. The findings are presumed to be broadly applicable to other difficult cases of transcription, such as found in severe disorders of speech, which ...
Fontenelle Sarah A - - 2007
Everyday environments, even small regions within reach, vary dramatically in terms of material composition. Adapting one's manual behavior to such transitions can be considered to be an important element of skilled action. To investigate the origins of this ability, we presented 8-month-olds (n=24) and 10-month-olds (n=24) hard or soft objects ...
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