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Perrella Sharon L SL *School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA, Australia †Centre for Neonatal Research and Education, School of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA, - - 2014
To determine whether serial gastric volumes and intragastric curding are repeatable within individual preterm infants when given sequential feeds of the same volume and composition. Infant and feeding characteristics that might influence differences in measured gastric volumes, echogenicity and intragastric curding were also explored. Ultrasound images were used to calculate ...
Cristia Alejandrina A Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales - Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France; Neurobiology of Language, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The - - 2014
The present study investigated the neural correlates of infant discrimination of very similar linguistic varieties (Quebecois and Parisian French) using functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy. In line with previous behavioral and electrophysiological data, there was no evidence that 3-month-olds discriminated the two regional accents, whereas 5-month-olds did, with the locus of ...
Petrus Nicole C M NC Division of Paediatric Pulmonology, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Emma Children's Hospital AMC, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Monitoring breathing pattern is especially relevant in infants with lung disease. Recently, a vest-based inductive plethysmograph system (FloRight®) has been developed for tidal breathing measurement in infants. We investigated the accuracy of tidal breathing flow volume loop (TBFVL) measurements in healthy term-born infants and infants with lung disease by the ...
Galle Marcus E ME Department of Psychology & Delta Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242, - - 2014
Most research on infant speech categories has relied on measures of discrimination. Such work often employs categorical perception as a linking hypothesis to enable inferences about categorization on the basis of discrimination measures. However, a large number of studies with adults challenge the utility of categorical perception in describing adult ...
Lejeune Fleur F Child Clinical Neuropsychology Unit, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Although preterm infants possess early tactile manual abilities, the influence of the postnatal experience has not yet been systematically examined. To investigate whether early tactile manual habituation, discrimination and recognition (following interference) of shape in preterm infants are modified by postnatal age. Prospective study. Forty preterm infants were assessed from ...
Baker Joseph M JM Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Infants possess basic capabilities to assess various quantitative properties such as number, size, and time. Preverbal discriminations are approximate, however, and are similarly limited across these dimensions. Here, we present the first evidence that multiple sources of quantitative unisensory information about dynamic stimuli-namely, simultaneous visual cues to changes in both ...
Takashima Midori M Department of Psychology, Iwaki Meisei University, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
We examined whether the homogeneity of the two profiles of Rubin's goblet affects figure/ground perception in infants. We modified the two profiles of Rubin's goblet in order to compare figure/ground perception under four test patterns: (1) two profiles painted with horizontal lines (horizontal-line condition), (2) two profiles painted middle gray ...
Mazuka Reiko R Laboratory for Language Development, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakoshi, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan; Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC. - - 2013
The present study tested Japanese 4.5- and 10-month old infants' ability to discriminate three German vowel pairs, none of which are contrastive in Japanese, using a visual habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Japanese adults' discrimination of the same pairs was also tested. The results revealed that Japanese 4.5-month old infants discriminated the German ...
Macchi Cassia Viola V Dipartimento di Psicologia, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126, Milano, Italy. - - 2013
Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the ...
Bateman Grant A - - 2013
The etiology of external hydrocephalus is usually ascribed to either a delay in maturation or obstruction of the arachnoid granulations, but the arachnoid granulations are absent in neonates. Venous outflow stenoses, similar to those seen in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), have been described in external hydrocephalus. A reversible collapse of ...
Sanefuji Wakako - - 2013
Previous studies have proposed that humans may be born with mechanisms that attend to conspecifics. However, as previous studies have relied on stimuli featuring human adults, it remains unclear whether infants attend only to adult humans or to the entire human species. We found that 1-month-old infants (n = 23) ...
Coubart Aurélie - - 2013
In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a ...
Starr Ariel B AB Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke - - 2013
Evidence for approximate number system (ANS) representations in infancy is robust but has typically only been found when infants are presented with arrays of four or more elements. In addition, several studies have found that infants fail to discriminate between small numbers when continuous variables such as surface area and ...
Righi Giulia - - 2013
The goal of the present study was to investigate infants' processing of female and male faces. We used an event-related potential (ERP) priming task, as well as a visual-paired comparison (VPC) eye tracking task to explore how 7-month-old "female expert" infants differed in their responses to faces of different genders. ...
Schumacher Kurt R - - 2013
Increased blood lactate levels reflect tissue oxygen debt and might be indicative of low cardiac output. We hypothesized that the rate of increase in serum lactate would be an ideal marker to discriminate between infants at high and low risk of a poor outcome after surgical repair of congenital heart ...
Butler Blake E - - 2013
Pitch is derived by the auditory system through complex spectrotemporal processing. Pitch extraction is thought to depend on both spectral cues arising from lower harmonics that are resolved by cochlear filters in the inner ear, and on temporal cues arising from the pattern of action potentials contained in the cochlear ...
Omenda Maxwel M MM *Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; †Program in Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA; ‡Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle WA; §Department of Pediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; ‖Division of Vaccine and Infectious Disease, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Departments of ¶Biostatistics; #Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; and **Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, - - 2013
: Little is known about the efficiency of vertical transfer of HIV-1-specific antibodies. Antibody levels in plasma from 60 mother-infant pairs near the time of birth, including 14 breast-feeding transmission pairs, were compared. The envelope-binding titers were strongly correlated (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001) and similar (1.4-fold greater in ...
Loucks Jeff - - 2013
Action perception is selective in that observers attend to and encode certain dimensions of action over others. But how flexible is action perception in its selection of perceptual information? One possibility is that observers consistently attend to particular dimensions of action over others across different contexts. Another possibility, tested here, ...
Gogate Lakshmi - - 2013
In this experimental study, we examined term infants (N = 34) and low-risk near term preterm infants (gestational age 32-36 weeks) at 2 months chronological age (N = 34) and corrected age (N =16). We investigated whether the preterm infants present with delays in their sensitivity to synchronous syllable-object pairings ...
Cabrera Laurianne - - 2013
This study assessed the capacity of 6-month-old infants to discriminate a voicing contrast (/aba/-/apa/) on the basis of amplitude modulation cues (AM, the variations in amplitude over time within each frequency band) and frequency modulation cues (FM, the oscillations in instantaneous frequency close to the center frequency of the band). ...
Vinodh M - - 2013
High bilirubin level is toxic to developing brain and auditory system but the current major debate surrounds the toxicity of bilirubin in healthy term infants. Our study is a longitudinal observational study to find BERA abnormalities in term newborns with isolated hyperbilirubinemia of 20 mg/dL and more and to follow ...
Vaillant-Molina Mariana - - 2013
Research has demonstrated that infants recognize emotional expressions of adults in the first half-year of life. We extended this research to a new domain, infant perception of the expressions of other infants. In an intermodal matching procedure, 3.5- and 5-month-old infants heard a series of infant vocal expressions (positive and ...
Cheng Ying-Ying - - 2013
This study examined how maturation and the size of deviance affect the development of mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones by a multi-deviant oddball paradigm with both large deviant T1/T3 and small deviant T2/T3 pairs in newborns and 6-month-olds. The T1/T3 pair elicited a positive mismatch response (P-MMR) at birth ...
Simpson Elizabeth A - - 2013
Previous studies suggest that about 50% of rhesus macaque infants engage in neonatal imitation of facial gestures. Here we measured whether individual differences in newborn macaques' (n = 49) visual attention may explain why some infants imitate lipsmacking (LPS) and tongue protrusion (TP) gestures. LPS imitators, but not TP imitators, looked more ...
Deluycker Anneke M - - 2013
Behaviors displayed during birth events, including prenatal, parturition, and postpartum periods, can give insight into caretaking roles in species in which the offspring is cared for by individuals other than the mother. Titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, exhibit a pair-bonded social system along with intense male care of offspring. Here, I ...
Pelaez Martha - - 2013
The present study examined the acquisition of social referencing skills in infants of mothers with symptoms of depression (n=44). We aimed to determine if a short discrimination training could facilitate infants' social referencing. Mothers were instructed to pose either joyful or fearful facial expressions to cue infants' approach/avoidance responses toward ...
Werner Lynne A - - 2013
Adults and 7-month-old infants were compared in detection and discrimination of sounds in modulated maskers. In two experiments, the level of a target sound was varied to equate listeners' performance in unmodulated noise, and performance was assessed at that level in a noise modulated with the envelope of single-talker speech. ...
Libertus Melissa E - - 2013
Over the past few decades, there has been extensive debate as to whether humans represent number abstractly and, if so, whether perceptual features of a set such as cumulative surface area or contour length are extracted more readily than number from the external world. Here we show that 7-month-old infants ...
Paukner Annika - - 2013
Faces are visually attractive to both human and nonhuman primates. Human neonates are thought to have a broad template for faces at birth and prefer face-like to non-face-like stimuli. To better compare developmental trajectories of face processing phylogenetically, here we investigated preferences for face-like stimuli in infant rhesus macaques using ...
Makori Norbert - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Biopharmaceutical development necessitates use of non-human primates in toxicology, leading to adoption of non-traditional methods including cognitive function assessment. METHODS: A two-object discrimination and reversal test in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was performed using a Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA). Non-clinical study design and regulatory considerations dictate that infants ...
Shirtcliff Elizabeth A - - 2013
The concept of fetal programming is based on the idea that the developmental trajectory of infants is adjusted in response to in utero conditions. In species with extended parental care, these prenatally derived tendencies are further substantiated by behavioral attributes of the mother during the postnatal period. We investigated the ...
Imura Tomoko - - 2013
The shadows cast by moving objects enable human adults and infants to infer the motion trajectories of objects. Nonhuman animals must also be able to discriminate between objects and their shadows and infer the spatial layout of objects from cast shadows. However, the evolutionary and comparative developmental origins of sensitivity ...
Guy Maggie W - - 2013
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were utilized in an investigation of 21 six-month-olds' attention to and processing of global and local properties of hierarchical patterns. Overall, infants demonstrated an advantage for processing the overall configuration (i.e., global properties) of local features of hierarchical patterns; however, processing advantages were found to vary based ...
Thompson Deanne K - - 2013
The hippocampus undergoes rapid growth and development in the perinatal months. Infants born very preterm (VPT) are vulnerable to hippocampal alterations, and can provide a model of disturbed early hippocampal development. Hippocampal shape alterations have previously been associated with memory impairment, but have never been investigated in infants. The aims ...
Shuwairi Sarah M - - 2013
Previous studies with young infants revealed that young infants can distinguish between displays of possible or impossible figures, which may require detection of inconsistent depth relations among local line junctions that disrupt global object configurations. Here, we used an eye-tracking paradigm to record eye movements in young infants during an ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2013
The ability to effectively respond to emotional information carried in the human voice plays a pivotal role for social interactions. We examined how genetic factors, especially the serotonin transporter genetic variation (5-HTTLPR), affect the neurodynamics of emotional voice processing in infants and adults by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The ...
Kopp Franziska - - 2013
Young infants are sensitive to multisensory temporal synchrony relations, but the neural dynamics of temporal interactions between vision and audition in infancy are not well understood. We investigated audiovisual synchrony and asynchrony perception in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERP). In a prior behavioral experiment (n = 45), infants were habituated ...
Gluckman Maxie - - 2013
We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays ...
Narchi H - - 2013
White matter periventricular echogenicity detected in neonatal cranial ultrasound (US) scans may be followed by cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or might resolve. Serial US are therefore needed to clarify the outcome. Texture analysis is a computerized method to analyze images and distinguish findings that are undetectable by the human eye. ...
de Hevia Maria Dolores - - 2013
Evidence for spontaneous mappings between the dimensions of number and length, time and length, and number and time, has been recently described in preverbal infants. It is unclear, however, whether these abilities reflect the existence of privileged mappings between certain quantitative dimensions, like number, space and time, or instead the ...
Uchiyama Takeshi - - 2012
Objective :  To quantify negative aesthetic ratings in primary unoperated cleft lip infants by further refining our previously reported paired comparison method. Design :  The Thurstone paired comparison method was used to quantify negative aesthetic ratings of plaster facial models selected and ordered according to a table of paired random ...
Isbell Lynne A - - 2012
Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high ...
Subramanian Sujata - - 2012
Improved dual-lumen catheter design has resulted in greater efficiency of gas exchange during extracorporeal life support. However, standard venovenous (S-VV) catheters are prone to structural deformation that reduces flow capacity. Wire-reinforced dual-lumen catheters have recently been introduced to reduce the risk of structural deformation. A retrospective review was performed on ...
Meno Whitney - - 2012
Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first ...
Raper Jessica - - 2012
The current study examined the long-term effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to an acute stressor in rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys received either bilateral MRI-guided ibotenic acid amygdala (Neo-Aibo; n=6) or sham (Neo-C; n=7) lesions between 7 and 14 days of age. Emotional reactivity ...
Kavšek Michael - - 2012
The study investigated the early development of responsiveness to rivalrous gratings. Infants were tested weekly between 6 and 16 weeks of age for their ability to discriminate between interocularly identical (fusible) lines and interocularly orthogonal (unfusible, rivalrous) lines. The stimuli were presented on an autostereoscopic monitor equipped with a face-tracking ...
Högberg L - - 2013
Does the intergenerational influence on birthweight and birth length remain within female dizygotic and monozygotic twin pairs? The intergenerational influence on birthweight and birth length remained within dizygotic but not within monozygotic twin pairs. Low birthweight is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both the short and long term; ...
Hohenberger Annette - - 2012
This study addresses the relation between early cognitive development and mother-infant interaction. Infants at the age of 6 and 10 months recruited from labs in three European countries - Germany, Great Britain, and France - were tested on two cognitive tasks: understanding of goal-directed human action and physical causality. Mother-infant ...
Suarez-Jimenez Benjamin - - 2012
In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in ...
Schneibel K R - - 2013
Alterations in inflammatory mediators are an important finding in neonates who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); however, there is a lack of research examining the relationship between multiple inflammatory mediators in premature neonates and the development of BPD. This study investigated whether the distribution of 12 inflammatory mediators detected in the ...
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