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Results 451 - 500 of 664
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Wright C E - - 1991
In 1982 and 1983, a descriptive environmental survey was conducted in 317 households with newborn infants in rural Bilbeis, Egypt. The incidence of infant diarrhea in these households was ascertained by twice-weekly home visits for a 1-year period (1981-1982). Using univariate and multivariate analyses, the authors identified household factors that ...
Jindal N - - 1991
The value of faecal leucocyte examination was assessed in 400 infants with acute diarrhoea and 40 normal healthy infants. Enteropathogens were isolated from 28.75%. Escherichia coli was the commonest (16.5%) followed by Salmonella typhimurium (7%), Vibrio cholerae (3.25%) and Shigella flexneri (1.5%). Exudative response was observed in 57.1% of stools ...
Gomes T A - - 1991
To determine the prevalence and epidemiology of enteropathogens in acute infantile diarrhea, 500 infants less than or equal to 12 months of age with diarrhea and 500 age-matched control subjects coming to a São Paulo emergency room were studied. Enteropathogens were identified in 55% of case infants and 10% of ...
Carroll A - - 1991
We report the nonrandom occurrence and frequency of the t(1;22)(p13;q13) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its close association with the French-American-British M7 subtype of AML in infants (less than 1 year). This chromosomal abnormality occurred in 6 of 252 (2.4%) children and adolescents with AML (6 of 28 infants, ...
Källén B - - 1991
With the objective of identifying whether hypospadias in infants is associated with maternal use of oral contraceptives before pregnancy or in early pregnancy, 846 case-control pairs were collected from eight different malformation monitoring programs around the world and mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaires administered after the birth of the ...
Baruchel A - - 1991
A case of acute megakaryocytic leukemia (M7) and one of acute myeloid hemopathy affecting megakaryocytic and erythrocytic cell lineages in infants are reported. Both patients had t(1;22)(p12-p13;q13). This translocation was previously observed in a congenital M7 leukemia. These studies suggest that t(1;22) translocation can be nonrandom in M7.
Dagan R - - 1991
We conducted a 1-year prospective study in two clinics and a hospital in the Negev region of southern Israel to determine the epidemiological and clinical patterns of Cryptosporidium diarrhea among Jewish and Bedouin infants and children living in the same geographical area. A total of 612 episodes were studied: 398 ...
Jiang T A - - 1991
Small intestinal mucosal morphology, lactase activity and lactose hydrolysis were examined by peroral intestinal biopsy and intraluminal perfusion of the small intestine in 28 patients with acute and chronic diarrhea. This study shows that lactase deficiency and mucosal damage are more common in childhood diarrhea, and there are positive correlations ...
Santosham M - - 1991
The introduction of a soy-based, lactose-free formula during the acute phase of diarrheal illness in infants has been shown to reduce stool output and duration of diarrhea in hospitalized patients. In the United States, most infants with acute diarrhea are treated as outpatients. In the present study, infants with diarrhea ...
Meyers A A Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, MA - - 1991
Diarrheal dehydration is a highly prevalent condition among young children and is readily prevented and treated with oral rehydration therapy. We report a death due to hypernatremic dehydration caused by rotavirus diarrhea of a 9-month-old infant whose mother attempted to purchase oral glucose-electrolyte solution in a pharmacy but was unable ...
Lifschitz C H - - 1991
To determine whether rice cereal could be used to complement a cow milk-based diet in the nutritional management of infants with acute diarrhea, we assessed its digestion and absorption in eight affected male infants, 69 to 131 days of age. They received cow milk formula with 5.4% lactose (diluted 1:1 ...
Ribeiro J?nior H da C Hda - - 1991
Twenty male infants less than 1 year of age with acute diarrhea and dehydration were randomly assigned to a study group and studied in blind fashion in a metabolic unit to assess the efficacy of the addition of 30 mmol/L alanine to the standard World Health Organization (WHO) oral rehydration ...
Cohen M B - - 1991
Infectious diarrhea, caused by a wide variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens, is a common reason for morbidity and hospitalization for children in the United States. Overall, rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrheal disease in infants. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter are the most frequently isolated bacterial ...
Aye D T - - 1991
Between 1981 and 1986, 1,540 infants born at the Central Women's Hospital in Rangoon were transferred to the Sick Baby Unit because of diarrhea (15.4 per 1,000 live births). Rates among cesarean infants were five times as high as those of infants born vaginally (51.0 and 10.3 per 1000 live ...
Rhoads J M - - 1991
Microvillus inclusion disease is an inherited intestinal brush border membrane defect that causes severe fluid and electrolyte malabsorption. In an infant with microvillus inclusion disease (confirmed by electron microscopic evaluation of rectal, jejunal, and gallbladder mucosae), basal stool output was massive (greater than 125 mL . kg-1 . day-1) and ...
Saavedra J M - - 1991
This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of skin turgor or capillary refilling in estimating the degree of dehydration in infants with diarrhea. After initial standardization of the technique, capillary filling time was found to be more reproducible when measured in the fingernail bed after applying just the amount ...
Mushtaque A - - 1991
Diarrhea, a descriptive term used in medical science for a variety of clinical diseases, denotes an illness that is categorized differently and known by numerous terms in various cultures. These diversified classifications and terminologies are based on the symptoms of diarrheal disorders, their perceived etiology, and their treatment. In Bangladesh, ...
Pizarro D - - 1991
BACKGROUND: In infants the treatment of acute diarrhea with glucose-based solutions results in rehydration but does not reduce the severity of diarrhea. Oral rehydration with solutions based on rice powder may reduce stool output as well as restore fluid volume. METHODS: We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate ...
Wolf Y G - - 1991
Two infants with acute life-threatening complications of duodenal ulcer following steroid administration are described. Although the possible association between steroid therapy and peptic ulcer disease is well known, the need for ulcer prophylaxis during such therapy in infants is not unanimously accepted. The case for ulcer prophylaxis in this setting ...
Adám J - - 1991
Tri Regol has been used as a contraceptive during 541 cycles of 108 women and in further 73 cases for normalizing cycle anomalies or improving tablet tolerance. Pregnancy did not occur. The side-effects were insignificant. The triphasic therapy proved to be effective in all three fields. The author has mentioned ...
Ishii E - - 1991
Forty-eight Japanese infants with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (n = 24) and acute nonlymphoid leukemia (ANLL) (n = 24) were analyzed on the basis of clinical and laboratory data. Morphologically, 20 of the 24 infants with ALL were of the FAB L1 type, and 20 of the 24 infants with ...
Abbar F - - 1991
The incidence of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli was investigated in 304 infants with diarrhoea in Mosul, Iraq by using standard biological assays and reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) procedures. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were found in 12.8% of the cases--27 (8.8%) strains produced heat-labile toxin (LT) only, 8 (2.6%) heat-stable toxin ...
Alvarez V - - 1991
Stool specimens obtained longitudinally during the first year of life of a cohort of 75 rural infants were tested for the presence of rotavirus with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty four infants showed the presence of rotaviruses during the first year of life. Only 41% of these episodes were associated ...
Marin L - - 1991
The clinical response and changes in potassium balance were studied during oral rehydration therapy (ORT) with a solution containing 20 mmol potassium per litre in well-nourished and malnourished infants of 3 to 15 months of age as well as in neonates and young infants less than 2 months old (range ...
Aiyar J - - 1990
The reliability of saliva as an indicator of rotavirus infection was assessed among 15 infants (3-12 months) with rotaviral and 15 with nonrotaviral diarrhea. Paired salivary samples collected during acute and convalescent phases were tested for rotavirus-specific IgA and IgM by an ELISA. The sensitivity of IgA or IgM alone ...
Bielaszewská M - - 1990
The results of the investigation indicate that verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) belonging to enteropathogenic and other serogroups including Escherichia coli O157:H7 or H- are important enteropathogens in infants and toddlers in Czechoslovakia. As to enteropathogenic serotypes, verotoxin (VT) production was proved most frequently in strains of serogroup O26, and also ...
Shiner M - - 1990
Our electron microscopic study of biopsies taken from 10 infants with protracted diarrhea was conducted in an effort to determine the pathogenesis of the disorder. In this article, the ultrastructure of the jejunal mucosa of the infants is described in relation to overlying or adherent bacteria of unidentified type. In ...
Shiner M - - 1990
In an effort to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic protracted diarrhea in infants, we examined 44 jejunal mucosal specimens. Only 3 of the 44 specimens showed a normal mucosa (grade 1). Partial villous atrophy was seen in 17 mucosal specimens (grade 2) with marked patchiness in all ...
Motala C - - 1990
This study was designed to assess the effect of loperamide, given to infants in higher than recommended doses, on the severity and duration of acute diarrhea. Thirty infants with acute diarrhea and dehydration were given loperamide (0.8 mg/kg/day), in addition to standard fluid therapy, for 48 hours after admission to ...
Lifschitz C H - - 1990
The appropriate choice of treatment for infants with diarrhea has long provoked debate. Growth of infants with diarrhea is adversely affected by associated diseases including anorexia, malabsorption, catabolic response to infection, and iatrogenic starvation. To prevent the negative effects of diarrhea on the nutrition of infants, continued feeding during the ...
Mittal N K - - 1990
Serum and rectal mucosal magnesium content was estimated in children (6-18 months old) with acute diarrhoea (Group I: n = 50), chronic diarrhoea (Group II: n = 25), extra-intestinal infections (Group III: n = 15) and healthy controls (Group IV: n = 20). The sex and nutritional status of the ...
Kallen R J - - 1990
The assessment and management of an infant with diarrheal dehydration can be reduced to a set of questions. As the questions are studied and answered, the clinician arrives at a rational plan for parenteral fluid therapy, based on physiologic considerations. The selection of the type of fluid to be infused ...
Sanekata T - - 1990
We have developed a simple agglutination (LA) method for the detection of enteric adenovirus (EAd) in stool samples from infants with acute gastroenteritis. Ad type 41 (Ad41) was detected with high sensitivity and specificity by a slide agglutination test using latex particles coated with antiAd41 antibody (LA-antiAd41). The agglutination of ...
Osada S - - 1990
A case of infantile acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), which was probably transmitted from a pregnant woman with leukemia to her unborn infant, is presented. A woman had AMoL when her third infant was born. This infant, who was a boy, also suffered from AMoL when he was 20 months of ...
Gibbons B - - 1990
Seven cases of infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(11; 19) (q23; p13) are described. They are characterized by a high white cell count, organomegaly, early central nervous system (CNS) disease, and a poor prognosis. Blasts are usually of an immature early B-cell lineage although monocytoid features are present in some ...
el-Rafie M - - 1990
The effect of the National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project, started in 1983, on infant and childhood mortality in Egypt was assessed by means of national civil registration data, nationwide cluster sample surveys of households, and local area studies. Packets of oral rehydration salts are now widely accessible; oral rehydration ...
Househam K C - - 1990
The majority of episodes of acute infectious diarrhea in infancy are of relatively short duration. Prolongation of the diarrhea presents problems in management, deterioration of the infant's nutritional status, and an increased mortality. As part of a prospective study of the etiology of acute infectious diarrhea, some factors associated with ...
Velásquez-Jones L - - 1990
A clinical trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of a new oral rehydration solution (ORS) with that of the ORS recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). One hundred thirty infants with dehydration due to acute diarrhea were randomized into two groups: 68 infants received the WHO ...
Gryboski J D - - 1990
Stools collected from 39 infants and children with chronic nonspecific diarrhea and from 10 age-matched controls were examined for bile acid content with use of gas-liquid chromatography. Values were correlated with stool color. Mean concentration of bile acids in green stools (7.7 +/- 1.52 mg/g dry weight) was significantly higher ...
Baclig P V - - 1990
In Tambon Korat and Koongyang in Northeastern Thailand, 88% (n = 60) of the mothers and significant other careproviders interviewed believe in poh, a mild, self-limiting diarrhea in infants which is considered a normal prerequisite in child development. The local definition of poh as to its nature, symptomatology and home ...
Wagstaff L A LA Division of Community Paediatrics, Baragwanath Hospital, - - 1989
In Soweto, infant morbidity and mortality from gastro-enteritis have markedly declined. Nevertheless, there were 1514 admissions to the Baragwanath Infant Gastro-enteritis Unit in a 12-month period (1985/6). Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) could be implemented with advantage not only as a life-saving strategy but for self-help management of milder diarrhoea. Surveys ...
Murtaza A - - 1989
Intestinal hypomotility is a common late complication in infants with acute diarrhoeal disease in pakistan. Among the infants admitted to our gastrointestinal unit with a history of acute diarrhoea, 35% developed abdominal distension and 12% developed the full clinical picture of paralytic ileus. The infants with ileus were treated with ...
Finkelstein J A - - 1989
Identification of infants with bacterial diarrhea during the first year of life is important to limit potentially serious complications, but indications for stool leukocyte examination and culture are not well defined. The ability of three clinical features--temperature, history of blood in the stool, and stool frequency--to predict the presence of ...
Bower J R - - 1989
Five infants from a day care center developed severe diarrhea associated with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O114:nonmotile (EPEC O114:NM) and required hospitalization. Five additional cases of diarrhea associated with EPEC O114:NM subsequently occurred, four in hospital contacts of the patients and one in a household contact. Biochemically, all EPEC O114:NM isolates ...
Fost N - - 1989
Removing organs from anencephalic infants for transplantation into other infants offers benefits to the recipients, the family of the anencephalic infant, and to society. No interest of the anencephalic infant appears to be violated. Nonetheless, there are serious ethical and legal barriers to such proposals, primarily owing to risks for ...
Ludwig W D - - 1989
We have studied the immunophenotypic and genotypic features in 35 infants aged less than 1 year with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL). A CD10 (common ALL antigen)-negative, CD19-positive pre-pre-B ALL phenotype was observed in 24 infants. Seventeen of them had blast cells coexpressing myeloid-associated markers such ...
Shulman R J - - 1989
To determine the adequacy of zinc and copper supplementation for infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN), we performed 24-h balance studies in infants with diarrhea and infants who had recently undergone surgery. Measurements were made at base line, 1, and 2 wk. Mean serum Zn and Cu levels of the ...
Black R E - - 1989
Community-based studies of diarrhea etiology and epidemiology were carried out from July 1982-June 1984 in 153 infants residing in a poor peri-urban community near Lima, Peru. Study infants had nearly 10 episodes of diarrhea in their first year of life. Diarrhea episodes were associated with organisms such as Campylobacter jejuni, ...
Coleman S U - - 1989
In 1985, 22 pony foals reared in a helminth-free environment were tested daily for oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp by use of fecal flotation. Oocysts were found in all foals. Oocysts were first observed in feces collected from foals 9 to 28 days after birth. The mean period of oocyst shedding ...
Murthy K R - - 1989
Crude venom (4 mg/kg) of scorpion (B. tamulus) was given in saline to anaesthetized dogs and rabbits. It produced a reduction in gastric H+ ion concentration in dogs with acute myocarditis. Simultaneously an increase in circulating amylase and lipase level was also observed. However 60% venom poisoned rabbits showed an ...
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