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Results 351 - 400 of 1019
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VanMarle Kristy - - 2006
Humans and nonhuman animals appear to share a capacity for nonverbal quantity representations. But what are the limits of these abilities? Results of previous research with human infants suggest that the ontological status of an entity as an object or a substance affects infants' ability to quantify it. We ask ...
Dziewulska Katarzyna - - 2006
The study was aimed at analysing body size in relation to form of gonad maturation (amount of mature germ cells) in 329 under-yearling sea trout males. The fish, aged 7 months, were caught in late October-early November in 3 streams located in north-western Poland. Each stream supported fish belonging to ...
Price Elizabeth - - 2007
The majority of studies of social learning in primates have tested subjects in isolation and investigated the effects of learning over very short periods of time. We aimed to test for social learning in two social groups of colobus monkeys, Colobus guereza kikuyuensis. Subjects were shown video footage of familiar ...
Vogel E R - - 2006
In this work we report the first published observational evidence of rescue behavior during an intergroup interaction in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). The study groups (groups AA and RR) inhabit the forest of Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, and have been under investigation since 1990 and ...
Maestripieri Dario - - 2006
This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and ...
Kano Yasunori - - 2006
The early ontogeny of gastropods (i.e., planktotrophic vs. nonplanktotrophic) may be inferable from the morphology of the protoconch in adult shells. The protoconch consists of both embryonic and larval shells in species with planktotrophic development; the embryonic shell forms in the intracapsular period and the succeeding larval shell gradually develops ...
Garcia C - - 2006
The reproductive cycles of 23 captive olive baboons were studied over two successive parturitions. Interbirth intervals of 450 days were reduced by 60% in comparison to wild baboons, and consisted of 145 days of postpartum amenorrhea, 3.5 cycles, and a gestation of 185 days. Dominance rank was found to be ...
Polovina Svetislav - - 2006
Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a handicap quite commonly encountered in daily routine. Although birth trauma is considered to be the major cause of the defect, it has been observed that PBPP occurs only in some infants born under identical or nearly identical conditions. The aim of this study ...
Camargo Carolina C - - 2007
Two tayras (Eira barbara) were observed attacking an infant red-handed howler (Alouatta belzebul) on an island in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, as a nearby adult male watched passively. In a separate incident, four tayras were seen attacking a subadult female on the ground. Tayras were also observed in the vicinity of ...
Moran Nancy A - - 2006
A noted cost of mating is the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections that are detrimental to the recipient. But many microbial associates of eukaryotes are mutualistic, raising the possibility that sexual contact provides the opportunity to acquire symbionts that are beneficial. In aphids, facultative bacterial symbionts, which benefit hosts ...
Beese Kathleen - - 2006
A bursa tract diverticulum is widespread in the female part of the hermaphroditic reproductive system of stylommatophoran pulmonates. However, the ultrastructure of the diverticulum is unknown and there is only anecdotal evidence for a spermatophore-dissolving function for this organ. In the present study, we examined the ultrastructure of the diverticulum ...
Pires Karla Maria Pereira - - 2006
To investigate the early renal alterations due to severe maternal protein restriction (MPR) Wistar dams received 23% (normal protein, NP) or 5% (low protein, LP) chow during gestation and lactation periods. In NP offspring at birth, the cortex-to-medulla (C/M) ratio was 35% greater in female than in male offspring and ...
Jiang Z-F - - 2006
Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and their associated fig waSPS (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea and Agaonidae) have attracted much attention and have been used as a model system for many studies. Fig waSPS belonging to the genus Philotrypesis are very common in most figs but their taxonomy, ecology and biology are currently poorly explored. ...
Schmeda-Hirschmann Guillermo - - 2006
Insects of the genus Agathemera (Phasmatidae) live in the Chilean Andes over 1500 m above sea level. On disturbing, the insects release a spray that can cause temporary blindness in humans. Very little is known on the composition of chemicals used for defense by South American phasmids. Here we show ...
Izar Patrícia - - 2006
We report a case of interspecies adoption of an infant marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) by wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus). The marmoset was an infant when it was first observed in the capuchin group on 3 March 2004. Since it first appeared it has been observed informally and frequently. In January ...
Goldenberg Robert L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether there are differences in the placental histology and various markers of infection/inflammation between preterm male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: The placentas and umbilical cords of 446 infants born at 23 to 32 weeks were examined histologically, cultured for aerobic ...
Gerald Melissa S - - 2006
In many primates, infants possess distinctive coloration that changes as a function of age. This colour is thought to serve the purpose of eliciting caretaking behaviour from the mother as well as other conspecifics. The present study investigated the responses of adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to pictures of ...
Harper G L - - 2006
The utility of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) as a means of analysing the gut contents of predators was evaluated. Generalist predators consume multiple prey species and a species-specific primer approach may not always be a practical means of analysing predator responses to prey diversity in complex and biodiverse ecosystems. ...
Strier Karen B - - 2006
The 957-ha forest at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Felìciano Miguel Abdala, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, supports one of the largest known populations of the critically endangered northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). We combine long-term data on one group that has been monitored since 1982 with new data ...
Timonin Mary E - - 2006
Neither reduced photoperiod, nor female-related social cues, nor increased maternal thermal stress result in a paternally responsive Phodopus sungorus male. Physiol Behav [Volume # (Issue #)] 000-000, 2006. -Under laboratory conditions, P. sungorus males are not needed for pup survival and growth and are unresponsive to an experimentally displaced pup. ...
Aptroot A - - 2007
Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up ...
De Lathouwers Mieke - - 2006
The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test ...
Brenes-Arguedas Tania - - 2006
Young leaves of most species experience remarkably higher herbivore attack rates than mature leaves. Considerable theoretical effort has focused on predicting optimal defense and tradeoffs in defense allocation during leaf expansion. Among others, allocation to secondary chemistry may be dependent on growth constraints. We studied flavanoid production during leaf development ...
Cui Liang-Wei - - 2006
This study, which is based on 10 years of birth records, shows that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in captivity display marked birth seasonality. The birth season starts in December and ends in June, with a peak from March to May, and a median birth date of April 10. More ...
Takahata Yukio - - 2006
Based on data obtained over a period of 11 years from female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), we analyzed the correlation between group size and female reproductive parameters. The birth rate and mean number of surviving infants 1 year after birth per adult female generated an inverted U-shaped curve when plotted ...
Kajekar Radhika - - 2007
Airway injury in infant monkeys exposed to ozone and/or house dust mite allergen (HDMA) is associated with a loss of epithelial innervation. In this study, we evaluated for persistence/recovery of the altered epithelial innervation. Thirty-day-old rhesus monkeys were exposed to repeated episodes of HDMA and/or ozone from 1 to 6 ...
Goldizen, Anne Wilson
Recent studies of wild tamarins and marmosets have shown that at least one species exhibits variable mating patterns, including cooperative polyandry, monogamy and, more rarely, polygyny. Polyandry is thought to occur because the high frequency of twinning and the relatively high weights of infants in these species make the rearing ...
Holloway Alisha K - - 2006
Polyploidization is one of the few mechanisms that can produce instantaneous speciation. Multiple origins of tetraploid lineages from the same two diploid progenitors are common, but here we report the first known instance of a single tetraploid species that originated repeatedly from at least three diploid ancestors. Parallel evolution of ...
Kou Rong - - 2006
Although agonistic behavior in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea, has been known for more than 40 years, this is the first study to directly collect and quantify the emitted pheromones. In the present study, emitted volatile pheromones were collected from each male pair for 60 min during the first ...
Lin Yongshun - - 2006
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of 22 widely expressed regulatory polypeptides and controls a broad spectrum of cellular processes. Accumulating data show that FGF9 plays important roles both in embryogenesis and in adult tissue homeostasis. Ablation of Fgf9 alleles leads to lethality at the neonatal stage mainly due ...
Chu Albert Y - - 2006
We present three cases of fatal dog maulings of infants placed in mobile infant swings, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. In each case, the victim was left in a mobile swing, unsupervised by an adult, and the attacking dog was a family pet. Case 1 involved an ...
Encalada Andrea C - - 2006
Selective oviposition can have important consequences for recruitment limitation and population dynamics of organisms with complex life cycles. Temporal and spatial variation in oviposition may be driven by environmental or behavioral constraints. The goals of this study were to: (1) develop an empirical model of the substrate characteristics that best ...
Hanna J B - - 2006
The type of climbing exhibited by apes and atelines is argued to have been important in the evolution of specialized locomotion, such as suspensory locomotion and bipedalism. However, little is known about the mechanics of climbing in primates. Previous work shows that Asian apes and atelines use larger joint excursions ...
Catalano Ralph - - 2006
Population stressors reportedly reduce the human secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a newborn's being male) by, among other mechanisms, inducing the spontaneous abortion of males who would have been born live had mothers not been stressed. Controversy remains as to whether these abortions result from reduced maternal tolerance ...
Whelan M A - - 2006
To better characterize infants presenting with diminished immunoglobulin levels and intact antibody formation, we present 49 such infants, correlating presenting characteristics with history and time to immunoglobulin normalization. Term infants with the following characteristics were included: 1) one or more immunoglobulin classes > 2SD below mean, 2) protective antibody titer ...
Ostermann Sandrine - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Inactivating mutations of DAX-1 give rise to the X-linked form of adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). Affected fetuses are at risk of early postnatal Addisonian crisis, but the variable phenotypic expression of DAX-1 insufficiency renders this diagnosis challenging. METHODS: We describe the familial transmission of AHC over several generations. The ...
Plant Tony M - - 2005
This review examines the neurobiology, endocrinology, and cell biology underlying the development of the testis from birth until puberty in the rhesus monkey, a representative higher primate.
Haukisalmi V - - 2005
The taxonomic significance of the main morphological features of the 25 species allocated to Andrya Railliet, 1893 and Paranoplocephala L?he, 1910 is re-evaluated in the light of the recent molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for anoplocephaline cestodes. The present analysis and the existing phylogenetic data suggest that the structure and complexity of ...
Ichino Shinichiro - - 2005
An orphaned infant ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was attacked persistently by immigrant males and disappeared with severe wounds at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Prior to the attacks, two troop members disappeared. On 20 November 1998, the only resident male in Troop C2B disappeared suddenly. After the disappearance, nine males from three ...
Heulin Benoit - - 2005
The evolutionary process leading to the emergence of viviparity in Squamata consists of lengthening the period of egg retention in utero coupled with marked reduction in the thickness of the eggshell. We used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to study uterine structure during the reproductive cycle of oviparous and ...
Yamada Kazunori - - 2006
A non-resident male attacked a 4-month-old unweaned infant in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and it died 2 days later from a severe wound. When the infant was alone at the feeding site, the non-resident male rushed at it. The infant ran away as soon as it ...
Shannon Courtney - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Early life events often lead to deficits in CNS serotonin function, which underlie a number of reoccurring psychopathological disorders. Studies using rhesus macaques have demonstrated that early maternal deprivation reduces CNS serotonin turnover, as measured by cisternal CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. In addition, individual differences in CSF 5-HIAA remain stable ...
Benkman Craig W - - 2005
The bill structures of different call types of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) in western North America usually approximate the predicted optima for foraging on single species of conifers. One clear exception is the call type in the South Hills, Idaho, that is coevolving in an evolutionary arms race with ...
da Silva Mota Maria Teresa - - 2006
The physiological mechanisms of parental and alloparental care in cooperatively breeding nonhuman primate species such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) are poorly known. In this study, we examined prolactin and cortisol plasma levels of fathers and older offspring of both sexes, with and without previous experience in infant carrying, ...
Meyer-Bahlburg Heino F L - - 2005
This review addresses the long-term gender outcome of gender assignment of persons with intersexuality and related conditions. The gender assignment to female of 46,XY newborns with severe genital abnormalities despite a presumably normal-male prenatal sex-hormone milieu is highly controversial because of variations in assumptions about the role of biological factors ...
Bosch Jordi - - 2005
Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly difficult for U.S. alfalfa seed producers to maintain Megachile rotundata (F.) populations used for alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., pollination. In 1998, we monitored M. rotundata population dynamics and foraging behavior, as well as alfalfa bloom and pollination rates in two fields in eastern ...
Casiraghi Maurizio - - 2005
The recent discovery of a larval nematode in the epididymides of free-living wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) suggests a sexual transmission of these parasites. They have been placed within the bursate nematodes (order Strongylida) through 18S rDNA analysis, suggesting that they are undetermined metastrongyloid nematodes. The possibility that these parasites are ...
Surendran Sankar - - 2005
Canavan disease (CD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene mutations resulting enzyme deficiency. The homozygous knockout mouse for CD showed symptoms similar observed in patients with CD. Canavan disease leads to early death. Therefore, a role of ASPA in reproduction was investigated using the mouse model ...
Lee Yuan-Shun - - 2005
An anorectal-vestibular fistula without an imperforate anus in female infants is a rare clinical condition. This report is based on a series of 3 female infants who had fistulous communication between the bowel and the vestibule coexisting with a normal anus. Redness of the external genitalia over the labia major ...
García C - - 2005
Gender polymorphism, plant-animal interactions, and environmental heterogeneity are the three important sources of variation in mating system and pollen dispersal patterns. We used progeny arrays and paternity analysis to assess the effects of gender type and density level on variation in mating patterns within a highly isolated population of Prunus ...
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