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Matsumoto Takeru - - 2008
It was reported that males daphnid Daphnia magna that have been induced by methyl farnesoate exposure exhibit higher tolerance to chemical compounds such as potassium dichromate and pentachlorophenol than females. Male neonates are also known to be induced by exposure to juvenile hormone analogs, such as fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen. If ...
Abbott David H DH Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA. - - 2008
Experimentally induced fetal androgen excess induces polycystic ovary syndrome-like traits in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Developmental changes leading to this endocrinopathy are not known. We therefore studied 15 time-mated, gravid female rhesus monkeys with known female fetuses. Nine dams received daily s.c. injections of 15 mg of testosterone ...
Porzionato Andrea - - 2008
In the literature, few studies detailed morphometric parameters of the inferior olivary complex, and mainly applying biased methods based on counting in a two-dimensional plane. In the present work, the unbiased quantitative method of the optic disector was applied in order to analyse neuronal densities, nuclear volumes and total neuron ...
Horwood Anna M AM Infant Vision Laboratory, School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading, UK. - - 2008
A remote haploscopic photorefractor was used to assess objective binocular vergence and accommodation responses in 157 full-term healthy infants aged 1-6 months while fixating a brightly coloured target moving between fixation distances at 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33 m. Vergence and accommodation response gain matured rapidly from 'flat' neonatal responses ...
Friederici Angela D - - 2008
Using a phonological discrimination paradigm, we show that the brain responses of 4-week-old infants systematically vary as a function of biological sex and testosterone level. Females who are generally low on testosterone demonstrated a clear phonological discrimination effect with a bilateral distribution. In male infants this effect systematically varied as ...
Hoberg Eric P - - 2008
Abomasal nematodes (Ostertagiine: Trichostrongyloidea) representing a previously unrecognized genus and species are reported in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) from Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa. Africanastrongylus buceros gen. nov. et sp. nov. is characterized by a symmetrical tapering synlophe in the cervical region and a maximum of 60 ridges in ...
Prakash S - - 2008
This paper is a part of our study on the male reproductive system of bonnet monkey. The developmental changes in testis of bonnet monkey were studied qualitatively and quantitatively, at the light microscopy level. Testicular development appears to primarily involve tubular growth that starts immediately after birth. There is a ...
Ramírez-Llorens P - - 2008
We report here one observed and two potential cases of infanticide during a brief period of 1 month after a dominant male replacement in one group of black capuchin monkeys in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. We also compile infant disappearances and demographic data in seven groups followed from 1-14 years. ...
Dávidová Martina - - 2008
Parasite community composition of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), the only bitterling species occurring on the European continent, was investigated in 16 different localities from four European sea drainages during 1998-2007. A total of 41 species of metazoan parasites was identified. Nine parasite species are new records for European bitterling, namely ...
Berthouly Anne - - 2008
1. Maternal carotenoids in the egg yolk have been hypothesized to promote maturation of the immune system and protect against free radical damages. Depending on availability, mothers may thus influence offspring quality by depositing variable amounts of carotenoids into the eggs. Sex allocation theory predicts that in good quality environments, ...
Thomas Karen A - - 2008
PURPOSE: To describe the effect of nursing caregiving on infant sleep-wake states by gender in preterm infants. DESIGN: Descriptive measures at 34 weeks postmenstrual age and at discharge. SAMPLE: Twenty-two hospitalized preterm infants. MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLE: Infant state and caregiving episodes were coded in 15-second intervals from video recordings of ...
Inoue Eiji - - 2008
In this study, the paternity of all the infants born in 2002 and 2003 in a free-ranging Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) group at Arashiyama in Kyoto, Japan, was analyzed in relation to males' age, dominance rank, and tenure and females' mate choice. The fathers of 20 out of 23 infants ...
Takahata Yukio - - 2008
We used data from a 13-year field study of wild ringtailed lemurs to analyze the relationship between female rank and reproductive parameters. In medium and small groups there were no significant differences in birth rate, infant mortality rate, and the number of surviving infants between the female rank categories. On ...
Sugiura Hideki - - 2007
Acoustic features of coo calls in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) show large and graded variation. To explore the relevance of acoustic variation in coo calls, I examined whether acoustic features differed by the caller's activity and proximity to group members. The subjects were five adult females from a wild, habituated ...
Hotchkiss Charlotte E - - 2007
Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses ...
Merker Stefan - - 2008
To investigate the importance of mixed-species plantations as a potential habitat for small arboreal primates, we radio-tracked six Dian's tarsiers (Tarsius dianae) in such an area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and explored their selectivity for certain vegetation types. The animals strongly favored sporadic dense shrubbery over more open structures, yet ...
Carneiro Francisco E - - 2007
Varroa destructor has been in Brazil for more than 30 years, but no mortality of honeybee colonies due to this mite has been recorded. Africanized bee infestation rates attained by varroa have been low, without causing measurable damage to Brazilian apiculture. The low reproductive ability of this parasite in Africanized ...
Saltzman Wendy - - 2008
Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high female reproductive skew. Subordinate females usually fail to breed as a consequence of ovulation suppression and inhibition of sexual behavior, and, even when they do breed, typically rear fewer infants than dominants. We evaluated possible mechanisms of post-conception reproductive competition by ...
Zhao Dapeng - - 2008
Although captive or free-ranging settings offer a more controlled environment for assessing non-human primate laterality, research on wild populations provides evidence of how laterality is affected by natural environmental conditions and, thus may yield potential insights into the evolution of laterality. This study of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) constitutes ...
Cäsar Cristiane - - 2008
We observed a case of infant adoption in an unprovisioned group of wild black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons). During our long-term field study we noticed that an infant had moved from one of our study groups ("Desbotado") to another ("Rio"). Observations of the adoptive group confirm that it was being ...
Cäsar Cristiane - - 2008
A maternal infanticide was observed in a group of unprovisioned wild black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons). An approximately 3-day-old male infant was killed by his mother. A post-mortem revealed the infant to be clinically healthy. We considered various hypotheses to explain why this behavior occurred (e.g., reproductive advantage, stress, nutritional, ...
Bommireddy P L - - 2007
The influence of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), adults (males and females) and fourth to fifth instars on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll abscission, seedcotton yield, fiber quality, and seed viability was evaluated in field studies conducted during 2004 and 2005. Cotton bolls representing several age classes ranging ...
Baldovino M Celia - - 2008
Allonursing, the behaviour of females nursing offspring that are not their own, is relatively frequent in capuchin monkeys. Using focal-animal sampling and ad libitum observations we describe the pattern of allonursing in a wild group of tufted capuchins, Cebus nigritus (4 cohorts, 22 infants), at Iguazú National Park, north-eastern Argentina, ...
Fernandez-Duque Eduardo - - 2008
Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, ...
Zera Anthony J - - 2007
Virtually no published information exists on insect endocrine traits in natural populations, which limits our understanding of endocrine microevolution. We characterized the hemolymph titers of juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids (ECDs), two key insect hormones, in field-collected short-winged, flightless (SW) and long-winged, flight-capable (LW(f)) morphs of the cricket Gryllus firmus. ...
Ryberg Wade A - - 2007
In addition to having a positive effect on species richness (species-area relationships [SARs]), habitat area can influence the presence of predators, which can indirectly influence prey richness. While these direct and indirect effects of area on richness occur simultaneously, no research has examined how predation might contribute to SAR variation. ...
Bezerra Bruna Martins - - 2007
Our study presents a detailed description of infanticide and cannibalism in a free-ranging plurally breeding group of Callithrix jacchus. The 1-month-old infant was the daughter of the dominant female, and was attacked by the group's second breeding female. Two months later, the latter gave birth to twins and appeared to ...
Azzam Tarek I - - 2007
The hostile and anxious responses of young adults to an immigrant (vs. native-born) stranger were examined as a function of participants' self-perceived power. In Studies 1 and 2, individuals with low perceived social power (males, in particular) showed high anxiety toward an "outsider" but more so if that individual was ...
Edwards R G - - 2007
Two astonishing virgin births in quick succession have raised interest in parthenogenesis in cartilaginous sharks and mammals. These were believed to be exceptions until numerous female bonnethead (hammerhead) sharks were found be giving birth at the Henry Doorly Zoo in Nebraska, despite the prolonged absence of male sharks. The birth ...
Unal Guler - - 2007
In this study, endoparasites of the Rana ridibunda specimens collected from Dalaman area, southwestern Turkey were investigated. In the intestine of 17 specimens of R. ridibunda, five different parasites, represented by three species of the trematoda (Diplodiscus sp, Pleurogenoides sp, Plagiorchis sp) and two genera of round worms (Cosmocerca sp; ...
Eizaguirre Matilde - - 2007
Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. and Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübn.) are two corn borers present in the Mediterranean area that share a similar feeding habitat. The female sex pheromones of the two species consist of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol, (Z)-11-hexadecenal and dodecyl acetate (77:8:10:5 w/w) and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (97:3 w/w) respectively. ...
Gladun D V - - 2008
The pretarsal structures have been studied in representatives of 13 families of 'Symphyta' by means of light microscopy. The pretarsal sclerites (manubrium, planta, and unguitractor) vary in shape among different families. The shape of the manubrium is triangular in representatives of Xyelidae and Orussidae and bifurcated in those of Tenthredinoidea. ...
Suganuma Elisa - - 2007
Visual illusions are formed by differences between the perception of one figure and its real physical characteristics. The Müller-Lyer illusion is the best known and most studied geometric illusion, consisting in the subject's judgment between two parallel lines that have the same size, one flanked with outward-pointing arrowheads, and the ...
Gómez-Olivencia Asier - - 2007
In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the ...
Benenson Joyce F - - 2007
Social organization of a species influences myriad facets of individuals' behavior. Much research indicates that human social organization consists of males in large groups and females in smaller groups or interacting with individuals. This study analyzed the initial factors that produce greater preferences for groups by human male versus female ...
Brugni Norma - - 2007
A new species of Allassogonoporus Olivier, 1938, from a naturally infected specimen of Dromiciops gliroides, is described. Adults of A. dromiciops n. sp. were recovered from the small intestine. This new species can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by having: the largest body and eggs, a ...
Maestripieri Dario - - 2007
Thirteen group-living rhesus macaque females that were crossfostered shortly after birth were followed longitudinally until they gave birth for the first time. Their maternal behavior was compared to the behavior of both their foster and their biological mothers, and analyzed in relation to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of serotonin, ...
Chambers Anthony L - - 2007
In this study, we sought to provide empirical data on the utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) for the assessment of male batterers. The sample consisted of 93 men who were court mandated to treatment. In the study, we were able to replicate 2 of 3 clusters ...
Phosri Cherdchai - - 2007
The aim of the present work was to determine phylogenetic relationships among Astraeus species and to support macroscopic and microscopic characters of Astraeus with analysis of the ITS rDNA region. Collections of Astraeus basidiomes were made from different geographical areas in Thailand and compared with existing collections made worldwide. The ...
Rasmussen Allan D - - 2007
The oxytocin receptor antagonist barusiban, currently being developed for treatment of preterm labour, was investigated in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys with a 9-month postnatal follow-up of their offspring. The nature of barusiban, its indication, and the potential exposure of pre- and postnatal infants entailed the design of a unique protocol to ...
Chahad-Ehlers Samira - - 2007
Females of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, a sporadic malaria vector in some areas of the Atlantic Forest in south and southeastern Brazil, were captured and studied under controlled conditions. In the laboratory, daily observations were conducted in natural light-dark cycles at 25.1+/-0.6 degrees C and relative humidity 57-81%. Post-embryonic development, which ...
Perkin Andrew - - 2007
Recent studies on the comparative penile morphology of galagos have revealed complex patterns that vary among both genera and species, and help with species identification. So far the penile morphologies of 14 galago species have been described and an identification key has been proposed. The present study extends and revises ...
Trovoada M J - - 2007
Twenty biallelic Y chromosome markers were analyzed in Angolares, Forros and Tongas, three population groups from the African archipelago of São Tomé e Príncipe. While most male lineages belonged to sub-Saharan haplogroups, the component of European origin added up 23.9% in the archipelago. This contrasts with the reported absence of ...
Dik Bilal - - 2007
The aim of this paper was to give information about Haemodipsus species occurring on hares in the Konya province. Thirty three lice specimens collected from forty hares (Lepus europaeus, L.) were examined; two species, Haemodipsus lyriocephalus (Burmeister, 1839) and H. setoni (Ewing, 1924) were identified. Information about and discussion of ...
Paris Monique C J - - 2007
In the present paper we aim to review the development of both ovarian and testicular xenografting with specific emphasis on its usage for companion animals, non-domestic and endangered species. Ovarian and testicular tissue xenografting has been used successfully across a variety of species for the harvesting of mature gametes and ...
Marroig Gabriel - - 2007
How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development) and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular ...
Oates J E - - 2007
The reproductive physiology of the polyoestrous Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus) is virtually unknown except that it shares with the kangaroos and wallabies the phenomenon of embryonic diapause. Its tiny size necessitates an alternate approach to study their reproductive cycle. We have accordingly utilised faecal steroid analysis. Baseline faecal cortisol levels ...
Serrano David - - 2007
Avian colony size variation is an evolutionary puzzle in terms of unequal fitness payoffs. We used a long-term marked lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) population, where individual fitness increases with colony size, to test whether subordinates are evicted despotically from the largest colonies. Yearlings were smaller and lighter, were more attacked ...
Rufino Marta M - - 2006
The commercially fished striped venus clams Chamelea gallina and C. striatula (Bivalvia: Veneridae) are difficult to distinguish by inexperienced observers and the taxonomy of these species is still an issue of discussion. The differences in shape between C. gallina and C. striatula from Portuguese coastal waters were studied through conventional ...
Gries Regine - - 2006
The sex pheromone of the pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella (Lepidoptera: Oinophilidae), one of the most important insect pests of pistachio, Pistacia vera, in Turkey and Iran, was identified. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female K. pistaciella from Turkey, (2S,12Z)-2-acetoxy-12-heptadecene was ...
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